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The designs that come in HCI targets in producing interactive products that are that provider pleasant experience to use. Because of the multi dimensional method of HCI and varying systems of interface it is very difficult for developers which are easy to use as well as cheap. In this modern era there is an increase in the number of people who complain about HCI. These complain causes due to poor design of system or by ignorance of the logics of HCI design. This research tries to develop an understanding about the HCI challenges while designing applications in hardware and software of mobile phones/devices. It also tries to understand methods of developing mobile interfaces that provides convenience to users and identifies improvisations to the difficulties in interaction designing for the same.
The analysing and understanding of working between people and electronic devises like computers are referred to as human computer interaction (HCI). The user who is involved performs the main interaction. The main problem faced by companies or people related to HCI is went it comes to the design of such computing devises for use. Because of this it forms the need and necessity of HCI developers to make systems more easily usable and easily adaptable to consumer needs. Therefore in order to provide best solution to this problem the developers or designers of HCI has to reduce the distance between human's cognitive model of what consumers want to achieve, and the computers ability in analysing the users needs and tasks.
The contact between consumers and systems takes place at the users interface or edge that includes software and hardware. Interaction design refers to the design and development of interactive products to assists and enables people in making their life easier. As HICI involves mutual connected use between human and machine which each other the design of user interface should have the ability to understand and perform task according to the human side and the machine sight. One side of the information concept comprises of details like graphical requirements communication theory and understanding of mental psychology etc are required. On the other side it demands from the designers side to develop computer related techniques like based on programming languages, operating systems etc.
Along with the changing times mobile phones have become an important in human's life. They are used in every spears of life. Every field like communication related service, military equipments and education etc. Due to multiple nature of HCI the job of designer who designs interfaces for the same raises tough challenges. These are both relating to hardware and relating to software.
HCI is becoming highly complex due to the dynamic changing digital technology and digital media. Accordingly to keep up with the changing trend the users of these products can keep on studying the different operating interfaces, the programming language that is use. These days we can observe a large number of people who keep complaining about the poor design in the interaction design. Is this problem actually caused due to the poor design HCI products or due to the lack of knowledge of users about the basic logic of the same. Majority of the products demands the users to involve with them to get their work done are not developed/ design keeping in mind the user's convenience and priority. However majority of the times the designer always says that their products are user friendly and usable; the basic fact lies that the interface should enable the user to function his/ her tasks fully. Or it can be said that the design of HCI must be user concentrated design. Majority of the people in today's world depends mobile computing devises like PDA's, Palm top, mobile phones.
The common problems on all these are they try to give solutions to highly complicated and powerful services with the help of very small interfaces. The common problems on all these cases are compressed screen sizes that make the projects of information difficult. This also limits their navigation options. As the current mobile devices market insists on developing mobile phones with multiple functionalities there is a urgent need of merging computing electronics and communication in the mobile sector. Yet another major problem the operation of these devices on chemical cells or batteries. Therefore dealing with the solution of battery power consumption is also a major problem for HCI designers.
Hens, in this advance world of ever changing technology it is a vitality to provide efficient mobile products to consumers. For the same designers, users, technical assistance must corporate hand in hand to generate success. Therefore this research tries to understand the difficulties encounter while designing HCI, suggest solution in developing a user friendly design, understanding principle user interface design, and study the current trend in this industry.
Collection of Analysis of Data
Type of mobile devices
This refers to pocket size computing devices having small screen with small input device like keypad or touch screen. Example of these devices include electronic devices like PDA, laptops, palm tops, game boy, Nintendo, Advance digital and still cameras, audio recorders and communication devices like wireless pagers etc.
PDA Laptop Palm top
GameBoy Digital still camera Audio Recorder
Use of Mobile devices
PDA's are been excessively used in area where large volume of data is to be collected. For example it with the help of PDA's that orders are taken in modern day restaurants by the waiters, waitress. PDA's are also been used in areas like hospitals to collect information and diagonals data about a particular patient. Talking about mobile devices it has become a important part in universities and schools for the process of mobile learning. Mobile learning is the use of mobile device for learning while the user is on move. M learning also has more advantage comparing with e learning. Another common system used in schools includes scientific calculators, translators, and electronic dictionaries.
Yet another use of these mobile devices are in the sector of entertainment where in it is used for gaming, listening to music and watching movies on the move.
GPS system is another example of HCI devices. This is used pin point a particular geographical point on earth with the help of co- ordinates.
Evaluation and Discussion of Data
Challenges in hardware
Due to the constrain of weight, size for mobility the interface design for mobile device posses more of hardware challenge than software challenge. These challenges are challenges like limited input facility, limited output facility and mobility.
There are 3 main inputs in current mobile device. They are:-
Via Stylus on the touch screens
The keyboard allows the person to enter input via hitting keys or in moving from one area to the other on the screen. The stylus helps in inputting data with the help of a touch on the touch screen by the user. The scroll wheel can be rotated or moved to move across pages or from one page to another. Developing a keyboard on a mobile device is a difficult task because there is only limited space. Though past researchers has shown that the size doesn't matter. They found that making keyboard small did not increase the error rates. However future research has proven that using such keyboards are difficult for people who have fat fingers.
Researches in modern days have developed possible solutions like a unique keyboard stick that suits on a four row of stranded qwerty onto the base row to over come the physical space constraint. But a immediate reduction in number of keys to obtain portability reduces text entry possibility and demands extra effort to study new method of inputting data. Another method was also developed using new keyboard minimisation method which suggested in reducing key pitch to reduce this problem and have formulated a single key keyboard that provides priority to input, acceptance, performance, usability.
