Difference Between Operating Systems And Application Software

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What is application software? A program or group of programs designed for end users. Application software can be divided into two general classes: systems software and applications software. Systems software consists of low-level programs that interact with the computer at a very basic level. This includes operating systems compilers , and utilities for managing computer resources. In contrast, applications software (also called end-user programs) includes database programs, word processors, and spreadsheets. Figuratively speaking, applications software sits on top of systems software because it is unable to run without the operating system and system utilities.

There are a lot of terms can be found over the internet related to computer. All type of computer have processor, Memory, keyboard, mouse and screen to display output. But their is a significant difference how people or organizations use computes for their usage. We can divide all type of computers to 6 categories. Personal Computer ,Server Computer, Mainframe Computer , Super Computer, Embedded Computer, Mobile Computer.

Operating Systems

Software designed to handle basic elements of computer operation,such as sending instructions to hardware devices like disk drives and computer screens, and allocating system resources such as memory to different software applications being run. Given uniformly designed operating systems that run on many different computers, developers of software do not need to concern themselves with these problems, and are provided with a standard platform for new programs.

Application software is a subclass of computer software that employs the capabilities of a computer directly to a task that the user wishes to perform. This should be contrasted with system software which is involved in integrating a computer's various capabilities, but does not directly apply them in the performance of tasks that benefit the user.

Custom Applications

The software is tailor-made software. The software developed to meet all the requirements specified by the user.

General Applications

This type of software developers to carry out specific tasks in mind the overall requirements. Many users can use it, because it meets the general requirements.

Application software is computer software, which uses a computer the ability to direct and complete the task, users want to run sub-classes.

This should be contrasted with system software, the software is the integration of various functions in the computer, but usually not directly applicable to the task, a user-friendly performance.

In an application suite usually have a separate application user interface with some common makes it easier for users to learn and use each application.

Often they may have some capacity, with people in ways that favor the user.

For example, a spreadsheet might be able to document in a word processor, even if it has been in the embedded application to create a separate spreadsheet. User-written software tailors systems to meet user's specific needs.

User-written software include spreadsheet templates, word processor macros, scientific simulations, graphics and animation scripts.

Users create this software themselves how important it is often overlooked. In some types of embedded systems, application software and operating system software may be unable to distinguish between users, such as software used to control the VCR, DVD player or microwave oven case.

Operating system

The use of low-level computer software called the operating system (O / S), to help people build and run their own programs. Operating system software runs not only in notebook computers, but also mobile phones, network routers and other so-called embedded devices.

The type of operating system

Operating system is a set of procedures, control application software, the user runs the hardware provided between the collection and the current software running on the computer link. The operating system is also responsible for the management and control of all resources (memory, hard drives, monitors, etc.) between them may be running different applications at the same time share the work.

The most famous of the operating system used on personal computers:

-Microsoft Windows

-Mac OS X,

-Linux,

Some operating systems are designed for certain types of equipment, such as

  • Google Android (Linux, a variant), and Symbian - the mobile phone
  • The Solaris and HP - UX, and dangerous goods - UX and other Unix variants - for server computers
  • December VM (Virtual Memory System) - used to host computer

Other operating systems to enjoy the notoriety of the period, but now only historical interest are:

  • Novell's Netware is the personal computer 90 in the 20th century, the popular O / S
  • IBM's OS / 2 was an early PC-O / S's competition with Microsoft Windows for a time, but limited success
  • Multics is a particularly innovative in the mainframe operating system created in the 60s of last century, which affected the future of Unix development.

Different between Operating System and Application Software

The Operating System is the System Software that makes the Computer work. We can say that an Operating System (OS) is Software that acts as an interface between you and the hardware. It not only contains drivers used to speak the hardware's language, but also offers you a very specific graphical user interface (GUI) to control the computer. An OS can also act as an interface (from the hardware) to the other software. A complex OS like Windows or Linux or Mac OS offers the services of an OS, but also has applications built in. Solitaire, Paint, Messenger, etc. are all applications.

Application software is the software that you install onto your Operating System. It consists of the programs that actually let you do things with your computer. These Applications are written to run under the various Operating Systems. These include things like your word processing programs, spread sheets, email clients, web browser, games, etc. Many programs, such as most of the Microsoft Office suite of programs, are written in both Mac and Windows versions, but you still have to have the right version for your OS.

So, the operating system of a computer is the software that allows the computer work. It provides the framework under which the applications run. The Operating system of a Computer is the Software that allows the Computer work. It provides the framework under which the Applications run. An operating system is the type of Computer system you have such as Window XP or Window 95, 98, Mac, etc. The applications are the software that actually allows the user to do something with the computer. Without the applications, all you can do is change settings and navigate among the folders.The Applications are the Software that actually allows the user to do something with the Computer. Without the applications, all you can do is change settings and navigate among the folders. You can purchase its CD from a software company or download from a software company's web site.

Types of Computer Systems

Different types of computer systems are nowadays available for different purposes according the user needs.When you'll have to order yours or even to build it, you should first define the expected use of your computer.This step will help you to describe the basic capabilities and know the costs of your system.

Example : Personal Computer ,Server Computer, Mainframe Computer , Super Computer, Embeded Computer, Mobile Computer.

Supercomputers

Supercomputers are the most fastest, and expensive modern computer systems. They are mostly used for intense processing and forecasting such as forecasting the weather, or super high resolution graphics such as ray traced images.

