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A voltmeter finds its importance wherever voltage is to be measured. A voltmeter is an instrument used for measuring the electrical potential difference between two points in an electric circuit. Analog voltmeters move a pointer across a scale in proportion to the voltage of the circuit. General purpose analog voltmeters may have an accuracy of a few per cent of full scale, and are used with voltages from a fraction of a volt to several thousand volts.
Digital voltmeters give a numerical display of voltage by use of analog to digital converter. Digital meters can be made with high accuracy, typically better than 1%. Specially calibrated test instruments have higher accuracies, with laboratory instruments capable of measuring to accuracies of a few parts per million. Meters using amplifiers can measure tiny voltages of micro-volts or less. Digital voltmeters (DVMs) are usually designed around a special type of analog-to-digital converter called an integrating converter. Voltmeter accuracy is affected by many factors, including temperature and supply voltage variations. To ensure that a digital voltmeter’s reading is within the manufacturer’s specified tolerances, they should be periodically calibrated. Digital voltmeters necessarily have input amplifiers, and, like vacuum tube voltmeters, generally have a constant input resistance of 10 mega-ohms regardless of set measurement range.
This project aims at building a Digital Voltmeter using an 8051 microcontroller. All the data accessed and processed by the microcontroller is the digital data. And thus, the usage of an analog-to-digital converter finds its necessity here. A standard analog-to-digital converter ADC0804 is used in the current project. The input voltage (which is the analog input) is restricted to be in the range of 0-15V. The processed data in the 8051 is used to drive a display output on a LCD display unit. The display is in the form of digits and is accurate to a value of one decimal. The input voltage is desired to be that of a DC voltage for steady observations of the voltage value on the LCD panel. Rather, if an AC input voltage is given at the input terminals, the output varies indefinitely as is the nature of AC voltage. Thus, the instantaneous value of the AC voltage is not steadily shown on the LCD panel.
Following is the entire set of the components used to build the Digital Voltmeter:
Analog-to-Digital Converter, ADC0804
Oscillator circuit for the microcontroller
12MHz Crystal Capacitor
Voltage divider circuit/ Input terminals
200k, 100k Resistors
ADC Clock Circuit
100k Potentiometer (to adjust the back-light of the LCD)
Description of the Components used
Microcontroller, AT89S52 ƒ
The AT89S51 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 4K bytes of In-System Programmable Flash memory. The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high-density non-volatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry-standard 80C51 instruction set and pin-out. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional non-volatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with In-System Programmable Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89S51 is a powerful microcontroller which provides a highly-flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications. The AT89S51 provides the following standard features: 4K bytes of Flash, 128 bytes of RAM, 32 I/O lines, Watchdog timer, two data pointers, two 16-bit timer/counters, a five-vector two-level interrupt architecture, a full duplex serial port, on-chip oscillator, and clock circuitry.
In addition, the AT89S51 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes. The Idle mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial port, and interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power-down mode saves the RAM con-tents but freezes the oscillator, disabling all other chip functions until the next external interrupt or hardware reset.
Pin configuration of the AT89S52 is as follows:
VCC Supply voltage.
Port 0 Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain bi-directional I/O port. As an output port, each pin can sink eight TTL inputs. When 1s are written to port 0 pins, the pins can be used as high-impedance inputs. Port 0 can also be configured to be the multiplexed low-order address/data bus during accesses to external program and data memory. In this mode, P0 has internal pull-ups. Port 0 also receives the code bytes during Flash programming and outputs the code bytes during program verification. External pull-ups are required during program verification.
Port 1 Port 1 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 1 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins, they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 1 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. Port 1 also receives the low-order address bytes during Flash programming and verification.
P1.5 MOSI (used for In-System Programming)
P1.6 MISO (used for In-System Programming)
P1.7 SCK (used for In-System Programming)
Port 2 Port 2 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 2 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 2 pins, they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 2 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. Port 2 emits the high-order address byte during fetches from external program memory and during accesses to external data memory that use 16-bit addresses (MOVX @ DPTR). In this application, Port 2 uses strong internal pull-ups when emitting 1s. During accesses to external data memory that use 8-bit addresses (MOVX @ RI), Port 2 emits the contents of the P2 Special Function Register. Port 2 also receives the high-order address bits and some control signals during Flash programming and verification.
Port 3 Port 3 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 3 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins, they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 3 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the pull-ups. Port 3 receives some control signals for Flash programming and verification. Port 3 also serves the functions of various special features of the AT89S51, as shown in the following table.
Alternate functions of port 3,
P3.0 RXD (serial input port)
P3.1 TXD (serial output port)
P3.2 INT0 (external interrupt 0)
P3.3 INT1 (external interrupt 1)
P3.4 T0 (timer 0 external input)
P3.5 T1 (timer 1 external input)
P3.6 WR (external data memory write strobe)
P3.7 RD (external data memory read strobe)
RST Reset input. A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the device. This pin drives High for 98 oscillator periods after the Watchdog times out. The DIS-RTO bit in SFR AUXR (address 8EH) can be used to disable this feature. In the default state of bit DISRTO, the RESET HIGH out feature is enabled.
ALE/PROG Address Latch Enable (ALE) is an output pulse for latching the low byte of the address during accesses to external memory. This pin is also the program pulse input (PROG) during Flash programming. In normal operation, ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator frequency and may be used for external timing or clocking purposes. Note, however, that one ALE pulse is skipped during each access to external data memory. If desired, ALE operation can be disabled by setting bit 0 of SFR location 8EH. With the bit set, ALE is active only during a MOVX or MOVC instruction. Otherwise, the pin is weakly pulled high. Setting the ALE-disable bit has no effect if the microcontroller is in external execution mode.
PSEN Program Store Enable (PSEN) is the read strobe to external program memory. When the AT89S51 is executing code from external program memory, PSEN is activated twice each machine cycle, except that two PSEN activations are skipped during each access to external data memory.
EA/VPP External Access Enable. EA must be strapped to GND in order to enable the device to fetch code from external program memory locations starting at 0000H up to FFFFH. Note, however, that if lock bit 1 is programmed, EA will be internally latched on reset. EA should be strapped to VCC for internal program executions. This pin also receives the 12-volt programming enable voltage (VPP) during Flash programming.
XTAL1 Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit.
XTAL2 Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier.
Program Memory: – If the EA pin is connected to GND, all program fetches are directed to external memory. On the AT89S51, if EA is connected to VCC, program fetches to addresses 0000H through FFFH are directed to internal memory and fetches to addresses 1000H through FFFFH are directed to external memory.
Data Memory: – The AT89S51 implements 128 bytes of on-chip RAM. The 128 bytes are accessible via direct and indirect addressing modes. Stack operations are examples of indirect addressing, so the 128 bytes of data RAM are available as stack space.
Interrupts: – The AT89S51 has a total of five interrupt vectors: two external interrupts (INT0 and INT1), two timer interrupts (Timers 0 and 1), and the serial port interrupt. Each of these interrupt sources can be individually enabled or disabled by setting or clearing a bit in Special Function Register IE. IE also contains a global disable bit, EA, which disables all interrupts at once. The Timer 0 and Timer 1 flags, TF0 and TF1, are set at S5P2 of the cycle in which the timers overflow. The values are then polled by the circuitry in the next cycle.
The ADC080X family are CMOS 8-Bit, successive approximation A/D converters which use a modified potentiometric ladder and are designed to operate with the 8080A control bus via three-state outputs. These converters appear to the processor as memory locations or I/O ports, and hence no interfacing logic is required. The differential analog voltage input has good common-mode-rejection and permits offsetting the analog zero input voltage value. In addition, the voltage reference input can be adjusted to a low encoding any smaller analog voltage span to the full 8 bits of resolution.
The functional diagram of the ADC080X series of A/D converters operates on the successive approximation principle. Analog switches are closed sequentially by successive-approximation logic until the analog differential input voltage [VlN(+) – VlN(-)] matches a voltage derived from a tapped resistor string across the reference voltage. The most significant bit is tested first and after 8 comparisons (64 clock cycles), an 8- bit binary code (1111 1111 = full scale) is transferred to an output latch. The normal operation proceeds as follows. On the high-to-low transition of the WR input, the internal SAR latches and the shift-register stages are reset, and the INTR output will be set high. As long as the CS input and WR input remain low, the A/D will remain in a reset state. Conversion will start from 1 to 8 clock periods after at least one of these inputs makes a low to high transition. After the requisite number of clock pulses to complete the conversion, the INTR pin will make a high-to-low transition. This can be used to interrupt a processor, or otherwise signal the availability of a new conversion. A RD operation (with CS low) will clear the INTR line high again. The device may be operated in the free-running mode connecting INTR to the WR input with CS = 0. To ensure start-up under all possible conditions, an external WR pulse is required during the first power-up cycle. A conversion in process can be interrupted by issuing a second start command.
The converter is started by having CS and WR simultaneously low. This sets the start flip-flop (F/F) and the resulting “1” level resets the 8-bit shift register, resets the Interrupt (INTR) F/F and inputs a “1” to the D flip-flop, DFF1, which is at the input end of the 8-bit shift register. Internal clock signals then transfer this “1” to the Q output of DFF1. The AND gate, G1, combines this “1” output with a clock signal to provide a reset signal to the start F/F. If the set signal is no longer present (either WR or CS is a “1”), the start F/F is reset and the 8-bit shift register then can have the “1” clocked in, which starts the conversion process. If the set signal were to still be present, this reset pulse would have no effect (both outputs of the start F/F would be at a “1” level) and the 8-bit shift register would continue to be held in the reset mode. This allows for asynchronous or wide CS and WR signals. After the “1” is clocked through the 8-bit shift register (which completes the SAR operation) it appears as the input to DFF2. As soon as this “1” is output from the shift register, the AND gate, G2, causes the new digital word to transfer to the Three-State output latches. When DFF2 is subsequently clocked, the Q output makes a high-to-low transition which causes the INTR F/F to set. An inverting buffer then supplies the INTR output signal. When data is to be read, the combination of both CS and RD being low will cause the INTR F/F to be reset and the three state output latches will be enabled to provide the 8-bit digital outputs.
Digital Control Inputs
The digital control inputs (CS, RD, and WR) meet standard TTL logic voltage levels. These signals are essentially equivalent to the standard A/D Start and Output Enable control signals, and are active low to allow an easy interface to microprocessor control busses. For non-microprocessor based applications, the CS input (pin 1) can be grounded and the standard A/D Start function obtained by an active low pulse at the WR input (pin 3). The Output Enable function is achieved by an active low pulse at the RD input (pin 2).
The analog comparisons are performed by a capacitive charge summing circuit. Three capacitors (with precise ratioed values) share a common node with the input to an autozeroed comparator. The input capacitor is switched between VlN(+) and VlN(-), while two ratioed reference capacitors are switched between taps on the reference voltage divider string. The net charge corresponds to the weighted difference between the input and the current total value set by the successive approximation register. A correction is made to offset the comparison by 1/2 LSB.
Analog Differential Voltage Inputs and Common-
This A/D gains considerable applications flexibility from the analog differential voltage input. The VlN(-) input (pin 7) can be used to automatically subtract a fixed voltage value from the input reading (tare correction). This is also useful in 4mA – 20mA current loop conversion. In addition, common-mode noise can be reduced by use of the differential input. The time interval between sampling VIN(+) and VlN(-) is 41/2 clock periods. There is maximum error voltage due to this slight time difference between the input voltage samples.
The allowed range of analog input voltage usually places more severe restrictions on input common-mode voltage levels than this. An analog input voltage with a reduced span and a relatively large zero offset can be easily handled by making use of the differential input.
Analog Input Current
The internal switching action causes displacement currents to flow at the analog inputs. The voltage on the on-chip capacitance to ground is switched through the analog differential input voltage, resulting in proportional currents entering the VIN(+) input and leaving the VIN(-) input. These current transients occur at the leading edge of the internal clocks. They rapidly decay and do not inherently cause errors as the on-chip comparator is strobed at the end of the clock period.
Input Bypass Capacitors
Bypass capacitors at the inputs will average these charges and cause a DC current to flow through the output resistances of the analog signal sources. This charge pumping action is worse for continuous conversions with the VIN(+) input voltage at full scale. For a 640kHz clock frequency with the VIN(+) input at 5V, this DC current is at a maximum of approximately 5uA. Therefore, bypass capacitors should not be used at the analog inputs or the VREF/2 pin for high resistance sources (>1kOhm.) If input bypass capacitors are necessary for noise filtering and high source resistance is desirable to minimize capacitor size, the effects of the voltage drop across this input resistance, due to the average value of the input current, can be compensated by a full scale adjustment while the given source resistor and input bypass capacitor are both in place. This is possible because the average value of the input current is a precise linear function of the differential input voltage at a constant conversion rate.
Input Source Resistance
Large values of source resistance where an input bypass capacitor is not used will not cause errors since the input currents settle out prior to the comparison time. If a low-pass filter is required in the system, use a low-value series resistor for a passive RC section or add an op amp RC active low-pass filter. For low-source-resistance applications, a 0.1uF bypass capacitor at the inputs will minimize EMI due to the series lead inductance of a long wire. A 100Ohm series resistor can be used to isolate this capacitor (both the R and C are placed outside the feedback loop) from the output of an op amp, if used.
