History Of Lan And Wan Computer Science Essay

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History of LAN and WAN which is the topic that chosen by me. The reason I choose this topic it is because nowadays people use to communicate with each other by using Internet rather than others traditional way. Some of them not really know what is it and what is the most common network are they using this recently. By doing this assignment, it allow me to get more information about the LAN and WAN and also the information of the connection between it. Here, in this assignment I have written every single important detail about the LAN and WAN.

Description of Research Area

Local Area Network (LAN)

LAN is a series of connection in a group of computers and devices in a limited area for an example, which is in a building. Normally, LAN using to share resources likes transferring files and the others applications. The speed for the LAN is 1000mbps, LAN also have the high data transfer rate. LAN is usually owned, it is controllable which is managed by a single person or an organization.

There are some standard technologies that use by LAN, such as Ethernet, Token Ring and also Wireless LAN.


Ethernet which is the common type of system for connecting a group of computer system to create a local area network

Token Ring:

Token Ring transmitted data similar to a ring topology, it arrange a group of computer like a circle. A Token, the special bit pattern will travel around the circle. When a computer wanted to send a message, it will catch the token and attaches a message on it then let it continue travel around the network to pass the message. It is more secure but this technology is out-of-date and limited.

WLAN (Wireless LAN):

A WLAN provides wireless network to let the user access in a short distances by using some infrared signal instead of using cable.

Transmission Equipment

The transmission equipment which is the communication equipment, it is used to direct support data processing tools.

The transmission equipment of LAN is:

Network Interface Controller (NIC):

The Network Interface Controller which is hardware of the computer to allow the computer communicates over the computer network.


Hubs which is the communicate devices that provide central point for cable network.


Repeater is a device that performs the function like filtering some disturbance signal, amplify the signal and also retime signal. It could be uses for communicating of 2 or more network section



Router is a hardware that usually connected by LAN and WAN. The router interconnect with the others computer network to share data through the available pathways that connected to a router.


Bridge is a kind of computer network device that offers interconnection with other bridge network that used the matching protocol.


A switch is a device that similar to hub, it is use to connect the computers to form a network. Switch has more processing power compare to a hub, so it has more efficient data transfer.

Multistation Access Unit (MAU)

Multistation Access Unit is like a hub devices that use in a computer networking to join network nodes or processor or devices with local area network.


Network gateway is an internetworking system that skilled of linking two networks together that used different base protocols.

Wide Area Network (WAN)

Wide Area Network (WAN) is similar to Local Area Network (LAN), but the network of WAN is much bigger than LAN. It covers a widespread around the geographical area, such as a country.

There are some technologies that use by WAN is Switches and Routers


Switch is a device that allow a computer to connect the others computer to form a network. It can be linked in different topologies such as full network and half network.


Router which is a hardware device that connected by LAN and WAN. It connected with the others computer network to share data through the existing ways that linked to a router.

Transmission Equipment

The transmission equipment of WAN can be function in two ways. First, it can be translating a signal for long-digital message. The next of the function is it can create several channels in a particular communications medium for higher bandwidth.

The type of transmission equipment which is Multiplexers, Channel Banks, Private Telephone Network, Modems, Access Servers, and Router.

Multiplexers (MUXs):

Multiplexer is a devices which allowing several input and lets only one to go over as an output.

Channel Banks:

A Channel Banks is a telecommunication device that lets several analogue signals to be transfer over one digital connection.


Modem is a device that containing of a device used to join computers by a telephone line.


The router link with the others computer network to share data through the accessible paths that joined to a router.

Private Branch Exchange (PBX):

Private Branch Exchange is in the area of telecommunication. It is a telephone system that handles the interior and exterior calls of a building.

Private Automated Branch Exchange (PABX):

Private Automated Branch Exchange allows a particular access number to offer several lines to external callers while providing a series of exterior lines to interior callers or worker.

Description of Technical Area

Local Area Network (LAN)

Network topology:

Point-to-point lines and multidrop lines is the two basic type of network tropology in telecommunications network. In the point-to-point lines, each of the terminals is linked by its specific line to a computer system. Next, in the multidrop lines, there are a number of terminal share every date communications line to computer.

There are few types of network topology that use by LAN, such as Star topology, Ring topology, Bus topology.

Star topology:

A single topology must connect to a central hub, Star topology is like a centralizer which also known as point-to-point; it joined to every of the other nodes on a network. Star topology is easy to set up and manage, but can have block happen as all the data must pass over the hub.

Ring topology:

Ring topology is use a network to place the computers in a circle every node is linked to an accurately two other nodes, creating a ring to pass data or any information around this circle and there is no any ending point or starting point.

Bus topology:

Bus topology is a kind of network system where each computer and network devices is linked to a particular cable or backbone. The entire node on the network that shares a common bus and share message because of the bus topology uses a multi-drop transmission medium and this only lets one device to transfer at a time.

Wide Area Network (WAN)

The type of technologies that Wide Area Network using is Point-to-point link, Circuit Switching, and also Packet switching

Point-to-point link:

Point-to-point link is offers a single WAN communications pathways from the client buildings through carrier network. These technologies are commonly the greatest expensive form of WAN technology

Circuit Switching: