Introduction To Microsoft Excel Computer Science Essay

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INTRODUCTION

MS-Excel is made of grid of rows and columns, which know as spreadsheet or electrician sheet or worksheet. In a Worksheet the intersection of row and column is called cell. In it columns are alphabetically labeled as A,B,C……..Z and then AA,AB,…..AZ and then BA,BB,….BZ and so on to IA,IB….IV, it is last column(IV) in excel sheet so it consists of Total 256 columns in it. And rows are numerically numbered as 1,2,3,4,5………..65,536 rows. So one worksheet consists 256 columns and 65,536 rows and there are 1,67,77,216 cells in it. Like this there are 255 worksheet in one workbook. And MS-Excel can N number of workbook.

WORKBOOK(N)

WORKSHEET(1)

ROWS(65,536) AND COLUMNS(256)

CELLS(1,67,77,216)

WORKBOOK(1)

WORKSHEETS(255)

Fig : Representation of Workbooks and Worksheets in excel

To work with MS-EXCEL from Windows environment.

START  PROGRAMS  MS-EXCEL

The environment of the ms-excel is as

Title Bar Menu Bar Standard Toolbar Columns

Sheet name cell(intersection of row and column)

Rows

This are important parts of ms-excel 1) Title Bar 2) Menu Bar 3) Standard Toolbar(optional) 4)Worksheet Name 5)Rows 6) Columns 7) Scroll Bars(Horizontal and Vertical) 8) Name Box 9) Formula Bar

1) Title Bar

2) Menu Bar

Some of the menus of Excel are as follows :

1) File Menu 2) Edit Menu 3) View Menu 4) Insert Menu 5) Format

Menu 6) Tools Menu 7) Data Menu 8) Window Menu 9) Help

Menu.

3) Standard Toolbar which optional. It consists all shortcut icons to work

with files and cells.

4) Name Box : It display the reference of cursor pointer in the ms-excel

sheet(spreadsheet), it displays the Address of the cell where the cursor

pointer is moving that means cell address(intersection of row and column).

Example like A1. Here Column Alphabet is followed by Row number. A is

the Column Alphabet and 1 is Row Number.

5) Sheet Name : This are worksheet names that there in one workbook. The

default number of sheets in the excel can be controlled by user. The

minimum is 1 sheet and maximum is 255 sheets display in it. To adjust the

number of sheets go to tools menu in that select options (option) in it, a

window will be displayed in that select General option it there will be

option called sheets in new workbook with textbox with increment and

decrement button to it. By default there given name as Sheet1 and Sheet2 so

on up to Sheet255. Later sheet can be renamed also.

Sheet name list

6) Formula Bar : The Data (number or Characters or Strings or Used for

calculations also). First move your cursor pointer to the place you want to

enter the data in it and select Formula bar and enter the data that will

display in the cell where your cursor pointer there. Or if enter the data in the

cell directly also the data is visual in Formula Bar.

7) Scroll Bar : The Scroll Bar is used to move the sheet vertical and

horizontally.

In MS-Excel we have 9 menus in it, they are File, Edit, View, Insert, Format, Tools, Data, Window and Help.

This menu are helpful in doing the common work within the worksheet the option of the different type of menu are as shown below.

File Menu Options Edit Menu Options View Menu Opt

Insert Menu Option Format Menu Option Tools Menu Option

Data Menu Option

Fig : The Workspace Area(Worksheet)

The MS-Excel is made of Grid Lines(Horizontal and Vertical), they are know as Rows and Columns, they are used to enter the data in the cell. The data are aligned properly in the cell.

Note : This gridlines are not visible while we print the worksheet or see a print preview at that time this gridlines will not visible. They are only for enter data in the proper way in the cell so they are aligned properly.

To move around the spreadsheet use keyboard arrow keys like  to move Right side of sheet,  to move left side of sheet to move down side of the sheet and to move up side of sheet. To move one screen of sheet up or down use scroll bars. To move the desired cell type the cell address in the Name Box it take your cursor pointer to desired cell.

In excel the number are Right justified or Aligned ( i.e. means that numbers are displayed to Right corner of the cell) and Character are left justified or Aligned ( i.e. means that numbers are displayed to right corner of the cell).

