Exploring Networking Principles Components Computer Science Essay

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It is a communications model that consumes the similar capabilities and can start a communication session. This network definitely has no central server. Every computer makes its own functions and may share certain resources with 75 additional users on the network. The whole thing in the network are equal to 'peers' which means they don't need a server role to play.

Peer to peer network is easily to install and always set up in home environment as well as minor businesses. But every computer need to be conserved individually that can lead to undependability inside the network.

The benefits or advantages and constraints of Peer to peer network.

Benefits

Constraints

Easy installation and configuration on the network.

The entire system is spread out and hardly to administer.

Every information are shared through the peers network.

Viruses can simply transmitted.

One peer fail to function doesn't gives any effect to other network, therefore it is more consistent.

Data recovery and backup is difficult therefore all computer that connects to this network must have its own backup system.

User can control their public information which makes every user is the administration for their computer.

Software is installed on each computer individually which takes up lots of time.

Cost of building and maintain is cheap.

Difficult to set up data structures as some private files maybe available to all the users.

The Client Server Network

It is a form of online network consist of of a single central computer performing as a server that leads to multiple other computers which is called clients. The clients can shared data saved on the computer. Moreover, the client server networks are the same generally to peer to peer networks but the difference is only the server that can start a particular transaction.

The client server network can be applied into a single computer system, but then again is most commonly applied over many different sites. Therefore, it is likely for multiple computers to join and share information.

Benefits

Disadvantages

There is centralized control which the servers help to administrate the whole set up. Access rights and resources sharing is done by the servers.

Too many requests from clients will result in congestion which can lead to breaking down of servers.

Every files is stored in the same place that makes it easily to search for.

Client server is not strong therefore if one server is fail, the whole network cannot be function.

If incase data is lost, it can be easily recovered efficiently which makes data easy to back up.

To maintain the server and technical details of the network, they need professional network people.

Server can play different roles for different clients.

Expansive to setup and manage

Security and access rights can be done during the set up of the server.

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How Star Tropology is different from the Ring and Bus topologies.

Star tropology involve of a central nodes to which all other nodes are connected to central device called hub. The hub then will receives a signal that comes from any node and then passes it to all the other nodes in the network. While the data on a star network will be going through the hub, switch, or concentrator before proceed to its endpoint. This star topology will decreases the chance of network failure by linking all of the systems to a central node.

When a building is wired with a star topology, faced cables radiate out from the center to intermediate connection point to wiring cables. This will lets sufficient connection point to be provided for one sub area, while providing flexibility in their allocation within that area.

This is the advantages and disadvantages of using the Star topology.

Advantages

Disadvantages

Easily to manage and locate the problems

Always needs very long cable length when connecting many nodes

More easier to expand

If hub connector fails, nodes that is attached are not available.

Easy to install and wire

More expansive because cost of concentrators.

Easy to detect faults and to remove parts

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Failure of one workstation does not affect the entire network

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The Ring network in every device will have just two neighbors for communication purposes. Every communications will go through a ring in the similar way. If there is failure in any cable or device, it will breakdown the loop and can take shutdown the whole network. To implement a ring network we use the Token Ring technology or small data packet, is always passed around the network. While a device wants to transmit, it reserves the token for the next following trip around, and at that point it will attach its data packet to it.

The advantages and disadvantages of Ring topology is as follows:

Advantages

Disadvantages

The capability to reach transmission rates of the order of 10 million bits per second

The breakdown of a single node can affect all network to fail.

More easily to accomplish.

Changes or any movement made to the nodes will affects the performance of the whole network.

Better communications over long distances.

Finding fault is difficult.

Handles high volume of traffic

Isolation of fault is not easy.

No central server which reduces the cost of creating the ring topology

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The Bus topology is the backbone to link all devices. A single cable, the backbone functions as a public communication that devices attach or tap into with an interface connector. The device that wants to connect with another device on the network will sends a transmission communication onto the wire that all other devices see, but only the intended receiver actually accepts and processes the communication. To keep the signal that is send to all computers, from bouncing back and forth along the cable, a terminator will be put at the end of the cable. Only one computer can send data at a time, so the many the computers, the slower the transmission will be. This bus topology is the most popular along the LANs because they are cheap and easy to install.

This is the advantages and disadvantages of using Bus Topology:

Advantages

Disadvantages

Cheap and simple

Fault diagnosis is difficult

Only need short cable length

Fault isolation is hard because the entire segment of the bus must be disconnected to isolated the fault.

