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This term is used to describe programs that enable the computer to work and coordinate the various parts of the computer system to make it run efficiently.
It controls the operation of the computer as it tells the hardware what to do and how and when to do it.
It is the base for applications software as they cannot work without system software
Operating systems are an example of it. The operating system is the program that actually makes the computer works.
This term is used for programs that enable the user to do a specific task such as creating a document, producing invoices and using database.
It is used once the operating system has been loaded.
It can be educational programs, entertainment programs and etc.
It is the software that actually makes the computer work. An example of it is Microsoft Windows, Macintosh Operating system (Mac OS), Linux and Unix.
These are some functions of the operating system:
Boot up the computer.
Control the hardware such as printer, scanner, monitor, keyboard and mouse.
Controlling features such as formatting disks, saving files and retrieving them form the hard disk.
Provide the base for the applications software to be launched.
Allows the applications software to use the hardware.
As discussed before, applications software are programs that help the user to do a specific task and here are some types of application software:
Word processing programs: They are used to create documents such as letter, reports, memos and etc. An example is Microsoft Word.
Spreadsheet programs: They are used to analyze and summarize numerical data. They are in accounting environments to prepare balance sheets and financial reports. . An example is Microsoft Excel.
Database programs: they are used to organize and manage large quantities of data. . An example is Microsoft Access.
Presentation graphics programs: They are used to organize numeric data and text in a suitable format to be displayed to a group of people. . An example is Microsoft PowerPoint.
Photo editing programs: They are used to edit images such as changing the size of images and adjust the colors of images. . An example is adobe Photoshop.
Desktop publishing programs: They are used to prepare high quality printed material e.g. flyers, magazines, posters and books. . An example is Microsoft Publisher.
Internet Web Browsers: They are used to locate and display information at Web sites. An example is MS Internet Explorer.
Users interact with software in many. Some users write the commands that they need to do, other presses certain keys from the keyboard to do a certain task and some prefer use the mouse.
Command Syntax: Early user interface required users to type exactly instructions with specific rules to do a certain task. The users didn’t like this way because they have to be very careful in writing the commands and of course they have to remember it.
Shortcut Keystrokes: They enable the users to use the commands through pressing certain keys from the keyboard. This way may be hard to be remembered.
Graphical User Interface (GUI): It refers to the graphics screens that make it easier for users to interact with programs through using icons, mouse, drop down menus and windows.
Distinguish between applications software and system software.
Identifying the different types of user interface.
1. Choose the correct answer
Linux is an example of ………………………
Which of the following is a friendly user interface?
Which of the following is an example of application software?
Which of the following coordinates the various parts of the computer system to make it run efficiently?
Word processing software.
None of the above.
GUI is an abbreviation of ………………………
Graphical User Interface.
Graphical User Input.
Graphical Unit Interface.
Graphical Unit Input.
2. Mention two functions of the operating system and the application software.
This chapter provides detailed information about software and these are the points that are explained in this chapter:
What is the meaning of software?
Types of software.
The difference between system software and application software.
The functions of the operating system and examples on it.
The uses of some applications software.
What user interface is and examples of it.
Now you are ready to know about networks and internet. What a network is, types and advantages of it. Also what an internet is and how it can be useful to users. This will be explained in the next chapter.
After completing this chapter, you will be able to:
Understand what is meant by a network.
Know the advantages of using networks.
Distinguish between types of network.
Know what an internet is.
Identify the advantages of the internet.
Understand some of internet and browsing basics.
Network is a group of computers connected together via cables or telephone lines or wireless to enable users to share hardware, software and data. Network requires each computer to have a network card.
Advantages of using networks
Sharing files: You can share files between computers through using networks instead of using a flash memory to send a file from one computer to another.
Sharing resources: Through networks, people working in a same place can share printers, scanners, fax machines. This is less costly for organizations with many computer users.
Sharing programs: Through networks, People working in the same place can share the same program instead of purchasing individual program for each one.
Communication: Users on a network can communicate with each other by e-mails even if there is no internet connection.
Types of networks
There are three types of network which are:
Local Area Network (LAN).
Wireless Area Network (WLAN).
Wide Area Network (WAN).
1. Local Area Network (LAN)
A LAN is a system where computers are connected together within a company or organization to enable people share files and resources such as printers. A LAN can be within the same building or within a group of buildings close to each other.
2. Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN)
Computers are connected together through high frequency radio signals. They are used in many office buildings, coffee shops and even at homes. No wiring is required between the computers and the peripherals (peripheral device is any device that can attach to the computer such as speakers, printers and scanners).
3. Wide Area Network (WAN)
Computers are connected together over a wide area such as between towns or countries. Communication between computers can be done through telephone lines, fiber optics and radio links or satellites. The internet is an example of it.