Number in the cell Character in the cell

To enter the formula in excel we have special symbol it is

= (Equal to symbol), it used for all types of arithmetic and logical operations on the values and with cell address also. Suppose we want to add to values of cell A1 and B1 and result must be displayed in the C1 cell then first enter 2 values in the Cell A1 and B1 after that move your cursor to cell C1 and there type =Cell A1 value + cell B1 value. For example A1 cell has value 10 and B1 cell has value 20 then C1 cell will have result value as 30(10+20=30). We can also add the values using the cell address name also. Like this A1+B1. The advantage of using cell address is that we can copy the same formula to the other cell also. We can enter date and time into the cell in ms-excel.

To insert a new worksheet in the workbook the following step is involved.

INSERT  WORKSHEET

A new worksheet will in introduced in the workbook. The sheet name will given in the increase order of the sheet. For example there are sheet1, sheet 2, sheet3 if i want a new sheet then the sheet name will be sheet4.

FORMATTING

In excel we can increase and decrease the size of the column and row. The increasing and decreasing of row and column can done with help of mouse and keyboard also. To work with the mouse move the mouse to required column or row last to increase or decrease the size by dragging the mouse left and right for column and up and down for row. The default the width of the column size is 8.43 (or 64 pixels) and row height is 12.75. The size of column width and row height can be changed form the keyboard also the steps are as follows :

To increase the width of the column is like this

FORMAT  COLUMN  WIDTH

A small window will be displayed like this in which we can enter the size and change it.

To increase the height of the row is like this

FORMAT  ROW  HEIGHT

A small window will be displayed like this in which we can enter the size and change it.

Note : Without distribution width of cell we can enter 8 numbers and 7 characters in it(Font Size is 12). It differs from Font Type ,Style and Size also.

To format the data (number or character in the cell) the following steps are required to work with

Step 1: enter the data in the cell.

Step 2: FORMAT  CELL

Step 3: A small window will be displayed it look like this

To format the number select number option in it. It has internal options like general , number, currency, accounting, date, time, percentage, fraction, scientific, text, special and custom.

To align the data in the text we will use Alignment option in it. To change the font type, style , size, color, effects and underline we will use Font option in it. To draw the border to the cell as table form we will select border option in it. To fill the color to cell background we will select the pattern option in it. To lock the formula from or being copied to other cell we will select the protection option in it.

As per the requirement of formatting we will use the option in it.

To format the numbers in the excel that means increasing the decimal point number to the number or using (,) comma after the hundred's place or type of values to be used like no negative values. Steps are as followed to format the number:

Step 1: Enter the number(s) in the cell.

Number(s) in the cell before

Step 2: High light the cell which you want to format using shift button +

arrow keys(up, down, left, right) or with mouse button dragging.

High lighted number in the cell to be formatted

Step 3: FORMAT  CELL

A small format cells window will be displayed in that select number option menu and in that again number option and then format the number.

In this i am

formatting the number's

decimal value to 2

places and allowing

only positive values,

at last press ok

button on it.

The result will look like this after formatting the number(s) in the cell

Number(s) after formatted is as in the cell

To format the number to currency format the following steps are required :

Step 1: Enter the number(s) in the cell as required.

Step 2: High light the number(s) in cell to be formatted.

Step 3: FORMAT  CELL

Step 4: In the format cells select currency option from the number menu then select the number of decimal places required after the number and symbol required before the number as prefix to it( like dollar symbol $, pound symbol £ and etc,,. And the type of value negative or positive values only.

Numbers before formatting Number after formatting

-123

125

-45

100

$123.46

$125.00

$45.00

$100.00

Number formatted with 2 decimal values and $ symbol and positive values only.

To format the number to percentage format the following steps are required :

Step 1: Enter the number(s) in the cell as required.

Step 2: High light the number(s) in cell to be formatted.

Step 3: FORMAT  CELL

Step 4: In Format Cells select Number option. In it select percentage option then select the number of decimal places option to introduce number of decimal places after the normal numbers.

The result will be multiply of 100 of cell value, with number of decimal values as select and at last of result we will have percentage symbol(%).

Numbers before formatting Number after formatting

100

200

300

400

10000.00%

20000.00%

30000.00%

40000.00%

To format the Date the following steps are required :

Step 1: Enter the Date(s) in the cell as required.

Step 2: Highlight the Date(s) in cell to be formatted.

Step 3: FORMAT  CELL

Step 4: In the Format Cells select Date option from number menu. In the Date option we have 2 sub option in it 1) Type : it specifies which date format style we want to format it. 2) Location to change according the place like u.s.a., u.k., France and etc,,

Date(s) before formatting Date(s) after formatting

5/11/2005

5/12/2005

5/13/2005

5/14/2005

5/15/2005

11-May-05

12-May-05

13-May-05

14-May-05

15-May-05

Few of the options of the date

type sub options are like this.