Easy to expand the network

Cable length is limited.

No risks of data collision since one computer transmit at a time

It can perform well only for a limited number of nodes.

Perfect for one to many data transmission

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Signal on the cable are bidirectional hence reaches all the nodes

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Locating cable fault is easy

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Task 2: Evaluate the impact of current network technology, communication as standards.

Task 3: Discuss the role of software and hardware components.

Windows Server System

Windows Server refers to every kind of server instance that is installed, operated and managed through the Windows Server family of operating systems. Windows Server shows and also offers the same capability, structures as well as operating mechanism of a normal server operating system and is created on the Windows NT architecture.

Windows Server is usually capable of providing server-oriented services, for example the capability to host a website, user management, resource management across users and applications, messaging, security and authorization. Windows Server software includes, Windows 2000 Server, Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows HPC Server 2008, Windows Server 2008 R2 and Windows Server 8.

How Windows Server System is different from Workstation System.

Windows Server System device that make service for connected clients as part of client server architecture. Furthermore, it can be a computer system that has been selected to runs a specific server application . It can also serve applications to users on an intranet. A workstation could also contain special audio, video, or processing cards for distinct editing work.

The Workstation is a personal computer that is used for high end applications such as graphic design, video editing, CAD, 3-D design, or other CPU and RAM intensive programs. Typically, it has a top of the line, fast processor, multiple hard drives, and a lot of RAM memory.

A workstation is promoted by computer manufacturers to professional users, while the server is more of a usefulness device.

The differences in function is that the servers save files such as html, images, video and applications accessible online for the client computer to use. Several computers is allow to share applications or an internet connection.

The function of a workstation is to complete high end applications for example, graphic design, video editing and many more.

The Workstations are mainly to be used by one person at a time. Even though they can regularly be accessed remotely by other users when needed. But, the Servers work on the task of linking the user and generally will have no single user.

The different between server operating system and workstation operating system.

About the setup:

Computer servers come using enough memory for maintenance anywhere from two to hundreds workstations as well as a hard drive have large space to store applications that are large enough to support the same.

Workstations originated with plenty memory and hard drive space to support one system.

The Applications

One computer server will store internet capability, databases and intranet hosting that the other workstations will save the information. One computer workstation houses a portion of the application is create on the server enough to operate smaller projects.

The Uses 

The Servers will maintain banking, education, governmental and private home networking structures. While the workstations work on the information or data found in those structures.

The Operating Systems 

Servers can run off a Windows, Linux or Unix constructed by operating systems. On the other hand, the workstations characteristically run off the similar operating system with the server does.

The Access 

Individual network administrators, system administrators, or other system security personnel are acceptable to access to business servers. Workstation access is decided by the individual sources through network administrators.

Task 4: Discuss server types and selection requirements.

Database Server

Database server refers to a server dedicated to provide database services. A database server normally can be seen in a client-server environment where it delivers information required by the client systems. Using a database server, every data of the organization is kept in one location.

The Database server , a will client perform SQL requests to the database server. Moreover, in all theories of the Database server serves its own power to produces the request or search the requested result. The Database server some time also known as SQL engine.

Every and each database functions are organized by the database server. Several type of computer can be used as database server. It could be microcomputer, minicomputer as well as mainframe computer. The mainframe computers are used as server in a large organizational businesses.

The Database server manages the recovery security services of the Database Management System. It carry out the limitations that are specified inside the Database Management System. It controls as well as manages each clients that are connected to it. This will handle all database access and control functions. Several users can access the database at the same time. The whole data is stored on the data server therefore, the Database administrator can easily form the backup of the database.

Database Software and Hardware requirements:

The processor needs minimum of 2GHz or higher.

The memory will have minimum of 1.5GB RAM but if for the best result users also can use the 2GB RAM.

Disk space minimum of 2GB required for product package installation and the resources that users develop.

The display must be 1024 x 786 display minimum using 256 colors or more for the better outcome.

Use the Eclipse and JDK versions. This version of the product was developed for use with Eclipse 3.4.2, using the IBM® JDK 1.6 SR 5. These versions are included with the product package.

While considering a databases in the client-server model, the database server could be the back-end of the database application or could be the hardware computer that hosts the instance. Occasionally, it might referring to the mixture of both hardware and software.

In mid-sized installation, the hardware database server normally host the server part of the software application that uses the database. This request will connect to the database through specific ports and use inter-process communication to log into as well as to access the data local in the database.

However, in the large setups, there might be like one computer will be unable to handle the load the capacity of connections. A database software will exist in a dedicated computer, and the application on another.