The leads to the analog inputs (pins 6 and 7) should be kept as short as possible to minimize stray signal pickup (EMI). Both EMI and undesired digital-clock coupling to these inputs can cause system errors. The source resistance for these inputs should, in general, be kept below 5kÎ©. Larger values of source resistance can cause undesired signal pickup. Input bypass capacitors, placed from the analog inputs to ground, will eliminate this pickup but can create analog scale errors as these capacitors will average the transient input switching currents of the A/D (see Analog Input Current). This scale error depends on both a large source resistance and the use of an input bypass capacitor. This error can be compensated by a full scale adjustment of the A/D (see Full Scale Adjustment) with the source resistance and input bypass capacitor in place, and the desired conversion rate.
Reference Voltage Span Adjust
For maximum application flexibility, these A/Ds have been designed to accommodate a 5V, 2.5V or an adjusted voltage reference. This has been achieved in the design of the IC. Notice that the reference voltage for the IC is either 1/2 of the voltage which is applied to the V+ supply pin, or is equal to the voltage which is externally forced at the VREF/2 pin. This allows for a pseudo-ratiometric voltage reference using, for the V+ supply, a 5V reference voltage. Alternatively, a voltage less than 2.5V can be applied to the VREF/2 input. The internal gain to the VREF/2 input is 2 to allow this factor of 2 reduction in the reference voltage.
The zero of the A/D does not require adjustment. If the minimum analog input voltage value, VlN(MlN), is not ground, a zero offset can be done. The converter can be made to output 0000 0000 digital code for this minimum input voltage by biasing the A/D VIN(-) input at this VlN(MlN) value. This utilizes the differential mode operation of the A/D. The zero error of the A/D converter relates to the location of the first riser of the transfer function and can be measured by grounding the VIN(-) input and applying a small magnitude positive voltage to the VIN(+) input. Zero error is the difference between the actual DC input voltage which is necessary to just cause an output digital code transition from 0000 0000 to 0000 0001 and the ideal 1/2 LSB value (1/2 LSB = 9.8mV for VREF/2 = 2.500V).
Full Scale Adjust
The full scale adjustment can be made by applying a differential input voltage which is 11/2 LSB down from the desired analog full scale voltage range and then adjusting the magnitude of the VREF/2 input (pin 9) for a digital output code which is just changing from 1111 1110 to 1111 1111. When offsetting the zero and using a span-adjusted VREF/2 voltage, the full scale adjustment is made by inputting VMlN to the VIN(-) input of the A/D and applying a voltage to the VIN(+) input.
The clock for the A/D can be derived from an external source such as the CPU clock or an external RC network can be added to provide self-clocking. The CLK IN (pin 4) makes use of a Schmitt trigger.
Heavy capacitive or DC loading of the CLK R pin should be avoided as this will disturb normal converter operation. Loads less than 50pF, such as driving up to 7 A/D converter clock inputs from a single CLK R pin of 1 converter, are allowed. For larger clock line loading, a CMOS or low power TTL buffer or PNP input logic should be used to minimize the loading on the CLK R pin (do not use a standard TTL buffer).
Restart During a Conversion
If the A/D is restarted (CS and WR go low and return high) during a conversion, the converter is reset and a new conversion is started. The output data latch is not updated if the conversion in progress is not completed. The data from the previous conversion remain in this latch.
In this application, the CS input is grounded and the WR input is tied to the INTR output. This WR and INTR node should be momentarily forced to logic low following a power-up cycle to insure circuit operation.
Interfacing the Microcontroller
Interfacing the ADC0804 with 8051 ƒ
As shown in the typica circuit, ADC0804 can be interfaced with any microcontroller. A minimum of 11 pins are required to interface the ADC0804, eight for data pins and 3 for control pins. As shown in the typical circuit the chip select pin can be made low if you are not using the microcontroller port for any other peripheral (multiplexing).
There is a universal rule to find out how to use an IC. All we need is the datasheet of the IC we are working with and a look at the timing diagram of the IC which shows how to send the data, which signal to assert and at what time the signal should be made high or low, etc.
1. CS, Chip Select: This is an active low pin and used to activate the ADC0804.
2. RD, Read: This is an input pin and active low. After converting the analog data, the ADC stores the result in an internal register. This pin is used to get the data out of the ADC 0804 chip. When CS=0 & high to low pulse is given to this pin, the digital output is shown on the pins D0-D7.
3. WR, Write: This is an input pin and active low. This is used to instruct the ADC to start the conversion process. If CS=0 and WR makes a low to high transition, the ADC starts the conversion process.