To Format the Text in the cell(s) the following steps are involved:

Step 1: Enter the Data(s) in the cell as required.

Step 2: High light the Data(s) in cell to be formatted.

Step 3: FORMAT  CELL

Step 4: In the format cells window select Font menu option. In it sub option are will be like this.

1) Font Type 2) Font Style 3) Font Size 4) Color 5) Underline Style 6) Effects to text 7) Preview.

The Font menu has option called Font which name of the Font type like Arial, courier new, time new Roman, Arial Narrow and etc, and 4 Font Style like Regular, Bold, Italic, Bold Italic, and then Font Size from 1 to 100 and etc,,, and then Underline style , Color of the Font, and then Special effects like Strikethrough, Superscript and Subscript. And one place to see effects all that is Preview place. As per you requirement select above option in it.

Text before formatting Text after formatting

RAMA

RAVI

RAMA

RAVI

It font type is Arial, Now font type is Courier new size is 10

Font size is 10 and according to type and style bold and

Normal style. effects is strikethrough.

Note : The Font size and style will change according to the corresponding selection of the Font Type.

To format data in cell with proper Alignment involves following steps:

Step 1: Enter the Data in the cell as required.

Step 2: High light the Data in cell to be formatted.

Step 3: FORMAT  CELL

Step 4: In format cells window select Alignment Menu option. The window look like this

In this we can align the horizontal and vertical text can be controlled and orientation and Text direction are the sub option in it.

Text Alignment Horizontal has option in it like general, left(indent), center, Right(indent), fill, justify, center Across selection, distributed(indent) and Vertical has option in it like Top, bottom, center, justify, distributed. As per the selection the text will be aligned in the cell.

The text control is used to control the text in the cell, wrap text wrappers the text not allowing it move out the cell last border and forcing it to start in the next line in the same cell, shrink to fit if the entered text size more than the cell size than it will shrink (reduce the size of text and fit it) in the cell, merge cells is used to merge combine the group of cells into one total cell.

To change the direction of text in the cell we use the orientation option in the excel according to the degrees given to the text in the cell it will change it directions.

Note : The formatting of the Font can also done by the standard tool bar icons also but is shortcut way.

To format data in cell with proper Border involves following steps:

Step 1: Enter the Data in the cell as required.

Step 2: High light the Data in cell to be formatted.

Step 3: FORMAT  CELL

Step 4: In the format cells we have border menu to draw border to the cell as per the you selection of type in it. The window look like this:

It has sub option like line style and color preset none or outline or inside

Border

Data before border to cell Data after border to cell

slno

name

age

1

rama

22

2

ravi

23

3

ramesh

25Slno name age

1 rama 22

2 ravi 23

3 rana 25

As per the style and color of line and presets and border selected the border will be drawn to the corresponding cell which are highlighted only.

ENTER NUMBER IN THE MS-EXCEL

In ms-excel we can fill the series of number in the rows or columns. The number can also be filled automatically in the rows or columns. To enter the number automatically without the help of menu bar option. To do this first we must enter 2 number into consecutive rows or columns like this as shown the below figure. Then highlight that two consecutive rows or columns, then make your

Mouse Pointer as fill handler something like this and then drag the mouse pointer to the sequences of number to be generated or up to the required row or column limit. The number generated is by the difference of the two number in the above fig difference is 1 then generated series is like this

Like this we can generate the series of number in the ms-excel, the generated number is the difference of the second number minus the first number 10 20 then difference is 10 number sequence will be 10 20 30 40 50 and etc,,, .

If we want to generate through the menu options then we require to following the way. First step enter the number in cell that is the starting number in it to generate the series of number. Second step go to Edit menu in that select Fill option and in it select sub option Series a window will be displayed like this

In the window the type Linear means the number will be generated in sum(addition) of the previous no in the cell plus the step value up to the stop value or up to the selected or highlighted range in the worksheet, Growth is the multiplication of the cell number into the step up to the stop value or up to the selected or highlighted range in the worksheet, date to generate date on the data unit depend, AutoFill will fill the number automatically if but in this option no step value or stop value is required it will fill the number automatically up to the highlighted cell in the worksheet. To generate the number with have second number in the cell then use the trend option the above window

The option to series option

EDITING

The editing in excel and be done by press function F2 or click on the cell the mouse pointer will be displayed on the formula bar or select the cell which we want to editing work in it and then go to formula bar and press it the formula bar will be highlighted then we can do the modification to it.