Web Server

A Web server is a program that, using the client server model and the World Wide Web's Hypertext Transfer Protocol ( HTTP ), serves the files that form Web pages to Web users. All the computer on the Internet that contains a Web site must have a Web server program. Two leading Web servers are Apache , the most widely-installed Web server, and Microsoft's Internet Information Server ( IIS ). Other Web servers include Novell's Web Server for users of its NetWare operating system and IBM's family of Lotus Domino servers, primarily for IBM'sOS/390 and AS/400 customers.

Web servers usually arise as a part of a larger package of Internet- and intranet linked to software package for serving e-mail, downloading requests for File Transfer Protocol ( FTP ) files, and building also publishing Web pages. Considerations in choosing a Web server include exactly how good it works with the operating system, its ability to handle server-side programming, security characteristics, and publishing, search engine, and site building tools that might come with it.

Function of web server

AddHeader

Offer by the Web Server. ISAPI filters call this function to add an HTTP header to the outgoing response.

AddResponseHeaders

Offer also by the Web Server. ISAPI filters call this function to add a header to the HTTP response.

AllocMem

Offer by the Web Server. ISAPI filters call this function to allocate memory from the process heap to a buffer.

GetExtensionVersion

This function is called by the Web Server when the ISAPI extension is first loaded for the function name defined by the header.

GetFilterVersion

This function is the main entry-point function offer by the Web Server on your ISAPI filter, and must be present for the filter to work correctly.

GetHeader

Offer by the Web Server. ISAPI filters call this function to retrieve a header from the Web Server.

GetServerVariable (ISAPI Extensions)

This is an application-defined function. ISAPI extensions call this function to save information about an HTTP connection about the Windows Embedded CE Web Server itself.

GetServerVariable (ISAPI Filters)

This is an application-defined function. ISAPI filters call this function to save information about an HTTP connection or about the Windows Embedded CE Web Server.

HttpExtensionProc

This is an application-defined function. It is the core entry point for an ISAPI extension called by the Web Server.

HttpFilterProc

This function is called whenever a notification event for which the filter has registered (in GetFilterVersion) occurs.

ReadClient

This is an application-defined function. ISAPI extensions call this function to read data from the body of the client's HTTP request.

ServerSupportFunction (ISAPI Extensions)

This is offers by the Web Server. This callback function is supplied in the extension control block that is related with the current HTTP request.

ServerSupportFunction (ISAPI Filters)

This callback function is offers by the Web Server. ISAPI filters call this function to achieve a wide variety of tasks.

Hardware and Software

Apache HTTP Server

This software is created under the Apache license, which makes it free and open source.

Apache is accessible for a range of operating systems, including Unix, Linux, Novell Netware, Windows, Mac OS X, Solaris, and FreeBSD.

Microsoft Internet Information Services (IIS)

This comes as an possible component of most Windows operating systems. IIS can be install by using Add/Remove Windows Components from Add or Remove Programs in the Control Panel.

Sun Java System Web Server

Based on the Sun One Web Server, the Sun Java System Web Server is designed for average to huge business applications. Sun Java System Web Server is available for most operating systems.

File server

A file server is a computer in charge for the essential storage as well as the management of data files and the computer on the similar network can view the files. It lets users to share the data without physically moving from one to another computer. Whichever computer can be organized to be a hos as well as to act as a file server. A program or instrument that allows the required processes for file allocation is also refer to a file server.

File Server can be used to provide load-balancing between server and also can be used as a storage server to store important documents. Print devices also can be joined to a Print Server and then shared as a single printer.

File Server Software & Hardware.

Windows Server 2008 R2 Standard/Enterprise/ Datacenter

Twisted pair 32bit / 1GB or better Ethernet cards

Twisted pair switch with sufficient ports

Cabling - Ethernet level 5 or 6 twisted pair be centrally shared through a Print Server.

The thing to consider in File server is when in a Windows® environment, the file server must both be a member of the identical domain as the management server besides having a trust relationship with that domain.The management server must require complete reading or write access to the share. The user ID as well as the password that were used to install IBM®Director Server have to be also exists on the file server. If not, the software uses have to runs from the management server. The share need to let read access to every managed systems that need to access the share. If the file-distribution server is organized as an FTP server, users can pick to use FTP when relocating packages from the management server to the share. Users also can allow null credentials to access the share so that they don't have to identify a user ID and password for every managed system or group that needs to access the share. In condition to users don't want null credentials, the user have to install operating-system account on the file server. This account need to read access to the share and also to enter the user ID and password to arrange distribution preferences for managed systems.

