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This paper is based on Emerging technologies and their impact on business and society. Basically an Emerging technology is an advanced technology which is under the process of testing. During this process a basic version of this technology is build and is tested in that particular laboratory. If that technology is successful then, initially it is released in small scale. If that technology is successful even in small scales then the company plans to launch that particular technology in large scale . There are many kinds of emerging technologies in different areas. Two types of Emerging technologies are chosen and explained in this paper they are: (i) Robotics in surgery (ii) Panel - The Future Car: Technology, Method and Tools
These two are some of the technologies which are leading technologies and have a large amount of impact on society and business. The paper is divided into several parts and explains about the two emerging technologies (Robotics in surgery and the future car- technology, method and tools) in detail about how they affect the society and business. Emerging technologies have some advantages and also disadvantages which are discussed in the further part. Finally these topics are concluded in the fifth part by summarizing what we have discussed in the paper.
The organisation of this paper shows about Emerging technologies and the impact of the emerging technology on the society and the business. Emerging technology is an advanced technique which is being tested under the laboratory circumstances. If that implementation is successful then that is released in the market. Here we are going to discuss about the two emerging technologies one is robotics in surgery which deals with the mechanism performing the surgeries more efficiently with the latest technologies. Not only in the surgeries but robotics is used in many fields to perform large amount of work more accurately while consuming very less time. Even this technology is implemented in movies to give knowledge about this technology about how to utilise these facilities and how these machines are useful in daily routine and this created more impact society as well as business.
The another technology which is explained in this paper is about the Future care, its technology and tools in which it deals with the new technology which is implemented in the market and about to give magical profits in the market. We are going to discuss about the car or the technology which is implemented in the car and also discuss about how these technology is affected in the society as well as the business perspectives. Here we are going to see about the electric cars, there functionality, model and how they attract the customers towards itself. By using electric cars we can save fuel resources and save the environment by reducing the amount of toxic materials.
Keywords: Robotics, Surgeon, Surgeries, Paediatric, Cardiac, Electric Car, Battery, Nickel metal
2. Emerging Technology on Robotics in Surgery
Here we are going to discuss about our first emerging technology "Robotics in surgery". Robotics is a vast subject. It deals with the concept of artificial intelligence. The first thing which will flash in our mind when we say "robotics" is a Robot i.e. a machine which exactly works like a human. Many scientific movies have been directed on this topic (for an example Irobot) to give knowledge to society about the technology helps in serving the public. By this technology there has been a lot of impact on the society and on the business system. Robotic surgery is a new and stimulating technology. By this technology the surgical profession has been raised like a storm .
Previously for many decades the surgeries are done by hands or some handheld equipment to operate patients. Later in the year 1994 US Drug Administration sanctioned first robotic surgery and it was successful. From that time most of the surgeries are operated by the new technology. There are already 200-400 surgical robotic machines are functioning in USA from the past decade . Robotic devices have more of marketing role than the practical role . The following diagram shows how the robotics in surgery has been raised from the year 1994 to 2003 .
The instrument which is shown consists is used in robotis surgery and are driven by the cables. These cables are activated by the computer console.rendering artful ability that corresponds the human hand and wrist.The surgeon seems to be like an organist , his hands looks like that he is operating some joy stick which activates the excact instrument and the foot pedals are operated by the surgeon to shift from one instrument to another. When we come to the visual compontent, it consists of camera which give a clear vison and it is a signifiacnt improvement over schematic laproscopic surgery. It has an additional feature like the image is magnified , so that the surgen can operte more precisely while sitting ina comfortable position.
2.1 The impact of Robotics in surgery on business
When we look at the business perspective the robotic surgery is one of the most efficient technologies which became very famous in quick period of time. Many machines are invented in performing the surgeries and almost 200 to 400 machines are used in performing the surgeries in United States. They are used in some fields like General Surgery, Pediatric Surgery, Urologic Surgery, Cardiac Surgery etc. These are most surgeries which are operated by the surgeons in the hospitals. Initially all these surgeries are done by the hand and some common handheld devices. It used to be very difficult for the surgeons to operate and used to take many hours for a single surgery. When this technology is implemented, most of the surgeries are successful and are most affective in operating. There are some other benefits which made impact on business, these machines consists of Three dimensional vision which helps to view the image more clearly and magnified, Improved dexterity which reduces the finger and wrist movements for the surgeon, it also decreased tremor by which the machine smoothes the hand movements, Increased surgical comfort and Tele-surgical capability which allows to send the instructions from computer console to the remote location. All these features made the hospitals to purchase these machines and use them for making surgeries more successfully; this made a great impact on e-business system. In today's competitive market many health care organisations are making themselves to treat the patient in most advanced technological instruments and new treatments are given to them, by doing so they can capture healthcare market.
