Features And Characteristics Of Dbms Products Computer Science Essay

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A Database Management System is system software that enables users to define, create, update, organize, manage and maintain databases. DBMS also controls access to data in the database. It allocates organizations to set control of organization-wide database growth in the hands of database administrators (DBAs) and other experts.

1A DBMS is a system software package that assists the use of integrated collection of data records and files recognized as databases. It allows dissimilar user application programs to simply access the same database. DBMSs might use any of a diversity of database models, for instance the network model or relational model.

There are 4 major components of DBMS such as Data model, Data Definition Language (DDL), Data Manipulation Language (DML) and Data dictionary. Data model defines the way data is arranged as an example hierarchy, network, relational, object-oriented, hypermedia, and object-relational multidimensional. Data definition language (DDL) defines the type of data stored in the database and how it is stored. DDL is used to define the scheme. Scheme is a description of the content database and a list of items and their relationship. Data Manipulation Language (DML) is used with third-generation language, fourth-and object-oriented language to achieve the content database so that it can be added, modified and deleted. Structured Query Language (SQL) DML is one of the most popular. Example commands: SELECT, INSERT, DELETE, and UPDATE. Data Dictionary stores definition data elements and characteristics. Elements represent a data field for example, individuals, businesses, programs, reports, etc. DBMS products including are SQL, Oracle, dBase, Paradox, Ingres, Foxpro, and Microsoft Access etc.

The Features and Characteristics of DBMS Products

Microsoft Access

2Microsoft Office Access, formerly known as Microsoft Access, is a relational database management system from Microsoft that merges the relational Microsoft Jet Database Engine with a graphical user interface and software development tools.

Access stores data in its own format based on the Access Jet Database Engine. It capable also import or connect directly to data stored in other Access databases, SharePoint lists, XML, Excel, text, HTML, Outlook, dBase, Lotus 1-2-3, Paradox, or any ODBC-compliant data container as well as Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server, MySQL and PostgreSQL. Software developers and data architects know how to use it to develop application software and non-programmer "power users" can use it to build simple applications.

3Visual Basic for Applications supported Office applications Access like other and it is an object-oriented programming language that can reference a variety of objects, including the DAO (Data Access Objects) and ActiveX Data Objects, and many other ActiveX components created by Microsoft or by third parties. Visual objects applied in forms and reports interpretation their properties and methods kindly in the VBA programming environment and a big selection of Windows operating system functions can be stated and called from VBA code modules, making Access a rich programming environment. Users are able to produce tables, queries, forms and reports, and link them jointly with macros. VBA can use by advanced that able to write rich solutions with advanced data manipulation and user control.

4The original concept of Access was for end users to be able to "access" data from any source. Other uses include: the import and export of data to many formats including Excel, Outlook, ASCII, dBase, Paradox, FoxPro, SQL Server, Oracle, ODBC, etc. It also has the ability to link to data in its existing location and use it for viewing, querying, editing, and reporting. This allows the existing data to change and the Access platform to always use the latest data. It can perform heterogeneous joins between data sets stored across different platforms. Access is often used by people downloading data from enterprise level databases for manipulation, analysis, and reporting locally.

There is also the Jet Database format (MDB or ACCDB in Access 2007) which can include the application and data in one file. This creates it very suitable to allocate the whole application to another user, who can run it in disconnected environments.

The benefits of Access from a programmer's viewpoint is its relation compatibility with SQL (structured query language) - queries can be viewed graphically or edited as SQL statements, and SQL statements can be used straightforwardly in Macros and VBA Modules to manipulate Access tables. Users can merge and apply both VBA and "Macros" for programming forms and logic and proposes object-oriented potential. VBA can also be integrated in queries.

Microsoft Access suggests parameterized queries. Other programs like VB6 and .NET through DAO or ADO can be referenced for these queries and Access tables. From Microsoft Access, VBA can reference parameterized stored procedures via ADO.

5The desktop editions of Microsoft SQL Server can be used with Access as an alternative to the Jet Database Engine. This support started with MSDE (Microsoft SQL Server Desktop Engine), a scaled down version of Microsoft SQL Server 2000, and continues with the SQL Server Express versions of SQL Server 2005 and 2008.

6Microsoft Access is a file server-based database. Unlike client-server relational database management systems (RDBMS), Microsoft Access does not implement database triggers, stored procedures, or transaction logging. Access 2010 (not released) does have table level triggers and stored procedures built into the ACE data engine.

Microsoft SQL Server 2008

Microsoft produced Microsoft SQL Server that is a relational model database server. Its main query languages are ANSI SQL and T-SQL.