CALCULATIONS

In excel calculation can be done in 2 ways 1)one is called formula method this can be done by using the expression of the values directly or by using the cell address reference. For doing this the symbol required is = which the prefix symbol used for any type of formula calculations

For example : =10+20*30

=A1+B1*C1

In the above excel sheet we have written the formula with the help of cell address and the result is shown the cell D1

Using calculation we have 2 type of cell reference, they are Absolute cell reference and other is Relative cell reference. The first in it used is directly by specifying the cell address directly like A1, B2 with symbol like =A1+B1*C2. The result of this cell can be copied to other cell where every this formula is dragged with the mouse. The second in it used is indirectly by specifying the cell address the each cell address has $(dollar) symbol in front of column alphabet and row number for example (A1) is represented in it like $A$1. If it used for the calculation the result of can be found in respective cell address but it cannot be copied to other cell because the result of first cell value will be copied to other cell as it is.

FUNCTIONS

The second method is Function method. In excel we have few in built functions which are also used for calculating the values in the cell but they are restricted to one type of calculations only like we have sum functions to find the sum of values in the given cell address or direct values given within the () of the sum functions.

For example =sum(a1+b1+c1) or =sum(a1:e1) or =sum(10+20+30)

To have functions in excel we have follow this step.

Insert  Function (with the symbol to it as fx )

When we select this option a window will be displayed it looks like this:

This window(Paste Function) has 2 parts on is the Function Category part which as name of all main category of functions like Financial, Math & Trig, Data & Time, Statistical and etc. It has second window also in it we can see the sub function name of the select main function category like if we selected Math & Trig the sub function will displayed like sum, sin, tan, cos, abs and etc,,.

1)If consider the category as Math & Trig its few sub functions are follows:

slno

Function Name

Syntax

Purpose

1

Abs

Abs(number)

Returns the absolute value of a number, a number without its sign

2

Cos

Cos(number)

Returns the cosine of an angle

3

Exp

Exp(number)

Returns e raised to the power of a given number

4

Fact

Fact(number)

Returns the factorial of a number, equal to 1*2*3*….*number

5

Power

Power(number,power)

Returns the result of a number raised to a power

6

Sin

Sin(number)

Returns the sine of an angle

7

SQRT

SQRT(number)

Returns square root of a number

8

Sum

Sum(number1,number2,

……. NumberN)

Add all the number in a range of cells

9

Tan

Tan(number)

Returns the tangent of an angle

Example

Result

Abs(-23.456)

23.456

Cos(90)

-0.44807

Exp(1)

2.718282

Fact(5)

120

Power(10,2)

100

Sin(0)

0

SQRT(4)

2

Sum(10,20,30)

60

Tan(45)

1.6197752

2)If consider the category Statistical as its few sub functions are follows:

slno

Function Name

Syntax

Purpose

1

Average

Average(number1,number2,

…..)

Returns the average(arithmetic mean) of its arguments, which can be numbers or names or arrays or reference that contains number

2

Count

Count(Value1,Value2,….)

Counts the number of cell that contain numbers and numbers within the list of arguments.

3

Large

Large(array,k)

Returns the k-th largest value in a data set

4

Max

Max(number1,number2,…)

Returns the largest value in a set of values. Ignores logical values and text

5

Min

Min(number1,number2,….)

Returns the smallest value in a set of values. Ignores logical values and text

6

Small

Small(array,k)

Returns the k-th smallest value in a data set

7

Mode

Mode(number1,number2,…)

Returns the most frequently occurring or repetitive value in an array or range of data

8

Median

Median(number1,number2,..)

Returns the median or the number in the middle of the set of given numbers.

Example

Result

Average(10,20,30)

20

Count(10,20,30)

3

Large({10,20,30},2)

20

Max(10,20,30)

30

Min(10,20,30)

10

Small({10,20,30},1)

10

3) If consider the category Date and Time as its few sub functions are follows:

slno

Function Name

Syntax

Purpose

1

Date

DATE(year,month,day)

Returns the serial number that represents a particular date.

2

Today

TODAY( )

Returns the serial number of the current date. The serial number is the date-time code used by Microsoft Excel for date and time calculations.