Many of the mobile devices make use of touch screen and stylus facilities. In some cases these are even used to replace keyboards. The problem that are associated with the same are it becomes difficult to function if the screen of the mobile device is too small. They are having numerous investigations to develop a solution for the same. For example one of the solutions that was suggested was to permit the user control the particular application by pressing to an additional button placed behind the device.
The scroll wheel in most cases used as a solution to the limitations of stylus and keyboard. This is efficient because it can be used to navigate as well as function as a push button.
Talking about the output the screen is the main and major limitation. Hence proper measure should be taken during the design of the screen of the device to ensure that the screen is efficient and effective. The audio output is another challenge. This has become more important in the multi model user interfaces. With the help of real time signal processing audio feedback has become efficient and effective. Sound effects also add to the user experience.
A major challenge for the computing device is the design for the portability. Subsequently the power facility becomes the difficult task. Research has shown that power consumed by an application is directly proportional to the level requested by the application. A power management middle where was suggested, this not only save energy but also optimises energy saving for other device like keyboard and memory.
Challenges in Software
System Of menus
Researchers have found through studies that having a menu in desktop of the application will seem helpful to consumers as it will help experience user to find what they want in a convenient manner. But copying a successful design for some desktop and simply incorporating it to a mobile device without understanding the translation input, output can lead to various problems like in effective interaction caused due to the design. Systems of arranged pattern of menus are hence practice as an alternative. With a sequential menu a particular individual can access one main menu that leads to future sub menus till the person reaches his/her desired function.
There have been a lot of researches to study the layout and design of hierarchical menu in mobile device that was targeted to understand an optimal method to arrange information in consecutive and user friendly pattern. In future studies conducted it was observed that smooth interaction which such menu system can be obtained only by having numerous menu items on the root menu and the end menu, and little options at the middle levels. However a later study showed that the most effective hierarchy for use with mobile devices was the one with approximately four to seven items on every level.
Navigation and Browsing
This is also a problem in mobile devices in terms of navigation and subsequent browsing because of the limitation of the screen sizes of these devices. According to some particular researchers to project data's on screen that is suitable for large screens the information data must be split into smaller units those are easily presentable as well as understandable and also fits into the screen of the mobile devices. This makes it increasingly difficult to effectively arrange information and enable and ensure smooth navigation for consumers to help them move from one segment to other. Hence a new interface methodology called "Roller" was developed that helped in alleviating the actual screen limitation in a user interface design.
Yet another study conducted by another set of researchers helped in presenting a distinct interface design for HCI devices that would address major user points with menu system and page scrolling. With the help of one to five wheel and arrange in a combination lock style on a single screen this design enable users to enjoy a variety of self satisfying content without having to scroll or select a menu. The researchers said that the testing of this particular system in china proved the model to be very efficient, effective and desirable. In spite of the verifying navigation paradigms and verifying expectations in each this country.
Icons and Images associated
Icons and image associated are considered to be very important type of data and visual projects of the data on screen. In case of mobile devices it is still limited when compare to other non portable devices especially with concerned to the projection of geographical data like diagram, maps and logos. Hence downsizing and down scaling images from bigger screen of non portable device to small screen of portable device is not that can be ignored.
Studies have analysed that mobile device lack from availability of resources due to the limited size and application. Especially if geographical data has to be presented. Future researchers have found
out particular guideline to the display of geographical content projected by roster and vector graphic sound mobile devices to permit resource saving.
This research was conducted to analyse HCI challenges in the design of application in both hardware and software sections of mobile devices. Because mobile devices are widely been used by a wide number of people in day to day life the interface designers of HCI are expected to face extremely high challenges in creating such devices. The main design challenge is about making these devices easily usable as well as affordable to a varying group of people from varying backgrounds. Mobility is also a main factor of the design that should be kept in mind by designers. Hence miniaturization of hardware related parts is expected to be the trend in future HCI mobile devices. For example majority of the mobile devices are small sized computing devices therefore they must have a display screen, keyboard/touch input. This is expected that desktop and laptops will be replaced by palm tops to meet the advancing need of people.
Due to the need for mobility mobile devices have limited screen size. Therefore a design supporting both mobility and portability is crucial challenge for HCI designers. Present day mobile devices have a common problem which attempting to provide users access to a varying range of computing service and resources through small interfaces that have tiny screens and limited input, output, audio interactions.
Owing to the challenge of size and weight of these devices compare to other device like desktop, the design for these rises more hardware challenges. Small screen size makes information projection extremely difficult especially in case where large display has to be projected because these have to split into small units to suite the device. To match this problem a three dimensional interface that can present linear and consecutive data is an alternative. Hence specialized keypad and stylus are becoming a part of these devices.
In case of software's designers will find even more difficult to design mobile interface software's. The major problem here is limiting the users interaction with the interactive system to understand and serve the user's needs and wants. To develop a user friendly and useful systems the designer should work hand in hand with technicians and must always look out to the needs of people who use interactive products. They must also understand about the place of use of this product. To summarise there are three major things in interaction design process.
They are focusing on the user, usability criteria and iteration. No designer can avoid thinking of the real users of HCI systems but due to the different needs and wants of differing people it is very challenging to design those kinds of products which reduce the barrier between human cognitive model and designers understanding about what the users want.