7The recent version of SQL Server, SQL Server 2008, (code-named "Katmai") was released on August 6, 2008 and aims to make data management self-tuning, self organizing, and self maintaining with the development of SQL Server Always On technologies, to provide near-zero downtime. SQL Server 2008 also includes support for structured and semi-structured data, including digital media formats for pictures, audio, video and other multimedia data. In current versions, such multimedia data can be stored as BLOBs (binary large objects), but they are generic bitstreams. Inherent awareness of multimedia data will allow focused functions to be presented on them. According to Paul Flessner, senior Vice President, Server Applications, Microsoft Corp., SQL Server 2008 can be a data storage backend for different varieties of data: XML, email, time/calendar, file, document, spatial, etc as well as perform search, query, analysis, sharing, and synchronization across all data types.

8Other new data types include specialized date and time types and a spatial data type for location-dependent data.[7] Better support for unstructured and semi-structured data is provided using the new FILESTREAM data type, which can be used to reference any file stored on the file system. Structured data and metadata about the file is stored in SQL Server database, whereas the unstructured component is stored in the file system. Such files can be accessed both via Win32 file handling APIs as well as via SQL Server using T-SQL; doing the latter accesses the file data as a BLOB. Backing up and restoring the database backs up or restores the referenced files as well. SQL Server 2008 also natively supports hierarchical data, and includes T-SQL constructs to directly deal with them, without using recursive queries.

SQL Server contains better compression features, which also assists in improving scalability. It also contains Resource Governor that allows preserving resources for certain users or workflows. It also contains potentiality for transparent encryption of data as well as compression of backups.

SQL Server 2008 maintains the ADO.NET Entity Framework and the reporting tools, replication, and data definition will be built around the Entity Data Model. SQL Server Reporting Services will get charting capabilities from the integration of the data visualization products from Dundas Data Visualization Inc., which was acquired by Microsoft.

9On the management side, SQL Server 2008 includes the Declarative Management Framework which allows configuring policies and constraints, on the entire database or certain tables, declaratively. The version of SQL Server Management Studio included with SQL Server 2008 supports IntelliSense for SQL queries against a SQL Server 2008 Database Engine. SQL Server 2008 also makes the databases available via Windows PowerShell providers and management functionality available as Cmdlets, so that the server and all the running instances can be managed from Windows PowerShell.

Microsoft SQL Server 2008 Express

SQL Server Express supports most of the features and functions of SQL Server. SQL Server 2008 Express is based on SQL Server, which fully supports the features of the Database Engine products.

10The following table lists a few of the major features and components that are supported.

Stored Procedures

SQL Server Configuration Manager

Views

Replication (as a subscriber only)

Triggers

Advanced Query Optimizer

Cursors

SMO/RMO

sqlcmd and osql utilities

Integration with Visual Studio 2005

Snapshot Isolation Levels

Service Broker (as a client only)¹

Native XML support, including XQuery and XML Schemas

SQL CLR

Transact-SQL language support

Multiple Active Result Sets (MARS)

Dedicated Administrator Connection²

Import/Export Wizard

SQL Server Express supports Service Broker, but direct communication between two SQL Server Express servers is not supported. The Dedicated Administrator Connection feature for SQL Server Express is supported with the trace flag 7806.

Oracle Database 11g

11Oracle Database is the only database designed for grid computing. With the release of Oracle Database 11g, Oracle is making the management of enterprise information easier than ever; enabling customers to know more about their business and innovate more quickly. Oracle Database 11g delivers superior performance, scalability, availability, security and ease of management on a low-cost grid of industry standard storage and servers. Oracle Database 11g is designed to be effectively deployed on everything from small blade servers to the biggest SMP servers and clusters of all sizes.

Herein combination series, study how significant latest features such as Flashback Data, Archive Database Replay, and SecureFiles work through easy, actionable how-to's and taster code.

It features computerized management abilities for simple, cost-effective operation. Oracle Database 11g's unique ability to run all data from conventional business information to XML and 3D spatial information makes it the perfect choice to power transaction processing, data warehousing, and content management applications.

Replay database tools, such as allows capturing the production workload and repeating the test database or stilling the same database to assess the effects of modifies.

As a whole, Oracle Database 11g builds database infrastructure distance further capable, flexible, and convenient. For instance, the compelling new features in the area of partitioning ease the design and management of partitioned tables hugely.

MySQL 5.1

MySQL 5.1 is the newest of the MySQL releases--with 5.1.7, the most recent it has just progressed from alpha to beta status. [12] The following features have been included to MySQL 5.1.

Partitioning.  This capability enables distributing portions of individual tables across a file system, according to rules which can be set when the table is created. In effect, different portions of a table are stored as separate tables in different locations, but from the user point of view, the partitioned table is still a single table.

Row-based replication.  Replication capabilities in MySQL originally were based on propagation of SQL statements from master to slave. This is called statement-based replication.

Plugin API.  MySQL 5.1 adds support for a very flexible plug-in API that enables loading and unloading of various components at runtime, without restarting the server. Although the work on this is not finished yet, plug-in full-text parsers are a first step in this direction. This allows users to implement their own input filter on the indexed text, enabling full-text search capability on arbitrary data such as PDF files or other document formats.

