Biometrics

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Introduction

Biometrics refers to the automatic recognition of individuals based on their physiological and behavioral characteristics [8]. Iris detection is a common method used for biometric authentication which encourages pattern-detection methods which depends on the high-resolution descriptions of iris of a person eyes.

Particularly in computer science biometrics is utilized as an identity access management & control. It also identifies individuals in the groups that are under examination. It is used to attain the high level of security. It is used for identification and verification:

In identification person is determined. It finds match for an individual's biometric information in a database which contains records of thousands people with their characteristics. This method needs time and a lot of processing power, especially when the database is large.

In verification a person is determined by what they say they are. It entails evaluating a person's information with saved information for the confirmation of the individual. This method as compare to above requires little processing power and less time.

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The common physical biometric technology regards:

  • Finger impression
  • Iris
  • Hand
  • Retina
  • Palm
  • Facial

Behavioral biometric methods are Tone or accent recognition, keystroke, way of walking, or signature. Here people get puzzled with one more optical method known as retina recognition. Camera is used in iris recognition methods, which build detail and rich images of delicate patterns of our iris. Iris is that region of the eye where colored, generally brown, blue, grey rings around the pupil of the eye is present.

Iris identification is suitable for much recognition because of its great speed of comparison. A major benefit of iris technique is its super firmness and image durability, a single entry in the database can last a lifetime.

Background

The iris in our eye controls the size of the pupils. It also controls the quantity of light reaching our eye. The iris can be black, green, red, blue, or brown and can be hazel (light brown) which makes the color of eye.

"Biometric" is made of two Greek words that are "bio" and "metric". Here bio means life and metric means to measure. Those methods which are used for analyzing and inspecting individual's characteristics are known as biometrics.

It is renowned that human iris have exceptional uniqueness. The iris recognition system consists of image acquisition, preprocessing, feature extraction and feature comparison [1]. Iris scan biometrics exploits the unique characteristics and feature vector of the human iris in order to identify an individual [2]. An iris detection machine comprise of a camera which captures an image of iris pattern. Then the software matches up the resulting information with the saved structures.

Aim

An extensive range of systems which require individual's authentication need reliable recognition methods for the accurate verification about the identity of an individual. The intention of such methods is to make certain about a genuine user access for the efficiency in service they are providing. This assignment is intended for the study of iris biometric authentications and will also conclude about iris biometric recognition methods. The basic aim of this assignment is to know that iris recognition is a very innovative system for person identification. It also includes the present and future use of iris recognition methods.

Literature Review

Based not on what a person has or knows, but instead on what physical characteristics or personal behavior traits they exhibit, these are known as biometrics - measurements of behavioral or physical attributes. [3] In general, a typical iris recognition system includes iris imaging, iris aliveness detection, iris image quality assessment, and iris recognition. [4] The iris in our eye is the elastic and connective tissue which controls the pupil. Once iris is fully formed, the structure and texture remains stable throughout individual's life. It is protected by the cornea and is the only internal organ seen from the outside.

Iris identification offers the maximum accuracy in identifying. This is because no two irides are alike as it has unique patters- not among in similar twins, even among the both eyes of an individual. Irides are also stable throughout the age; disparate other identifying characteristics that changes with period, the texture of one's iris is completely shaped by ten months after birth and always remains the similar for the lifetime.

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This technology combines multiple fields like computer vision, statistical inference, pattern recognition and optics. Its rationale is immediate, high assurance identification of a person by the help of statistical study of unsystematic texture that is noticeable inside the human iris through a little distance. Human iris can be used like an existing passport or a password which is not need to be remembered and is available all the time. The persons who proposed that iris biometric can be used to identify someone are Ophthalmologists Alphonse Bertillon and Frank Burch. [8] The algorithms and solutions for iris identification were first emerged at Cambridge University by John Daugman.

Landmark features, such as the outer iris boundaries and the pupil in the center of the eye help to mark the iris' borders. [5] Once located, the iris is captured with the help of a high quality camera, which in many cases emits infrared light to illuminate the eye without causing harm to the eye or discomfort. [6]

To gather information about lost money due to fraud and about the risk value companies uses application like bank cards. [2] Iris Identification can be functional on individual's identity cards, passports, hospital and schools security, information security, defense and border control and other Government programs, offices, buildings and restricted areas.

Techniques for Healthy Image

As we all know that iris is dark in color and very small in size so it is complicated to obtain good quality images and accurate detection. So some special methods are required to be followed for a precise and faultless exposure.

Iris Localization

In iris localization it is considered that internal and the external boundary of an iris is circular though these two circles are not co-centric usually. The pupil is much darker as contrast with the rest of human eye. The inner edge is identified among the pupil and iris while the outer boundary of one's iris is further hard to detect due to small contrast among the sides of edges. So the external edge is detected by huge alteration in the characteristics by which this method becomes very efficient and effective and is applied mostly.

Iris Normalization

It is very necessary to recover the deformation of Pupil of the eye for the use of perfect texture study. It becomes easier to plot the iris circles to a specific rectangular block of surface of a set size when the internal and external margins of the human iris are fully detected.

Image Enhancement

The actual picture build by the image taker may have heterogeneous light as well as has low contrast due to position of the light resource. These can change the output and results for the identification. The iris image is that's why enhanced by minimizing the effect of varying light effect in iris normalization step.

Assessment of Iris Biometric with Other Biometrics

As discussed, iris detection is much precise among the generally acknowledged biometrics methods. There are many aspects that are in favor of iris recognition for those applications which require storing bulky databases and information and of course immediate verification.

Accurate

Each human iris is exceptionally only one of its kinds. Iris identification precision is the richness of data present in the human iris itself. This is the only method which takes 240 degrees of liberty or distinctiveness when conceiving its algorithm. Palm Recognition, finger impression, hand geometry, and face detection are poor while algorithm building. Actually, now this is doubtless in stating that the iris pattern holds more data than the patterns of fingers, palm and face. One of the ground reasons is this for what iris detection validates by more confidence.

Stable

In iris recognition once an individual data is enrolled, then there is no need of re-entry, such obligations are infrequent. But with remaining biometric identification method variation in tone quality, mass, haircut, finger or hand dimension changes with the growth of an individual, or cuts can generate the need for re-enrollment. The template of the iris remains standard throughout the life

Fast

Speed is always considered in combination of precision, efficiency and accurateness, so none of the biometric technologies except iris techniques are able to give maximum exactness. Accurate verification in anything which is close to the concurrent performance of iris recognition can't be delivered by any other method.

Hygienic
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As there is no touch or physical contact needed during biometric recognition so it's purely hygienic and don't disturb individual.

Handling Databases

The one biometric verification method which is intended to build for quick examination is the iris identification which is ultimately designed to manage appliances involves supervision of great clients.

Applications

Current Uses

At present iris recognition is exercised at various kinds of machines where the identification is required like airports, government offices and agencies, banks, hospitals, and research laboratories. Some of the deployed applications are as follows:

  1. United States assembly, defense area, state, coffers and reserves are using as a public sector users. Many airports like in Charlotte, Canada, Amsterdam, and Frankfort in Germany are using iris recognition.
  2. Several other segment clients are Banks.
  3. UK's IRIS (Iris Recognition Immigration System) uses this technology in immigration system.
  4. All of the United Arab Emirate's UAE air, land and sea ports of entrance are furnished by iris recognition appliances. Foreigners having a visa are investigated by the planted image takers while entering into premises of UAE. Now over 330,000 individuals are recorded which are visiting UAE frequently.
Potential Uses

Future of iris recognition grasps immense guarantee on behalf of law enforcing use, similarly for the private businesses usage. All of these defense and safety innovations will create iris biometric technology more precise, accurate and make its practice more well-known.

  1. Iris detection methods have strength to prevail in along run. There is a predictable increase for the request of the goods using iris recognition within upcoming 1 to 2 years for health caring departments and to develop the efficiency in security of hospitals. Firstly, controlling is required, who have a right to use privileged information must be known, and hospitals can easily deploy this technology to link doctor-patient dealings in the system. This system can utilize medicine dispensing, prescription performance, and billings.
  2. To get right to individual's credit, it will be achievable soon that the eye can be use in a sales transaction as enrichment to privacy. Anyone could process the transaction with no other existing information due to the accuracy of iris identification.
  3. Iris identification technology could solve the hitch of usage of credit card during an e-commerce. With any earlier iris detection enrollment a person could send an image from its personal computer to give permission to check over the web about the credit account information.

Conclusion

Biometrics system like iris identification handles the data and information taken by the one's image. Such information privacy must be guaranteed by the tough algorithms and techniques. Safety, value, excellence and compatibility of technologies like biometric, must be encouraged by the help of standards. Hand geometry bears many challenges. Weather, temperature and medical conditions influence hand size and shape that is why re-enrollment is required to stay current. These challenges create hand geometry inappropriate for the high volume databases, bulky population applications. In a high speed setting, fingerprints templates do not comprises the accurateness, consistency or ability to hold large, diverse information. Facial recognition is relatively easy to fool. Factors that affect the results are age, facial, operation, head coverings, and masks. For this reason, it will most likely remain a surveillance tool instead of a baseline identifier. The iris structures remain unaffected throughout the age and do not disgrace over time or with the surroundings, for that reason the primarily registered data can be used in the one's entire life.

References

  1. Sandipan P. Narote, Abhilasha S. Narote and Laxman M. Waghmare. (Nov 2009). Iris Based Recognition System Using Wavelet Transform. IJCSNS. 11 (9), 101-104.
  2. Lakshmi Supriya. D . (2004). IRIS Biometric For Person Identification.. Available: http://www.docstoc.com/docs/27644711/IRIS-Biometric-For-Person-Identification/. Last accessed 29 April 2010.
  3. W. Shen, R. Khanna. (Sept 1997). Special issue on Biometrics. Proc. of IEEE. 85 (9).
  4. R. T. Al-Zubi and D. I. Abu-Al-Nadi. (May 2007). Automated personal identification system based on human iris analysis. Pattern Analysis & Applications. 10 (2), 147-164.

    ITU-T Technology Watch Report "Biometrics and Standards", 2009

    National Science and Technology Council: Introduction to biometrics. 2007.

    http://www.biometrics.gov/documents/biofoundationdocs.pdf

    Shrikanth Mohan, "Iris Recognition for Personal Identification"

    Web Links:

    • http://www.irisid.com/ps/technology/index.htm
    • Iris recognition - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.mht