Cryptography

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Introduction

Cryptography is a study of mathematically theory which makes the data more secure and confidential over the internet.

Cryptography process use the encoding and decoding process on the data. The data is known as a Plain text before the transmission. It can be in any form such as image, text, software?s etc. For transfer this data over the internet or physical medium, this data must be manipulate in unreadable form which is known as encoding. The purpose of this step is to secure the data from the unauthorized persons. When data reached its destination then it translates in the real form which is known as Decoding after applying the mathematical formula as well as theories.

Key criteria for selecting the protocol

  1. Confidentiality provides the keep the data secure from the unauthorized persons. Secrecy is another form of piracy as well as confidentiality. There are approaches of cryptography are exist which make the data more confidential and transfer it in unreadable form over the physical medium by applying the mathematical algorithms [6].
  2. Data Integrity gives the feature of unauthorized person cannot change or alter the data. When data is transfer over the internet then some hackers can be detect this data and send it to that user. But cryptography avoids this data from the authorized user and surety that your data is secures and unchanged [6].
  3. Authentication feature is directly related to the identification. This feature applies on both devices; parties or terminals most provide their identification when they came for the communication [6].
  4. Non-repudiation provide service in which avoids a person from refuses the previous actions. Example, one terminal or person may be authorized to buy of goods by another terminal and later refuse such authorization was approved. A process includes a trustworthy third party is essential to resolve the dispute [6].
Wired Communication

We choose the Wireless part in the given case study. The purpose of choosing the wireless part from the case study is that there is very sensitive communication flowing on this point. It connect to managers laptop,pc?s. So any hacker can be take this information and use it.

So, the wireless communication is flow the RC4 (Ron?s code).The purpose of RC4 is communication with the WEP. So, WEP in case is using for the communication which have many flows,

WEP stands for Wired Equivalent Privacy that provides the security over the wired LAN by using the RC4 algorithm.

The primary function of WEP is make the data secure from the threads of eavesdropping etc and transmitted in unreadable form. WEP is also known as stream cipher which developed by RSA laboratories in 1987 [2].There are three major goal of WEP

  • Authentication
  • Confidentiality
  • Integrity

Initialization Vector is integrating with the secret encryption key in order increase the additional check of integrity.

There are some problem exist in Wireless Privacy such as

IV Collision is one of the major flaw exist in Wired Equivalent Privacy. IV is basically a Initialize vector. It?s reused at most points in during the wireless communication. Initialize vector is used in every packet of secret key and it ensures that each packet contains the different RC4 key but most of the time secret key doesn?t changed. The Initialize vector can be easily decrypted when two keys are encrypted over the same Initialize vector [3]. There is no key management exist in Wireless Equivalent Privacy because very rarely key is changed In WEP [1]. However some vendors insert the access control list to make it more secure by implementing the MAC filtering. In this way MAC filtering allows the predefined customers by defining the MAC address for authenticate as well as association. WEP is not secure because there are software?s are available which provide the facility to hacker to sniff the wireless communication. Some of the software can break the WEP by providing the packets. Air snort and WE crack are the name of sniff tools for breaking the security of software [3]. Key space is become more exhausted when more than 1600 packets send with the speed of 11 Mega bit per second.

After analysis the draw backs of WEP, I prefer the WPA2 which is Wi-FI Protected Access 2 for the communication with sold reasons which is defined

WPA2 is a short form of Wi-FI Protected Access 2 and provides the more secure and stronger data encryption for the network access control as well as it also provides the high level assurance feature for enterprise and customers that only the authorized persons are eligible to access their network.

There are two flavours of WPA2 exist: WPA-Personal provides the feature for the protection of network by putting the password. WPA2-Enterprise authenticate network client by the server.

There are some objectives such as it gives the protocol support such as HTTP, TCP and Internet Protocol (IP).Reduce the usage of device by minimizing the device processing power as well as optimizes the resources.

It also provides the rich environment for the applications that deliver the information such as phones, Personal Digital Assistants.

Architecture of WPA2

There are main three things in architecture of WPA2

  • Protocol Stack Protocol

It provides the support and services for stack based which includes the support like TLS, TCP and HTTPS. WPA 2.O provides the connectivity architecture for broader range network such as network bearers as well as network [5].