Task 5: Discuss the inter-dependence of workstation hardware with network components.

Network Interface Card

A Network Interface Card (NIC) is a device that lets computers to be combined together in a network, naturally a Local Area Network (LAN). Networked computers communicate with each other using a specific protocol for transferring data packets among the different machines or nodes. The network interface card acts as an translator, letting the machine to mutually send and obtain data on a LAN. Information Technology (IT) specialists frequently use these cards to setup wired or wireless networks.

Function and Purpose of an NIC

After building a LAN, a network interface card is set up in every single computer on the network and must use the same architecture such as Ethernet cards, Token Ring cards, or an alternate technology. An Ethernet network interface card is set up in an existing slot inside the computer, classically on the motherboard. The NIC allocates a unique Media Access Control (MAC) address to the machine, that is used to direct traffic amongst the computers on a network. Network cards as well change data starting at parallel format, used by computers, to a serial format necessary in data transfers and then back again to accept the data.

Wired Networks

A card's back plate structures a port that turns a data cable, such as an Ethernet cable, that runs from every NIC to a central hub or switch. The hub acts like a transmission, passing data among the computers through their MAC addresses as well as let them to share assets like printers and scanners. Furthermore, in a wired network, a cable actually joins each computer to each other or to a hub.

Wireless Networks

Wireless cards are installed like their wired counterparts, but rather than a port for a cable, the card features a small antenna. The NIC interconnects with a central wireless switch or hub via radio waves. Wireless LANs are frequently suitable, but might have several limitations depending on the material a structure is made from.

Choosing the Right NIC

When purchasing components for a LAN, it is essential to ensure that the NICs and hub or switch have the similar abilities. The whole network must be either wired or wireless, except if components are specifically chosen that have both functionalities. In addition, different versions of hardware usually support new features plus greater data speeds than older tools.

How a network without Network Interface Card

Several NIC cards work with wired connections although others are wireless. Most NICs support either wired Ethernet or WiFi wireless standards. Ethernet NICs plug into the system bus of the PC and contain jacks for network cables, while WiFi NICs contain built-in transmitters .

Without it, users cannot access to the internet at all because there is NIC connected around the area. There is no signal receiver to transmit data.

Network switch

A network switch is a device that manages the involvement of numerous computers or networks on the matching data connection. A network switch not include hubs or repeaters, as these devices do not consist of every type of logical processors.

A network switch can support 10/100 Mbit/s or 10/100/1000 Mbit/s port transfer rates. It is likely to have numerous network switches operating at diverse speeds on the same network. On the other hand, this form of setup gives itself to bottlenecks and restricts the potential routes available for the flow of data.

The network switch functions as the traffic management system within the network, directing data packets to the correct destination. These devices are used to link minor devices to the network as well as to make sure the full cost effectiveness and the ability to share properties.

The characteristic to setup of a network switch is two computers, one printer, and a wireless router. Every devices are connected to the network switch, and each item have to be clearly well-known and connection rules produced.

When the setup is complete, every computer on the network, will use the similar printer. They also can transfer files to each other and anyone with a wireless card can access the network, print and transfer files. The network switch is intended to let the resources to be shared without decreasing performance.

Network Cable

Network cable is used to connect and transfer data among computers and a network. The best popular used types of network cable are the twisted pair, coaxial, Ethernet cross over, and fiber optic.

The unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cable is used in several Ethernet networks. Each pair of wires that is housed inside of the lining cable is twisted into some additional rotations to prevent interfering from new devices on the network. The arrangement of this type of cable increases its consistency as well as it helps to reduce network disasters.

Coaxial cable, or coax, is a different common type of network cable. It has a copper conductor in its center and a plastic coating serves as an insulator among the center conductor and also a metal shield. The cable is then protected with a coating. The thicker the coating which less pliable affords extra shield.

Ethernet crossover cable is used to connect a computer network made up of two or more computers. This kind of network cable rejects the need for network switches or routers. The cable also let the computers to be connected with their network adaptors, such as the network interface card (NIC).

Fiber optic network cables are used for networks that extent large distance. This category of cabling has some layers of protecting coating. It also transmits light as opposed to electrical signals like other cables. Furthermore, fiber optic is as well transmits data at high speeds and is therefore used in large network environments.

As wireless networks become more and more popular, network cable is becoming less necessary. Still, many systems, especially large scale systems, continue to rely on network cables.

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