Event scheduler.  MySQL Events are tasks that run according to a schedule. When you create an event, you are creating a named database object containing one or more SQL statements to be executed at one or more regular intervals, beginning and ending at a specific date and time.

Server log tables.  Before MySQL 5.1, the server writes general query log and slow query log entries to log files. As of MySQL 5.1, the server's logging capabilities for these logs are more flexible. Log entries can be written to log files (as before) or to the general log and slow log tables in the mysql database. If logging is enabled, either or both destinations can be selected. The --log-output option controls the destination or destinations of log output.

Upgrade program.  The mysql_upgrade program (available as of MySQL 5.1.7) checks all existing tables for incompatibilities with the current version of MySQL Server and repairs them if necessary. This program should be run for each MySQL upgrade.

MySQL Cluster.  MySQL Cluster is now released as a separate product, based on MySQL 5.1 but with the addition of the NDBCLUSTER storage engine. Some of the changes in MySQL Cluster since MySQL 5.0 are listed here:

MySQL Cluster replication. 

MySQL Cluster disk data storage. 

Improved backups for MySQL Cluster.

IBM DB2

DB2 is regard as by many to have been the earliest database product to use SQL (as well build up by IBM) while Oracle released a commercial SQL database product rather before than IBM did.

13IBM's DB2 database software is a leader in database scalability, reliability, multimedia extensibility, and Web enablement needed for the most demanding e-business applications," said Boris Nalbach, CTO (Chief Technical Officer) The executive responsible for the technical direction of an organization.

DB2(R) move towards with a diversity of features that run on the server that can apply to increase or extend the applications. While use DB2 features, no need to write our own code to perform the same tasks. DB2 also allows storing some parts of our code at the server as an alternative of keeping all of it in the client application. This can have performance and maintenance benefits.

Here are features to protect data and to identify relationships between data. Additionally, here are object-relational features to build flexible, advanced applications. Some features can use in more than one way. For example, limitations enable to protect data and to identify relationships between data values. [14] There are several key DB2 features:

Constraints

User-defined types (UDTs) and large objects (LOBs)

User-defined functions (UDFs)

Triggers

Stored procedures

15To choose whether or not to apply DB2 features, consider the following points:

Application independence

Can make application independent of the data it processes. Using DB2 features that run at the database enables to maintain and change the logic surrounding the data without affecting the application. If, need to make a transform to that logic, require only to change it in one place at the server, and not in every application that accesses the data.

Performance

Make the application perform more quickly by storing and running parts of the application on the server. This modifies some processing to normally more powerful server machines, and can decrease network traffic between client application and the server.

Application requirements

Application might have unique logic that other applications don't have. For example, if application processes data entry errors in a particular order that would be unsuitable for other applications; this might want to write our own code to handle this situation.

Some cases, that may to decide using DB2 features to run on the server since they can be used by several applications. Others decide to keep logic in the application as it is used by your application only.

Comparison of the Features and Characteristics of DBMS Products

Developers and database administrators recognize significant differences in the database tools they are presently using. Oracle and IBM DB2 are considered considerably better than Microsoft Access, even though considerably more people use Microsoft Access.

16Information about what fundamental RDBMS features are implemented natively.

 Features

ACID  

Referential integrity  

Transactions  

Unicode  

Interface  

DB2

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

GUI & SQL

Microsoft Access

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

GUI & SQL

Microsoft SQL Server

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

GUI & SQL

MySQL

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

partial

SQL

Oracle

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

GUI & SQL

Oracle Rdb

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

SQL

Most of the features and functionality of SQL Server that supported by SQL Server Express.

17Table lists of some features and components that are supported as given below.

Stored Procedures

SQL Server Configuration Manager

Views

Replication (as a subscriber only)

Triggers

Advanced Query Optimizer

Cursors

SMO/RMO

sqlcmd and osql utilities

Integration with Visual Studio 2005

Snapshot Isolation Levels

Service Broker (as a client only)¹

Native XML support, including XQuery and XML Schemas

SQL CLR

Transact-SQL language support

Multiple Active Result Sets (MARS)

Dedicated Administrator Connection²

Import/Export Wizard

SQL Server Express supports Service Broker, but direct communication between two SQL Server Express servers is not supported. The following list highlights the major SQL Server components that are not supported in SQL Server Express:

Reporting Services

Notification Services

Integration Services

Analysis Services

Full text search

OLAP Services / Data Mining

Conclusion

18Different DBMS package has different features and capabilities. Most likely the most significant general features to consider in the DBMS chase are security-related. Reflect on whether the DBMS supports access by numerous users at once (multi-user support), which is a significant feature in many situations. If using RDBMS, be sure it features broad support for SQL. If going to be bound by the rigor of the relational model, should be at least be capable to take benefit of the entire area of its features. If using an object-oriented DBMS, support for the Object Database Management Group's (ODMG's) standards offers improved hope of porting code to other DBMS products. Apart from of the chosen model, language or platform, investigate what open standards there are for DBMS and look for these in the products under consideration.

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