3

Now

NOW( )

Returns the serial number of the current date and time.

4

Year

YEAR(Date)

Returns the year corresponding to a date. The year is returned as an integer in the range 1900-9999.

5

Month

MONTH(Date)

Returns the month of a date represented by a serial number. The month is given as an integer, ranging from 1 (January) to 12 (December).

6

Day

DAY(Date)

Returns the day of a date, represented by a serial number. The day is given as an integer ranging from 1 to 31.

7

Hour

HOUR(Time)

Returns the hour of a time value. The hour is given as an integer, ranging from 0 (12:00 A.M.) to 23 (11:00 P.M.).

8

Second

SECOND(Time)

Returns the seconds of a time value. The second is given as an integer in the range 0 (zero) to 59.

9

Minute

MINUTE(Time)

Returns the minutes of a time value. The minute is given as an integer, ranging from 0 to 59.

Example

Result

Today()

2/20/05

Now()

2/20/05

Hour(11:45:45)

11

Minute(11:45:45)

45

Day(2/20/05)

20

Month(2/20/05)

2

Year(2/20/05)

2005

Second(11:45:58)

58

4) If consider the category Logical as its few sub functions are follows:

slno

Function Name

Syntax

Purpose

1

IF

IF(logical_test,value_if_true,value_if_false)

Returns one value if a condition you specify evaluates to TRUE and another value if it evaluates to FALSE.

Logical_test: is any value or expression that can be evaluated to TRUE or FALSE.

Value_if_true: is the value that is returned if logical_test is TRUE.

Value_if_false: is the value that is returned if logical_test is FALSE

2

False

FALSE( )

Returns the logical value FALSE.

3

True

TRUE( )

Returns the logical value TRUE.

4

AND

AND(logical1,logical2, ...)

Returns TRUE if all its arguments are TRUE; returns FALSE if one or more arguments is FALSE.

5

OR

OR(logical1,logical2,...)

Returns TRUE if any argument is TRUE; returns FALSE if all arguments are FALSE.

6

NOT

NOT(logical)

Reverses the value of its argument. Use NOT when you want to make sure a value is not equal to one particular value.

The IF functions can be used with the help of the Comparison operators, they are as follows :

You can compare two values with the following operators. When two values are compared by using these operators, the result is a logical value, either TRUE or FALSE.

Comparison

operator

Meaning

Example

= (equal sign)

Equal to

A1=B1

> (greater than sign)

Greater than

A1>B1

< (less than sign)

Less than

A1<B1

>= (greater than or equal to sign)

Greater than or equal to

A1>=B1

<= (less than or equal to sign)

Less than or equal to

A1<=B1

<> (not equal to sign)

Not equal to

A1<>B1

The IF function can use the AND , OR and NOT logical function it .

The details of AND Function is as follows: AND(logical1,logical2, ...)

Logical1, logical2, ...   are 1 to 30 conditions you want to test that can be either TRUE or FALSE.

The arguments must evaluate to logical values such as TRUE or FALSE, or the arguments must be arrays or references that contain logical values.

If an array or reference argument contains text or empty cells, those values are ignored.

If the specified range contains no logical values, AND returns the #VALUE! error value.

The details of OR Function is as follows: OR(logical1,logical2,...)

Logical1,logical2,...   are 1 to 30 conditions you want to test that can be either TRUE or FALSE.

The arguments must evaluate to logical values such as TRUE or FALSE, or in arrays or references that contain logical values.

If an array or reference argument contains text or empty cells, those values are ignored.

If the specified range contains no logical values, OR returns the #VALUE! error value.

You can use an OR array formula to see if a value occurs in an array. To enter an array formula, press CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER in Microsoft Excel for Windows or +ENTER in Microsoft Excel for the Macintosh.

 

Example

Result

IF(10>20,10,20)

20

IF(10<20,10,20)

10

IF(AND(10>20,10<30),10,20)

20

IF(OR(10>20,10<30),10,20)

10

IF(NOT(10>20),10,20)

10

IF(NOT(10<20),10,20)

20

IF(10>20,"true","false")

false

IF(100<200,"rama","krishna")

rama

5) If consider the category Text as its few sub functions are follows:

slno

Function Name

Syntax

Purpose

1

Concat

enate

CONCATENATE (text1,text2,...)

Joins several text strings into one text string.

2

Text

TEXT(value,format_text)

Converts a value to text in a specific number format.