2.2 The impact of Robotics in surgery on society
When we look on society perspective view, even though by implementing robotic surgery and new techniques, it is completely based upon the customer whether to accept that technology or not. If that technology is successful they can believe that it is safe and gives successful results. There are some issues which impact on the society. The cost of the equipment ranges from 1 to 1.5 million dollars and the treatment is so costly at an ordinary man cannot afford such a costly treatment. Proper training is given for the surgeon to operate the instrument if the field is to advance otherwise patients life can be in danger. Some of the benefits by using robotic surgery are : while performing surgery there is no need of cutting the body in huge amount, it just make a small hole and cables are sent into the body and surgery is done. By the life risk of the person is low, loss of blood is not much when compare to the normal surgery, wound is cured very quickly and the patient can do his normal activities in a short period of time. It takes very long time to operate but can solve the problem very affectively. Mobility of the machine has been improved now a days. Previously they are very large and they can be used only in a particular area but now the technology has been improved and they can be shifted anywhere and operated. Mobility of the instrument increases when the foot print of the devices is smaller.
3. Emerging Technology on Future Car technologies , methods and tools
One of the most and famous emerging technology is Electric car technology which is already been implemented around for a number of years and now a new technical innovations and advantages on tax are increased while the popularity of the technology is increased. These cars are supplied with DC or AC electric motor which gets it power supply from onboard battery packs which stores the energy. Generally batteries are made of Nickel metal or Lithium-ion and they are charged by giving connection to the main power supply. Usually we need to charge for overnight for obtained full charge. The new method which is implemented on the modern cars is regenerative braking.
Vehicles at present in UK are two seated cars which are very small and light weighted however four seated cars are being introduced in the upcoming season. These cars can range from 40 to 100 miles with a speed of 25 to 45mph this helps the customers fave by London city and as there are congestion charges in London city we can make large amount of savings . These electric cars are zero emission and have many tax benefits and they never need to fill the petrol. During the charging itself the emissions are produced and this can get over by use of renewable energy supplier. The below picture shows an electric car which is about to release in the market by the Nissan company. It is named as NISSAN LEAF .
There are large number of automobile companies which are planning to implement this electric car technology to manufacture in more attractive design and release in the competitive market. This competition is because of the impact on the environment. Before we are going to discuss about the electric cars we will look at some key characteristics.
Some of the main key characteristics are : (i) Zero emission power (ii) Typical design (iii) Low priced (iv) Autonomy ranges about 160 km (100 miles) (v) Connected mobility in the system.
These cars do not have any tail pipe and hence there is no emission of Carbon dioxide or any green house gases which helps in protection of the environment. When we look at the business perspective we need to satisfy all the needs of the customer to grow in this competitive market. These cars are very affordable so that it can attract many customers in the market. So the primary part is satisfied by the company to attract the customers. Next comes the design part, it have a very unique design and very much attractive as the example of the NISSAN LEAF is shown in the above diagram. An example for the design structure of an electric car is shown below, which consists of a light weighted body with electric motor in it.
The main concept here in these cars is to make an alternative of fuel consumption as in the future there may be a scarcity of the oil and to reduce the problem of pollution. There are also many advantages by using these electric cars in the big cities like there won't be any parking problem in largely populated countries. The Above model of NANO LEAF is about to release at the end of the year 2010 in the Japan, United States and European countries. This increases customers and gains profits of that company.
By introducing these electric cars, it has been a strong impact on the society. We can get a clear picture about the impact of these cars on the market. An example is shown in the below graph from the year 2004 to 2009.
We can look at the clear picture how the sale of the electric cars have been raised from that last five years and it has become peak in the year 2008  due to high oil prices in the market. These electric cars are manufactured by many automobile companies and the above pictures are taken from the NISSAN Company. This is a car which is about to release by the end of this year. The technology which is used in the design of the car is tailor made in such a way that the product is available with a very low cost. The availability of such type of cars with a very low price makes impact on the customer and attracts them towards the product. The pollution is almost all zero by these electric cars and there are not harmful gases released (co2). This makes a large difference and makes this electric car unique from the other cars. By this we can decrease some amount of pollution which is caused by the oil vehicles. In the developing countries and large populated countries they generally go for purchasing motor bikes as they give more mileage and low price to purchase. By releasing these cars into market the people are attracted towards these cars as they can purchase a car with the (approximately) same price of the motor bike. By using these cars in the market we can decrease the consumption of the world's fuel. By this we can save and improve the fuel resources across the world. There are also some other cars like NANO which is introduced by the Tata motors, one of the smallest car with a very low price and high mileage. It is completely different from other cars and the technology used in it created a history in Indian market. It is also a small car just like an electric car and releases a very minute amount co2 gas, which is almost negligible. As we all know a saying that "Too much is too bad" even though there are minute gases released, if the percentage of the cars increases then the minute amount becomes larger and leads to the pollution again in the environment.
By the above technologies we can conclude that there may be some errors in the technology initially but later these can be reduced by enhancing the new techniques in the methods, in case of robotics we can develop lighter machines which have more mobility and new technologies like performing the surgery accurately in less amount of time etc. While in the other case electric cars are two seated but four seated are being implemented and released soon and speed of the car can be improved and also the life of the battery. By the above discussed technologies we can say that they are very much useful in our human life even though they some minor disadvantages they can overcome in the future.