4. CLK IN, Clock IN: This is an input pin connected to an external clock source.
5. INTR, Interrupt: This is an active low output pin. This pin goes low when the conversion is over.
6. Vin+ : Analog Input .
7. Vin- : Analog Input. Connected to ground.
8. AGND: Analog Ground.
9. Vref/2: This pin is used to set the reference voltage. If this is not connected the default reference voltage is 5V. In some application it is required to reduce the step size. This can be done by using this pin.
10. DGND: Digital Ground.
11-18. Output Data Bits (D7-D0).
19. CLKR: Clock Reset.
20. Vcc: Positive Supply
The above timing diagrams are from ADC0804 datasheet. The first diagram shows how to start a conversion. Also you can see which signals are to be asserted and at what time to start a conversion. So looking into the timing diagram we note down the steps or say the order in which signals are to be asserted to start a conversion of ADC. As we have decided to make Chip select pin as low so we need not to bother about the CS signal in the timing diagram. Below steps are for starting an ADC conversion. I am also including CS signal to give you a clear picture. While programming we will not use this signal.
Make chip select (CS) signal low.
Make write (WR) signal low.
Make chip select (CS) high.
Wait for INTR pin to go low (means conversion ends).
Once the conversion in ADC is done, the data is available in the output latch of the ADC. Looking at the second diagram, which shows the timing diagram of how to read the converted value from the output latch of the ADC, data of the new conversion is only available for reading after ADC0804 made INTR pin low or say when the conversion is over. Below are the steps to read output from the ADC0804.
Make chip select (CS) pin low.
Make read (RD) signal low.
Read the data from port where ADC is connected.
Make read (RD) signal high.
Make chip select (CS) high.
Interfacing the LCD with 8051 ƒ
Pin Information of LCD:
Contrast Adjustment -2V to -5V
1 -Read , 0- Write
Backlit LED +V Vdd (Optional signal)
Backlit LED -V Vss (Optional signal)
Algorithm to send data to LCD:
1.Make R/W low
2.Make RS=0 ;if data byte is command
RS=1 ;if data byte is data (ASCII value)
3.Place data byte on data register
4.Pulse E (HIGH to LOW)
5.Repeat the steps to send another data byte
Proper working of LCD depend on the how the LCD is initialized. We have to send few command bytes to initialize the LCD. Simple steps to initialize the LCD
Specify function set: Send 38H for 8-bit, double line and 5×7 dot character format.
Display On-Off control: Send 0FH for display and blink cursor on.
Entry mode set: Send 06H for cursor in increment position and shift is invisible.
Clear display: Send 01H to clear display and return cursor to home position.
The LCD module is an intelligent component. We communicate to LCD module by sending commands from microcontroller. To write data to LCD module separate sequence is followed for 4 bit and 8 bit mode.
Writing command for 8 Bit mode:
Write 8 bit data on D0-D7
Generate strobe by taking EN from high to low
Writing command for 4 Bit mode:
Write 4 bit data (upper nibble) on D4-D7
Generate strobe by taking EN from high to low
Write 4 bit data (lower nibble) on D4-D7
Generate strobe by taking EN from high to low
Clear Display and Address counter = 0
Address counter = 0
Entry mode set
Set cursor direction(I/D) and auto display shift (S)
Turn display (D) and cursor (C) ON/OFF. Set cursor blinking(B)
Cursor/ Display shift
Shift display/cursor (S), specify direction (R/L)
Set Interface data width (DL), number of display lines (N), character font (F)
Set CGRAM Address
Set CGRAM address (D0-D5), CGRAM data is sent after this command
Set DDRAM Address
Set DDRAM address (D0-D6), DDRAM data is sent after this command
Busy Flag and Address
Read busy flag (BF) and address counter(D0-D6)
Write data (D0-D7) into DDRAM/CGRAM
Read data (D0-D7) from DDRAM/CGRAM
Legends used in table:-
I/D: 1- Increment, 0- Decrement
S: 1- Auto Display shift, 0 – No display shift
D: 1- Display ON, 0 – Display OFF
C: 1- Cursor ON, 0- Cursor OFF
B: 1- Cursor blinking ON, 0 – Cursor blinking OFF
S: 1- Display Shift, 0 -Cursor move
R/L: 1- Shift right, 0- Shift left
DL: 1- 8 bit interface, 0- 4 bit interface
N: 1- 2 lines, 0- 1 line
F: 1- 5X10 dots font, 0- 5X7 dots f
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