Computer Is Derived From The Latin Term Computer Science Essay

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The word Computer is derived from the Latin term computare which means to calculate. THAKUR computer is an electronic device that is designed to work with information. A computer is electronic device that does not do any work by itself but works under the instruction given by user. A computer is the combination of Hardware and Software. A computer is an electronic device that manipulates information or data provided by user and process them which can be stored, retrieved at the time of necessity. (GCF LearnFree.org, 2013)

Hardware is the physical component that can be touched, be it a digital watch, calculator, cellular phone, laptop, desktop computer or any other item that can hold intangible information (Starr, 2013). It is the part of computer that actually does the work according to the instructions provided to them. Moreover, it provides platform for software to operate on it. Hardware is a comprehensive term for all the physical parts of the computer, as distinguished from the data it contains or operates on (Open Projects, 2013).

Fig1.1: Intel D975XBX Motherboard (Apoptosis, 2005)

Simpson (n.d.) defines software as a general term for information that's recorded onto some kind of medium. Software refers to programs or applications that need to be installed into a computer or hardware in order to perform certain tasks. It is a set of codes that gives instructions to the hardware. In other term software is a set of programs, procedures, algorithms and its documentation concerned with the operation of a data processing system.

Fig1.2: Computer Software

Computer cannot operate or perform any task by its own will; it needs someone to perform any task. That someone is called user of the computer. Thus we can concluded like this

Computer System = Hardware + Software + User

Task 1: Identify major role of computer system in bank. (1.1) (P1)

Duhaime.org (2013) defines bank as a corporation empowered to deal with cash, domestic and foreign, and to receive the deposits of money and to loan those monies to third-parties. A bank is a financial organization where people can deposit their money for safety, withdraw money and take loan to start a new project. In 1899, the United States Supreme Court defines bank as an institution, usually incorporated with power to issue its promissory notes intended to circulate as money or to receive the money of others on general deposit, to form a joint fund that shall be used by the institution, for its own benefit, for one or more of the purposes of making temporary loans and discounts; of dealing in notes, foreign and domestic bill or exchange, coin, bullion, credits, and the remission of money; or with both these powers and with the privileges in addition to these basic powers of receiving special deposits and making collections for the holders of negotiable paper, if the institutions sees fit to engage in such business.(duhaime.org, 2013)

As bank involved in monitory transactions of public to the public security of public property is essential part of banking. Richardson (2013) says computer help bank personnel operate more efficiently and effectively and help to track transactions, help process other customer information as well. In fact computer saves time and money which aid to generate profits to the banks.

Banking would be dangerous field to work in without computers, people would go to the bank carrying large sum of money and leave the Bank on next day just to finish counting the money manually but computers have made it possible that one can simply walk to the ATM and withdraw the money without necessarily waiting in a long cue to get served by the teller, getting around clients details is far much more improved than before. The major roles of computer system in banking sector are

Customer Information

Products

Reports and Profits

Transactions a nd Goals

Credit Applications

Delinquency

Miscellaneous

Customer Information

The most important component of bank is to keep its customer information safely. These information is used to stay in touch with customers and notify them of any changes in bank policy. Computer stores all the information of customer which can be used in different banking functions such as Customer's account number provides bank employees the ability to access customer information efficiently (Richardson, 2013)

Products

The number of products and services provided or taken by a customer is also stored in computers. Bank personnel periodically offer new products and services to its customers. Without the use of computers, it would be difficult to keep track of this information (Richardson, 2013)

Reports and Profits

With the help of computer, banks can analyse aging reports and track the customers who have had checks returned due to nonsufficient funds. This report can be used by the sales associates to call these customers and offer them a product called overdraft protection, which prevents a customer from over drafting their account. Computers help bank personnel generate income by targeting certain customers for sales activity (Richardson, 2013).

Transactions and Goals

Richardson (2013) computer helps bank personnel to keep a record of all transactions for the day which can be summarized at the end of the month or year. When customers make deposits and withdrawals, cash checks, open checking accounts or apply for mortgage loans, a computer stores and track all the information. After tabulating all the information branch manager or head of bank can see if the branch hits its goals and objectives.

Credit Applications

A bank can use computers for new loan applications and credit card applications; ChexSystems verification; and opening new accounts such as checking, saving or certificate of deposit accounts (Richardson, 2013).

Delinquency

Computers can be used to track customers who are delinquent on their loan and credit card payments. Computers can generate separate reports for customers according to age and can contact the customer for resolution, which helps keep delinquency under control.

Miscellaneous

Computer can keep a record of all communications that a bank employee may have with a bank customer including collection activity. A bank can also use a computer to see which safety deposit boxes are available and they can keep a record of customers who have safety deposit boxes.

Task 2 Discuss and compare the different types of computer systems available in the market and recommend types of computers and software's applicable for above environment and justify your recommendation. (1.3)(D1)

Business Dictionary (2013) defines computer system as interconnected computers that share a central storage system and various peripheral devices such as a printers, scanners, or routers; each can operate independently but has the ability to communicate with other external devices and computers. A computer system is contemporary usage refers to a desktop system including computer itself along with peripheral devices such as CPU, monitor, speaker, keyboard, mouse, Wi-Fi adapter, Bluetooth adapter, modem, printer, scanner etc.

Computer systems can be categorized according to their processing speed and power.

Computer System

Microcomputer Minicomputer Mainframe Supercomputer

Notebook Tablet PC

Laptop Netbooks

Desktop Handheld Devices

Minitower

Full tower

Fig 2.1 Types of computer system on the basis of speed and power

Computer system also can be categorised according to work it has to perform.

Computer System

Entry Level Business Class Gaming System Workstations and servers

Fig 2.2: Types of computer system on the basis of work.

2.1 Types of computer system on the basis of speed and power

Computers can be classified based on their principles of operation or on their configuration. Configuration means their size, speed of doing computation and storage capacity (Computer Basics for beginners, 2013). On the basis of configuration computer can be classified as follows:

2.1.1 Microcomputer

According to Wong (n.d.) a microcomputer is a computer that can perform all of its input, process, output and storage activities by itself. These are commonly called as personal computers. Microcomputer can be further divided into different types based on the size of CPU and major and minor components.

Notebook

A notebook computer is a battery or AC powered personal computer generally smaller than a briefcase that can be easily transported and conveniently used in temporary spaces such as on airplanes, in libraries, temporary offices, and at meetings (Rouse, 2007). Notebook computer is a small mobile computer, which usually weighs 2-18 pounds depending on size, materials used to make it.

Laptop

A laptop computer is a battery or AC powered personal computer generally smaller than a briefcase that can easily be transported and conveniently used in temporary spaces such as airplanes, in libraries etc (Rouse, 2007). It typically weighs less than 5 pounds and is 3 inch or less in thickness. It is more expensive than desktop computers and has same capabilities as of desktops.

Desktop

Desktop computers are the most popular computer systems because these are easy to use and more affordable. These are also known as personal computers or PC. This computer can be placed on flat smooth table for convenience and comfort when in use (Rastogi, 2009).

Fig 2.2: Commodore Amiga 1000 desktop. (Obsolete technology website, 2012)

Minitower

These are recent modification on the system unit whereby the system unit is made to stand erect on its own and placed beside the monitor unlike desktop whicl lies flan on tables and monitors placed on it.

Fig 2.3: HP Pavilion XT978 mini-tower computer( Sushi, 2013)

Full tower

These computers are closely related to the mini tower except that they are a bit higher and wider in physical size than the mini tower.

Fig 2.4: Full tower PC (BuildIT, 2010)

2.1.2 Minicomputer

Mini computers are lower to mainframe computers in terms of speed and storage capacity. They are also less expensive than mainframe computers. Typically minicomputers have been stand-alone computers sold to small and mid-size businesses for general business application and to large enterprises for department-level operations (Rouse, 2005). It is further subdivided into:

Table PC

A tablet allows users to compute without the added bulk of a keyboard and mouse. These are similar to PDAs and have touch screens but they are larger and contain more operating power and storage (Ilyas, 2013). It generally has pen like stylus and accept handwritten input directly on the screen. They have keyboard on the screen through which input can be provided.

Netbooks

Netbooks are then newest form of minicomputer. They run on OS and can perform all tasks that a laptop computer perform. Most of the netbooks lacks optical drive, Bluetooth, PC cards however external optical derive can be connected via the USB port (Ilyas, 2013).

Handheld devices

These are also known as Personal digital assistants (PDAs), which are small enough to fit comfortably in the users' hand or pocket. They can easily communicate with other computers including desktop, by cables and wireless technology (Ilyas, 2013).

2.1.3 Mainframe computer

Mainframe computer can process data at very high speeds i.e. hundreds of million instructions per second and they are also quite expensive (Computer basics for beginners, 2009). These are larger than micro and minicomputer in term of size and faster in term of data processing speed. It uses its power to execute many programs concurrently and in some ways they are more powerful than super computer because of they support simultaneous programs (Gandon, n.d.)

2.1.4 Super computer

Supercomputer is a broad term for one of the fastest computers currently available. These are very expensive and most power computer and are employed for specialized applications that require immense amounts of mathematical calculations. It channels all its power to execute few programs as fast as possible (Gandon, n.d.). It can process billions of instructions per second and are used where intensive numerical computations such as stock analysis, weather forecasting are to be done.

2.2 Types of computer system on the basis of work

With the rise in computer technology, computer is being used in different purpose nowadays.

On the basis of work or task that computer should perform or assigned to do computer system extremely vary. A simple desktop computer system may not efficient for gaming purpose or vice versa. On the basis of work computer can be classified into.

2.2.1 Entry Level computer

Entry level computer system is the most common systems for home and general use. This system is powerful enough to perform basic task like to run office package, simple photo edition or watching movies or surfing Internet (White, 2005).

System Requirement for Entry Level Computer System

Computer Processor

Intel Pentium IV or Celeron running at 2GHz or better, or AMD Athlon, Duron or Semphon running at 1.5 GHz or better.

System Memory (RAM)

256 MB of DDR RAM or better.

Hard Disk Storage

40 GB or higher.

Optical Storage.

CDRW/DVDRW

Monitor

CRT

USB Ports

2.0 standard at least 4 ports.

Video

At least 32 Mb-often uses system memory

Audio

Should be included along with speakers

Network Adapter

Should be included (for Internet)

Table 2.1: System Requirement for entry level computer system. (White, 2005)

2.2.2 Business class computer

Business class computer system is common in business such as Departmental Store, Banking Sector and Governmental Organizations etc. It is slightly more powerful than Entry level computer system because of its higher hardware configurations.

System Requirement for Business class Computer System

Computer Processor

Intel Pentium IV or Celeron running at 2GHz or better, or AMD Athlon, Duron or Semphon running at 1.5 GHz or better.

System Memory (RAM)

512 MB of error correcting code (ECC) DDR RAM or better.

Hard Disk Storage

40 Gb or higher.

Optical Storage.

CDRW/DVDRW

Monitor

CRT

USB Ports

2.0 standard at least 4 ports.

Video

At least 32 Mb-often uses system memory

Audio

Should be included along with speakers

Network Adapter

Should be included (for Internet)

Table 2.1: System Requirement for Business class computer system (White, 2005)

2.2.3 Gaming computer

Unlike Entry level computer system and Business class computer system; these are specially built for Gaming purpose. These computer system are highly hardware configured to match any gaming software requirements like NFS, Delta Force, Dota, CS(Counter Strike) etc.

System Requirement for Gaming Computer System

Computer Processor

Intel Pentium IV or Celeron running at 3GHz or better, or AMD Athlon, Duron or Semphon running at 2.2 GHz or better.

System Memory (RAM)

2GB of DDR RAM or better.

Hard Disk Storage

520 Gb or higher.

Optical Storage.

CDRW/DVDRW

Monitor

17 incd LCD

USB Ports

2.0 standard at least 4 ports.

Video

At least 128 MB DDR RAM video adapter with Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) and heat sink

Audio

5.1 Dolby

Network Adapter

Should be included (for Internet)

Table 2.3: System Requirement for Gaming Computer System (White, 2005)

2.2.4 Workstation and Server.

Workstation and servers are specially designed to store important data and information at single computer so that every concerned people can access them when needed. The number of clients that access Server or Workstation at a time depends upon the purpose it is kept for. For e.g. a multinational company like Nokia may have higher Workstation hardware configuration than that of local banking system.

System Requirement for Workstations and servers Computer System

Computer Processor

Intel Pentium 4, Intel Xenon, AMD64, AMD64FX, AMD Opteron. System may support multiple processors

System Memory (RAM)

256 MB to 8 GB of DDR RAM or better.

Hard Disk Storage

1TB

Optical Storage.