3

Trim

TRIM(text)

Removes all spaces from text except for single spaces between words. Use TRIM on text that you have received from another application that may have irregular spacing.

4

Lower

LOWER(text)

Converts all uppercase letters in a text string to lowercase.

5

Upper

UPPER(text)

Converts text to uppercase.

6

Len

LEN(text)

LEN returns the number of characters in a text string.

7

Proper

PROPER(text)

Capitalizes the first letter in a text string and any other letters in text that follow any character other than a letter. Converts all other letters to lowercase letters.

8

Mid

MID(text,start_num,num_chars)

MID returns a specific number of characters from a text string, starting at the position you specify, based on the number of characters you specify.

9

Code

CODE(text)

Returns a numeric code for the first character in a text string. The returned code corresponds to the character set used by your computer.

Example

Result

CONCATENATE ("rama","krishna")

ramakrishna

Upper("ramakrishna")

RAMAKRISHNA

Lower("RAMAKRISHNA")

ramakrishna

Len("Ramakrishna")

11

Trim(" Rama ")

Rama

Text(2.715, "$0.00")

$2.72

MID("I am a good boy",8,15)

good boy

Code("A")

65

CHARTS

Create a chart

You can create either an embedded chart or a chart sheet.

Select the cells that contain the data that you want to appear in the chart.

If you want the column and row labels to appear in the chart, include the cells that

contain them in the selection.

Click Chart Wizard.

Follow the instructions in the Chart Wizard.

Alt + Insert + Chart

This symbol will be displayed in the Standard Toolbar of Excel.

The total drawing of the chart requires 4 steps After the selection of the Chart option in the Insert Menu.

The Step 1 in it is selection of the Chart Type and it also have Sub-type of Charts to the main category of the Chart.

The Step 2 is selection of Data Range and Series of values to draw the chart or graph.

The Step 3 is used to give Chart Options to give proper meaning to the titles of chart, X,Y,Z axis names, legend placing, Data labels, Axis, Gridlines and Data Table adjustment of this all in the Chart before drawing it.

The Step 4 is placing of the Chart or Graph in the Worksheet as an Object in the exisisting sheet(s), or placing a Chart in Chart Sheet.

In Step 1 a window will be displayed with Chart Type and Chart sub-type option will be visible in that Window. This window has 2 main options like Standard Types and Custom

Types. In Standard Types we have Chart type and Chart sub-type options. In Excel we have 14 types of chart available they are as follows

Column Graph

Bar Graph

Line Graph

Pie Chart

XY(Scatter) Chart

Area Graph

Doughnut

Radar

Surface

Bubble

Stock

Cylinder

Cone

Pyramid

The corresponding Main Chart will have sub-type of chart there may be 4 or more sub-type depending on the Chart type(Main)

The second option is custom types which as few predefined chart types and sample of the type using this we can have a 3D graph or chart also. It also have a selection from where use want the chart from User-defined or Built-in.

After selecting the Main Chart type and its corresponding sub-type of chart then press Next button on the window so we can move to the next step.

The Step 2 is selection of the Data range required to draw the chart or graph on the given values, which are present in the worksheet. We select or not by default the all the values in the current sheet will be selected which you want to draw a chart or graph or this can also be selected manually. In this window we have 2 main options first one is Data range and second one is Series.

In the Data Range we have 2 radio button to select the range of data as row or column and a Data Range Textbox to select the range of values from the worksheet by giving the cell addresses or by press the last button on the Data range textbox the mouse pointer will be placed in the worksheet now we can move the mouse pointer or selection can be done with keyboard keys also, after selection and press the same button we will come back to the step 2 window. The window look like this:

The next option is series which as one series name list box, and 2 corresponding textbox with names as Name and Values. This is used add new series name and its value to the graph or chart. The Window look like this:

After selection of the Data Range and Series press Next button on the same window, to move to the next step.

In the step 3 a window will be displayed with a lot of option in to given to the chart or graph. The main option of this window are as follows:

Titles

Axis

Gridlines

Legend

Data Label

Data Table

The option in this Window changes from the Chart type to type. Because few have 3 or some may have 4 or some may have all 6 this depends on the Chart type of selection Purely.

The window look like this:

Titles option consists sub-option in it like Chart Title, Category (X) axis, Value(Y) axis, Value (Z) axis.

Axes option consists sub-option in it like Primary axis is main window which is made of 2 option in Category and Value of Y axis.