Government processes such as immigration clearances, and all other high level functionalities are handled by a supercomputer.

Supercomputers are also extensively used in the military to manage and calculate or even analyze full range of information from coordinates to traffic control and even launching systems.

Today, the world's fastest supercomputer was developed by IBM - the IBM Roadrunner which runs on 1.026 - 1.105 Pflops or petaflops and is placed in the Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico USA taking up a space of 6000 square feet.

Mainframe computers

Mainframe computers are used in large organizations such as insurance companies and banks, where many people frequently need to use the same data. In a traditional mainframe environment, each user accesses the mainframe's resources through a terminal (network terminal).

There are two kinds of terminal, one is a dumb terminal which does not process or store data, just basic I/O - input output and the intelligent terminal which can perform processing operations but these terminals normally do not have any storage.

Mainframes are large and powerful systems to handle the processing of thousands of users at any one time. Most large organizations implement mainframes due to their flexibilities in which department computers can be allocated a certain functionality that is related to the department in response to all programs.

For instance, an airline company which wishes to sell tickets online through the internet will require to connect their current website interface to a mainframe system.

You as the user would then connect to the website or the mainframe system to key in your ticket purchase.

Personal computers

Microcomputer designed for use by one person at a time. A typical PC assemblage comprises a CPU; internal memory consisting of RAM and ROM; data storage devices (including a hard disc, a floppy disc, or CD-ROM); and input/output devices (including a display screen, keyboard, mouse, and printer). The PC industry began in 1977 when Apple Computer, Inc. (now Apple Inc.), introduced the Apple II. Radio Shack and Commodore Business Machines also introduced PCs that year. IBM entered the PC market in 1981. The IBM PC, with increased memory capacity and backed by IBM's large sales organization, quickly became the industry standard. Apple's Macintosh (1984) was particularly useful for desktop publishing. Microsoft Corp. introduced MS Windows(1985), a graphical user interface that gave PCs many of the capabilities of the Macintosh, initially as an overlay of MS-DOS. Windows went on to replace MS-DOS as the dominant operating system for personal computers. Uses of PCs multiplied as the machines became more powerful and application software proliferated. Today, PCs are used for word processing, Internet access, and many other daily tasks.

Computer servers

Computer servers are among the most important infrastructure in any organization. The basic answer to the question 'what is a computer server', lies in the name of the term. It is a computer that serves all the computers or terminals, that are connected to it. Applications are stored in this computer and the other computer terminals connected to it, can access it. Although computer servers used to only be a part of enterprise networks, servers have now become a part of smaller, home or office networks. Servers can be used for several functions, such as supporting files, backups, security or gaming. For enterprise applications, servers are usually high-powered machines that can handle many requests from clients. Home or small-office servers can be another desktop that is used for file sharing and printing.

Embedded Computer

An embedded system is a special-purpose computer system, which is completely encapsulated by the device it controls. An embedded system has specific requirements and performs pre-defined tasks, unlike a general-purpose personal computer.

Programs on an embedded system often must run with real-time constraints with limited hardware resources: often there is no disk drive, operating system, keyboard or screen. A flash drive may replace rotating media, and a small keypad and LCD screen may be used instead of a PC's keyboard and screen.

Firmware is the name for software that is embedded in hardware devices, e.g. in one or more ROM/Flash memory IC chips.

Embedded systems are routinely expected to maintain 100% reliability while running continuously for long periods of time, sometimes measured in years. Firmware is usually developed and tested to much stricter requirements than is general purpose software (which can usually be easily restarted if a problem occurs). In addition, because the embedded system may be outside the reach of humans (down an oil well borehole, launched into outer space, etc.), embedded firmware must usually be able to self-restart even if some sort of catastrophic data corruption has taken place. This last feature often requires external hardware assistance such as a watchdog timer that can automatically restart the system in the event of a software failure.

Mobile Computer

Mobile computers are computing devices small enough to fit in your hand. A popular type of handheld computer is the personal digital assistant (PDA).

A PDA is no larger than a small appointment book and is normally used for special applications such as taking notes, displaying telephone numbers and addresses and keeping track of dates or agendas.

Many PDA's can be connected to computers to exchange data. Most PDAs come with a pen (stylus) that allows for handwriting recognition and some even have tiny built-in keyboards or microphones for voice input.

A wireless connection (Wi-Fi) can be used to access the internet with a PDA. PDAs in the later part of this century were converted into phones, cameras, music players and GPS.

The demands for PDA phones have been in the increase and of late have been mostly replaced by smart-phones that are equipped with much functionality similar to a computer.

Conclusion

Computers have become very important nowadays because they are accurate, fast and can accomplish many tasks easily. Otherwise to complete those tasks manually much more time is required. It can do very big calculations in just a fraction of a second. Moreover it can store huge amount of data in it. We also get information on different aspects using internet on our computer.

O S and A S These provisions are applicable for both software applications and operating systems.  They address program features that must be contained in software for the product to meet the standards.  Because there are many programming languages from which a software producer may select, it is impossible to give specific coding techniques.  In some cases it is possible that a particular programming language may not possess the features necessary to fulfil these requirements.  In those instances, another language for creating the program would most likely have to be considered for the product to meet the standards.

Since the invention of computers from first generation and fourth generation computers, they have been classified according to their types and how they operate that is input, process and output information. Below you will get a brief discussion on various types of Computers we have

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