Task Specific

Monitor

17 inch CRT

USB Ports

2.0 standard at least 6 ports.

Video

Task specific

Audio

Task specific

Network Adapter

High end Network Adapter

Table 2.4: System requirement for Workstations and servers. (White, 2005)

2.3 Software

Computer Hope (2013) defines software as a collection of instructions that enables a user to interact with the computer or have the computer perform specific tasks for them. Software is non-tangible part of computer which is set of collection of codes and instructions to be executed according to the user choice to communicate with computer and perform users' desired task when necessary. Software provides life to the computer without it computer would have been useless machine for us.

2.3.1 Types of Software

Different types of computer software are available in the global market which is used to simplify the operations and applications of computer programs. Computer software enables the computer system to perform in accordance with the given task.

Computer Software

System Software Programming software Application Software

Operating System Malware Adware

User interface

Utility Programs

Drivers

Fig 2.5: Types of computer software.

2.3.1.1 System Software

System software is that software which gives life to the computer hardware such as operating system. These are the primary software which is to be installed before any other software could be installed. These are of following types

Operating System

An Operating System (OS) is a software program or set of programs that mediate access between physical devices and application programs e.g Unix, Windows XP etc. An Operating System is a computer program that manages the resources of a computer (Balton, 2013)

Characteristics of OS (Hitachi ID Systems Inc, 2013):

Whether multiple programs can run on it simultaneously: Multi-tasking

Whether it can take advantage of multiple processors: multi-processing

Whether multiple users can run programs on it simultaneously: multi-user

Whether it can reliably prevent application programs from directly accessing hardware devices: protected

Whether it has built-in support for graphics.

Whether it has built-in support for networks.

User interface (UI)

User interface simply means by which user and computer system interact by use of input devices and software. UI refers to the parts of a computer and its software that user sees, hear, touch or talk to which allow user and computer to communicate with each other (IBM, 2013)

Utility Programs

Utility programs are those programs which carry out routine functions. Utility programs are designed to do one or perhaps two task very well and nothing else (Teach-ICT, 2013). Some of the well-known utility programs of Windows Operating system are Disk Cleanup, Disk Defragmenter, file compressor etc. Utility programs help in maintaining system in well condition.

Drivers

Driver software are very small programs that tells the computer how is should communicate with a connected peripheral devices. For Windows users, in most cases, drivers come with Windows or can be found by going to Windows Update in Control Panel and checking for updates (Microsoft, 2013). For e.g. user has to install printer driver software if he has to use printer for printing purpose, same is the case for scanner and in some cases even for speakers.

2.3.1.2 Programming software

This is one of the most commonly known and popularly used types of computer software by programmers. These software include text editors, compilers, debuggers and interpreters; compiler translate source code written in a programming language (C, C++, C#, Java, .NET etc) into the language which a computer understands (mostly binary form), compilers generate objects which are combine and converted into executable programs through linkers, debuggers check code for bugs and debug it and finally interpreters execute programs (Oak, 2013)

2.3.1.3 Malware

Malware refers to any malicious software (Spyware, Viruses, Worms, Trojan horses, scareware) and is a broader category of software that are a threat to computer security (Oak, 2013). These are self-replicating software which transfers from one computer to another without the knowledge of user or by user actions through plug and play devices (Flash drives). Malware are specially designed by hackers to get important information from victim without the knowledge of victim or just to destroy victims' data.

2.3.1.4 Application software

These are the most popular form of software among general users. It enables the end users to accomplish certain specific tasks (Oak, 2013). Some of the well-known application software are Microsoft office, Adobe Photoshop, MP3/video player etc. It process data for the user. Science reference (2008) defines application software as subclass of computer software that employs the capabilities of a computer directly to a task that the user wishes to perform.

2.3.1.5 Adware

Adware is web-based computer software with the means of which advertisements are played and downloaded to a computer (Oak, 2013). This are specially designed by programmers for companies to generate revenue by extracting user information like the websites he visits frequently and the pages he likes. For e.g: Adware is more popular in YouTube videos where ads are displayed on the sides of playing video.