  • Additional Capability and Services

The specifications of WPA2 were neither part of WPA Browser or WPA Stack. It provides the help to rich application can be implemented or defined in WPA specification. WPA 2.0 provides the some new features to developer?s users and operators for redefined their applications [5].

  • WPA Application Environment

It provides the new application developing standards for internet browser. On this way it defines the Mobile Profile of XHTML which is known as XHTMLMP. It based on the framework of XHTML which is implemented and developed by W3C [5].

There are no any restrictions exist in the WPA architecture for the devices such as servers, gateway and terminals.

Protocol OF WPA2

AES is stands for Advanced Encryption Standard which published in 2001 for the Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS).AES is based on symmetric encryption algorithm and a block cipher. Block cipher performs operation on data at a same time. The length of AES is fall in different rages such as 128 bits, 16 bits. AES algorithm is not a computer program by itself but it?s a based on mathematical calculate for observing the Data.

There are some majors improvement comes in WPA2 while it was not exist in WEP communication.

  • There was a key generation issue exist in WEP. Key doesn?t change over the communication but WPA2 solve this problem after generating the dynamic key.
  • Second problem related to the Initialize Vector width and Initialize vector has only limited width and due to this width, WEP doesn?t change the more combination of key .So, it is easily hack able by the unauthorized users.WPA2 has increased the length of IV.
  • WEP is based breakable and there are much software available that break it but WPA 2 provides the unbreakable and provides more security than the WEP.
Wired Communication

In wired communication I selected the communication between the PDC servers and Take backup.

I select the SSL which Secure Socket Layer for the wired communication.

SSL stands for Secure Socket Layer which execute on top of on the TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol) but underneath the high level application [3]. SSL provides the secure communication and always the authentication process execute on the server side but the authentication step for the client side is optional [3]. Symmetric key is used between the server and client side for the negotiation and the secrets are shared by using the Primary Key Cryptography. As long as they established the connection and communication start between them.

Process of SSL is based on the two steps

  1. In Handshaking process Client and Server determine the secret key parameters by using the encryption of public key during the handshaking process
  2. In Data transfer process client and server encrypt and encrypt the data successfully by using the secret key.

Handshaking process in divide into further steps

In message exchange process the server and client must identify the described message like Hello World and Finished.

In public key communication or process, the client produces the secret key information by using the public key algorithm. For validating the server certificate, the client use CA?s public key for this purpose as well as on the server side, the server use encrypt or decrypt the message by following the public key algorithm [4].

In Handshaking process, the client and server produce the messages during the authentication process on based of other inputs as well as all messages send out while the handshake phase. The message will send after the encryption from each side [4].

In Bulk Data operation the actions are performed on the concrete data which securely transfer between the client and server. The server and client do the encryption and decryption of data by using the secret key. In step of Message authentication, correspondent calculates and adds the MAC for each SSL data record [4].

In Administration step, smallest amount of processing requires for administrative components. If any one customer decides to use the any WEB site then it requires the customer authentication procedure [4]. As long as it should be retained the private key as well as its certificate. Sessions must be maintained by the client and session [4].

There are major three advantages of using SSL

  • SSL is very ubiquitously and there are many existing services are based on the SSL. The reason of these services because these are very secures. If you want to implement services such as SSl then you need to use SSL.
  • SSL do the private key encryption by providing the very simple and interactive interface. Basically SSL do the mainly two operations such as exchange the secret key and do the data encryption by using the exchanged key. The one advantage which SSL provides that it encapsulate the implementation detail to the software developers and allows them to just write the business logic.
  • The design of the SSL is suitable for that environment in which more servers and clients and severs must give the credentials for the authentication to their clients. Client doesn?t need to give the detail the details of the server.
Journals
  1. Wired Equivalent Privacy Vulnerability Princy C. Mehta, LevelOne Security Essentials Track, April 2001, Exposing the Wired Equivalent Privacy Protocol Weaknesses in Wireless Networks
  2. GIAC Security Essentials Certification (GSEC), Practical Assignment Version 1.4, 802.11, 802.1x, and Wireless Security J. Philip Craiger, June 23, 2002
  3. Secure Sockets Layer. Alfred C. Weaver, University of Virginia Inside SSL: The Secure Sockets Layer Protocol
  4. Wireless Application Protocol WPA 2.0 Technical White Paper
  5. HANDBOOK of APPLIED CRYPTOGRAPHY

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