Client / server computers
A client computer is the computer that needs data from another computer known as a server. The server is a powerful computer than client computer in terms of data storage and processing speed.
Understanding what a network is.
Identifying the advantages of using networks.
1. Complete the following sentences
Network is ……..…………………………..…………………………..…………………………..………….
Through networks people can share ………………………..…, ……..…………………… and ……..…………………….
The three types of networks are ………………………..…, ……..…………………… and ……..…………………….
The computer that requests data from the server is called ……..………………………
LAN is an abbreviation of ……..…………………… while WAN is an abbreviation of ……..……………………
3. Which type of network is the internet?
The internet is a global network of interconnected networks around the world. The best thing about the Internet is the amount of information that you can access from it. The internet is not the same as World Wide Web (WWW) as the internet is the network but the World Wide Web is a vast collection of linked documents held on computers all over the world and can be accessed using a web browser.
Web browser is software that is used to retrieve and display contents on the World Wide Web, including text, image, video and other types of files. The Internet Explorer and Firefox are an example of it.
advantages of the internet
Using the internet has many advantages and here are some of them:
Researching tool: Find any information the user need through using search engines. Search engines are the web pages that search for information on the internet (e.g. Google, Yahoo).
Method of communication with others through chatting programs and e-mails. E-mails mean sending and receiving messages through the internet and the messages can include text, images, video files and sound files.
Entertainment tool (e.g. playing games, listening to music and watching films and video clips).
Information is available 24 hours per day and 7 days per week.
Services: Many services are available through the internet like shopping, hotel reservations and paying pills.
E-commerce: Doing business, selling and buying products and services through the internet.
E-learning: Using the internet for education.
Downloading software from the internet.
Download and upload
Download means to transfer data from a server to a local computer while upload means to transfer data from a local computer to a server.
Download programs, songs and games from the internet to the computer.
Design a website then upload it from the computer to the internet to be used by others.
Data is transmitted in collections of bits or characters. The transmission speed of data is measured by the Baud rate which means how many bits can be transferred each second.
Bps: It means bits per second. 8 bits = 1 character.
Kbps: It means kilobits per second (i.e. 1000 bits per second). A 56.6Kbps modem technically transmits 56,600 bits per second of data. The modem is a device that allows computers to transmit data over telephone lines.
mbps It means megabits per second (i.e. 1,000,000 bits per second).
Internet connection services
Computers are connected to internet in many ways. Here are the types of connections:
It uses telephone lines to connect to the internet.
A modem is used to dial a telephone number and connect to an Internet service Provider (ISP).
This type of connection is inexpensive compared to other connections.
The phone line is busy when the user uses the internet, meaning the user cannot make or receive calls when he is online.
Data transfer over dial-up is slower compared to other connections.
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) are companies that allow the users to connect to the internet.
Broadband connection: It allows faster transfer of information. This type of connection is available through a phone line (ADSL), cables, satellite, mobile phone and wireless networks.
Asynchronous Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) broadband: It uses a modem and the telephone line system to connect a computer to Internet. The ADSL modem is different from a dial-up modem. Through ADSL, a user can make calls and use the internet at the same time. ADSL connection is faster and expensive than dial-up connection.
Wireless broadband: It uses radio transmitters and receivers to connect computers. Many public areas and organizations provide this connection which is known as Wi-Fi. Nowadays this connection is used at home and supported by many phones.
Cable broadband: It uses a modem and the cabling infrastructure used for cable TV to link a computer to Internet. The cable modem uses the same cabling infrastructure and connection to your home as cable TV. The cable modem connects to the computer by a local area network (LAN) card. Cable connection is faster than dial-up connection and the cost of it is similar to an ADSL connection.
Satellite broadband: It is an Internet connection that requires the installation of a special satellite dish.
Understanding the difference between internet and World Wide Web.
Identifying the advantages of the internet.
Knowing some internet terminologies.
Differentiating between dial up connection and broad band connection.
1. Complete the following sentences
A vast collection of linked documents held on computers all over the world is known as ………………..………….
The global network all over the world is known as ………………..………….
Google is an example of ………………..………….
The transmission speed of data over network is measured by ……………..………….
Examples of a web browser are ………………..…………. and ………………..………….
3. State the advantages of the internet.
4. Which one if faster, the ADSL connection or the dial up connection?
5. Which type of the broadband connection uses radio transmitters and receivers to connect computer?
This chapter provides detailed information about networks and these are the points that are explained in this chapter:
The meaning of networks and the advantages of using them.
Types of networks.
The meaning of client/server computers.
The difference between Internet and World Wide Web.
Advantages of the internet.
Downloading and uploading.
Data transfer rate.
Internet connection services.
Now you are ready to know about Information and Communication Technology and the different internet services for customers. This will be explained in the next chapter.
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