Gridlines it consists of Category X axis gridline(Major and Minor) and Value (Y) axis(Major and Minor).

Legend it consist of one check button as Show legend it is used to display the legend in the chart yes or no. And if yes then we have placement option in it(place like Bottom, Corner, Top, Right, Left). The legend is Field name which are select from step 2 or there are Field heading name to which the values are displayed in the chart.

Data Label consists of Radio Button buttons which means we can select only one option in it, the option in it are as follows( none, Show value, Show percentage, Show label, Show label and percentage, Show bubble sizes) this are option are displayed on the bars or element of the chart.

Data Table it consists of 2 check Box option they are Show Data Table and other is Show Legend Keys.

This options values changes from the Chart to Chart.

The Step 4 is placing of the Chart in the Worksheet as Object or In a new

Worksheet. The default name for the new worksheet is chart1. The window look like this:

Example 1: Consider a sample table of student marks details as follows, the resultant Column graph will be

students marks details

marks1

marks2

marks3

total

avg

37

57

64

158

53

44

55

66

165

55

50

48

67

165

55

Bar Graph will be like this:

Pie Chart will be like this:

The details of the Chart and its types are discussed below with help of the diagram of each chart types. They are as follows:

1) Column Chart: A column chart shows data changes over a period of time or illustrates comparisons among items. Categories are organized horizontally, values vertically, to emphasize variation over time.

Stacked column charts show the relationship of individual items to the whole. The 3-D perspective column chart compares data points along two axes.

In this 3-D chart, you can compare four quarters of sales performance in Europe with the performance of two other divisions.

2) Bar Chart: A bar chart illustrates comparisons among individual items. Categories are organized vertically, values horizontally, to focus on comparing values and to place less emphasis on time.

Stacked bar charts show the relationship of individual items to the whole.

3) Pie Chart: A pie chart shows the proportional size of items that make up a data series to the sum of the items. It always shows only one data series and is useful when you want to emphasize a significant element.

To make small slices easier to see, you can group them together as one item in a pie chart and then break down that item in a smaller pie or bar chart next to the main chart.

4) Line Chart: A line chart shows trends in data at equal intervals.

5) XY (Scatter) Chart: A xy (scatter) chart either shows the relationships among the numeric values in several data series or plots two groups of numbers as one series of xy coordinates. This chart shows uneven intervals - or clusters - of data and is commonly used for scientific data.

When you arrange your data, place x values in one row or column, and then enter corresponding y values in the adjacent rows or columns.

Note   You cannot use an xy (scatter) chart type for a PivotChart report.

6) Area Chart: An area chart emphasizes the magnitude of change over time. By displaying the sum of the plotted values, an area chart also shows the relationship of parts to a whole.

In this example, an area chart emphasizes increased sales in Washington and illustrates the contribution of each state to total sales.

7) Doughnut Chart: Like a pie chart, a doughnut chart shows the relationship of parts to a

whole, but it can contain more than one data series. Each ring of the doughnut chart

represents a data series.

8) Stock Chart: The high-low-close chart is often used to illustrate stock prices. This chart can also be used for scientific data, for example, to indicate temperature changes. You must organize your data in the correct order to create this and other stock charts.

A stock chart that measures volume has two value axes: one for the columns that measure volume, and the other for the stock prices. You can include volume in a high-low-close or open-high-low-close chart.

Note   You cannot use the stock chart type for a PivotChart report.

9) Bubble Chart: A bubble chart is a type of xy (scatter) chart. The size of the data marker indicates the value of a third variable.

To arrange your data, place the x values in one row or column, and enter corresponding y values and bubble sizes in the adjacent rows or columns.

The chart in this example shows that Company A has the most products and the greatest market share, but not the highest sales.

Note   You cannot use the bubble chart type for a PivotChart report.

10) Radar Chart: In a radar chart, each category has its own value axis radiating from the center point. Lines connect all the values in the same series.

A radar chart compares the aggregate values of a number of data series. In this chart, the data series that covers the most area, Brand A, represents the brand with the highest vitamin content.

11) Surface Chart: A surface chart is useful when you want to find optimum combinations between two sets of data. As in a topographic map, colors and patterns indicate areas that are in the same range of values.

This chart shows the various combinations of temperature and time that result in the same measure of tensile strength.

12,13,14 )Cone, Cylinder and Pyramid Chart: The cone, cylinder, and pyramid data markers can lend a dramatic effect to 3-D column and bar charts.