Beside the mentioned software types, software also can be categorise according to their licensing. Types of software according to their licensing (Oak, 2013) are listed below:

Custom software

Off-the-shelf software

Free Software

Open Source software

Closed Source software

Proprietary Software

Shareware and Retail Software

Original Equipment Manufacturer Software( Albarracin, 2008)

Crippleware( Albarracin, 2008)

Demo Software( Albarracin, 2008)

Public Domain Software( Albarracin, 2008)

2.4 Computer System for Banking Sector

Bank is the financial institution which deals with money. Duhaime.org (2013) in 1992 Justice Atkin wrote "The bank undertakes to receive money and to collect bills for its customer's account. The proceeds so received are not to be held in trust for the customer, but the bank borrows the proceed and undertakes to repay them. The promise to repay is to repay at the branch of the bank where the account is kept, and during banking hours. It includes a promise to repay any part of the amount due against the written order of the customer addressed to the bank at the branch…. Bankers never do make a payment to a customer in respect of a current account except upon demand." Since bank deals with monetary transaction everyday customer information, flow of money, transaction information all should be updated regularly and should be secured. For this I recommend following computer system.

Hardware Requirement for Banking System Computer

Client Computer

Computer Processor (CPU)

Intel Pentium 4 running at 2 GHz or higher.

System memory (RAM)

2GB of DDR RAM or higher.

Hard Disk Storage

520 GB

Optical Storage

Task specific.

Monitor

17 inch LCD or LED.

USB ports

2.0 standard at least 4 ports.

Audio

Task specific.

Network Adapter

Must include with Hi-speed Internet

Server Computer

Computer Processor (CPU)

Intel Pentium 4 Quad Duo running at least at 2 GHz or faster

System memory (RAM)

8 GB of DDR RAM or higher.

Hard Disk Storage

1 TB at least with 150 GB of database space.

Optical Storage

DVD RW

Monitor

Super VGA (800 x 600) or higher resolution

USB prots

2.0 standard at least 6 ports.

Audio

Not recommended

Network Adapter

Must include with Hi-speed Internet

Table 2.5: Hardware Requirement for Banking Client-Server Computer System

Software Requirement for Banking System

Client Computer

Operating System Software

At least Windows XP sp3 or Windows 7 or Windows Vista.

Bitdefender Antivirus plus Antivirus or any other popular antivirus

Application Software

Microsoft Office Package 2007, Tally and other software according to task specific.

Database Software

Sql Server Express or Oracle Express

Server Computer

Operating System

At least Windows Server 2003, Recommended Windows Server 2008 or windows server later version or Linux Server OS

Database software

Sql Server Express or Oracle Express

Table 2.6: Software Requirement for Banking Client-Server Computer System

2.4.1 Client

A client is a piece of computer hardware or software that accesses a service mad available by a server. According to Brain (2011) the machines that are used to connect to server (service providers) are clients. A client is a part of Client/Server Computing who sends request for some service among various service provided by server for its functioning. A client uses small portion of service provided by server. A client can insert, update, delete or search data stored in server database according to need. The client request a service to be performed, service might be to run an application, query a database, print a document, or even perform a backup or recovery procedure (Scomptec, 2005)

In banking sector a client may be Cashier, Accountant, CEO, Manger, Branch Head etc. and each one of them may seek different service at the time and service is provided by server. Even though the job of these employee in bank varies with each other they all need almost same hardware and software system configuration computer for their job with some extra peripherals for some staffs. All client computer should have minimum above software and hardware configuration for fast, safe and proper banking functioning.

2.4.2 Server

A server is a computer hardware system dedicated to run one or more services to serve the needs of the users of other computers on a network. In client/server model, sometimes server is also called as daemon (Rouse, 2008). Server once activated waits for client request and once request is done by client it provides services requested by client. A server might provide multiple services for same client like HTTP, FTP etc or only one service at a time like either HTTP or FTP.

In banking sector a server computer might be one of the Personal computers of CEO or any other staff or bank may install one separate computer for server purpose. As number of client depends upon the size of organization the hardware requirement may vary with little exceptions. For e.g the number of client of Nabil Bank may is more less than that of client of Standard Chartered Bank so it is more likely that server of Nabil Bank is less powerful than that of Standard Chartered Bank. Server computer is installed in accordance with the number of possible clients at the time. In overall, for all bank a server computer with above hardware and software configuration is sufficient.

Task 3 Draw and explain basic block diagram of computer system with its all hardware & software components. (1.2)(M2)

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