Fig for Cone, Cylinder and Pyramid Chart.

After creation of the chart we want to modify or change the chart option first select the chart and then right click the mouse button.

In this we have option like Chart type to change the

Chart type if required again the Step 1 window will be displayed

And select the different type of chart are per requirement.

The next option is chart options to select or set different types

Of chart options. And Location option to change the location of

The chart at required sheet or required place in the same sheet. The

Source data option is used to display the step 2 window option

Of chart creation.

.

The main option in it is Format Chart Area, this window has 3 sub-option in it as Patterns which is used to give border effect to the chart as per the style, color and weight and shadow and round corners options. The option is Font in it used to change the Font type, style, color and special effect to the text present in the chart area. The last option is Properties used to protect the data in cell which as used to draw the chart in it.

CREATION OF DATABASE IN THE MS-EXCEL

Using the MS-EXCEL we can create the database in it as per user requirement. The option of importing the data from the other source is called import external sources from the application or database as Foxpro, Access, DBASE and etc,,.

In order to create a database from the external sources(here we are considering MS-ACCESS).

Step 1: Start  Programs  MS-EXCEL

Step 2: Select the cell where you want to populate the data.

Step 3: Data  Get External Data  New Database Query

Step 4: A window will be displayed and in that select the Type of database you want to use

in the MS-EXCEL. The window look like this: we select MS-ACCESS Database.

Then click ok button

Step 5: Select the Database File and then click the ok button.

Step 6: A new window will be displayed now select the required Table or Query which you

want to import in the MS-EXCEL as database. The window look like this

Step 7: A window will be displayed in that we can filter the records to the excel sheet

because it will filter in it. And get the required data in the worksheet. And window

look like this: and then press next button

Step 8: In this window we can sort the required field and get the sorted data in to the

worksheet. And then press next button. The window look like this:

Step 9: A window will be displayed and then press Finish button in it. The window look

like this:

The required database file data will be imported in the worksheet. For example the table in the MS-ACCESS as Reg No, Flang, Slang, Maths, Phy, comp and tot. If this table in import from it.

Fig : Table in the MS-ACCESS with fields and Data in it.

The database in worksheet will look like this:

In this way we can create the database in the EXCEL.

Common Operation in MS-EXCEL

To open a new worksheet Alt + File + New. To open an exisisting workbook is Alt + File + Open. To save the workbook Alt + File + Save. To print the Worksheet is Alt + File +Print. To close one workbook is Alt + File + Close. And to Close the Workbook is Alt + File + Exit.

To copy the data in the cell, first select or highlight the required cells and then press Alt + Edit + Copy. To cut the data in the cell, first select or highlight the required cells and then press Alt + Edit + Cut. To paste the required the cells press Alt + Edit + Paste.

The usage of the MS-EXCEL is for to handle create table in needed way for creation of balance sheet preparation, or to calculate financial problems, or analysis a data and then draw chart or graphs for it and etc,,, . The Excel is used for organization of all types of data, but is mainly used for the Numerical data..

IMPORTANT QUESTION

UNIT - III(MS-EXCEL Only)

Discuss Inserting, Copying and Moving the cells in MS-EXCEL.

Define a Spread Sheet. Explain any 5 Mathematical Functions in MS-EXCEL.

Explain how to create a Database using MS-EXCEL. Give an example.

What is a Workbook? Explain any 2 Functions that work as data manipulation in MS-EXCEL.

Explain number formatting style in MS-EXCEL.

Explain what is the size of MS-EXCEL worksheet. How to bring the data available in MS-ACCESS to MS-EXCEL.

Explain any 4 different functions on MS-EXCEL.

Explain different types of Charts or Graphs in MS-EXCEL. (* * * *)

Describe at least 5 business graphs that are commonly used together with applications.

Explain how to create a Database using MS-EXCEL(*)

Explain different formatting features in MS-EXCEL.

MS-EXCEL

TOPIC

INTRODUCTION

BASIC FEATURES

PARTS OF MS-EXCEL

MENUS

COPY, CUT , PASTE OPTION

BASIC OF WORKBOOK

BASIC OF WORKSHEET

ROW

COLUMNS

CELL

FORMATTING FEATURES

FUNCTIONS

TYPES OF FUNCTIONS

SYNTAX AND DESCRIPTION

EXAMPLE

CHARTS

TYPES OF CHARTS

STEPS TO DRAW THE CHART

WORKSHEET AS DATABASES

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