Autonomous Tennis Ball Picker Robot Computer Science Essay

Published: Last Edited:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

 The basic purpose of this project is to provide opportunity and benefit to the sports players. They can do more practice in less time with the help of this robot. Various different electronic devices were used to pick the tennis ball or any other ball. It is not so easy for any tennis player to pick a ball lot of times during practice. It affects his practice and time.Autonmous tennis ball picker robot will save the time of a player. He can do more practice in less time. This robot is not only for a tennis player .it is easy to use and cost effective. Our design is not only for tennis, it can also be used in other sports involving balls of similar size.

Chapter 1: Introduction:

In the tennis and sports equipment market, there are very few advanced electronic devices assisting in the feeding and picking of tennis balls or any other kind of balls. Tennis players do not prefer picking up over five hundred balls after a long day's worth of drilling, or a baseball player would not enjoy picking up over five hundred baseballs on the ground from batting practice. As a result, our solution is an autonomous ball-picker device that is easy-to-use and cost-effective. Our design can be used for a variety of sports besides tennis, involving balls of similar size and weight.

Chapter 2: Literature Review

This Chapter is a review of the background material. This includes comparison of previous devices used for same purpose. it also includes the way how this robot is more effective then previous.?

Chapter 3: Modeling and Design

This Chapter describes the modeling of different parts of our robot. And all the various other

Design decisions and selections made throughout the course of the project.

Chapter 4: Experimental setup

This Chapter describes in detail the techniques used in our robot. It contains the detection of the ball, design of user interface and all other aspects of the project.

Chapter 5: Results and Discussion

This chapter provides a result of the project in which the key points of the project are

Discussed and any specific conclusions are drawn

Chapter 6: Recommendation

This chapter is an analysis of the project in terms of overall performance and working. It also contains overview and recommendation of experts

Chapter 1


Professional tennis matches can last upward of 3 hours, often with little more than 10 minute of rest in-

Between sets .The need to train for such endurance matches becomes difficult without a partner of

Adequate skill. For decades, tennis players have been using automatic tennis ball launching machines to train without the need of a partner.

Therefore, it is determined that using current technology, a player will spend ~35%of the total time collecting tennis ball, and not training. This is a large proportion of the time, and needs to be reduced to truly emulate a tennis match. There are certain method of automatically collecting tennis ball ,as will be investigated in section 3 - Proposed Solution ,but the e are not portable, and require extensive modification to the tennis court.

1.1 Needs Assessment

There is a need to improve upon the experience of the solo practice sessions of ball sport athletes by Extending the duration of consecutive shots, kicks or swing of the soloist through the conception of a ball-gathering system that operates while the solo athlete is in practice. Current practice session duration are limited by the number of balls initially loaded into the automatic ball launchers .At the end of practice sessions, or during intermissions, the ball must be manually picked up. Existing automatic ball return systems are not portable and cannot be used in conventional courts.

1.2 Goal Statement

The solution shall serve as a tool to improve the solo practice experience by gathering stray balls in Conventional practice environments and returning them to the user, or a more desirable location. The System shall also be relatively portable, and address the need of requiring manual collection of stray balls Following each practice session.

1.3 Human Controlled Manual Pickup

Human controlled manual pickup involves the use of a tool such a those seen in Figure 1: Manua Tennis

Ball Collection Mechanism .This type of solution require the user to top hi /her training session in order

to both collect the ball and load them back into the launching device. This solution will score well in the

area of cost and portability, but will obviously rank very low in terms of speed.


2.1 Introduction:

Any mechanical device which can be programmed to perform a number of tasks involving manipulation and movement under automatic control. The term robot suggests a machine that has a humanlike appearance. A robot is a system that has sensors, control system, manipulation power supplies and software's that work together and perform a task. Designing, building, programming and testing a robot is a combination of physics, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, structural engineering, mathematics and computing. A study of robotics means that students are actively engaged with all of these disciplines in a deeply problem-posing problem-solving environment.

A robot has these essential characteristics:


First of the robot should have an ability to sense its surroundings. It would not sense in that we sense our surroundings.


A robot needs to be able to move around its environment. Whether rolling on wheels, walking on legs or propelling by thrusters a robot needs to be able to move. To count as a robot either the whole robot moves, like the Sojourner or just parts of the robot moves, like the Canada Arm.


A robot needs to be able to power itself. A robot might be solar powered, electrically powered, battery powered. The way your robot gets its energy will depend on what your robot needs to do.


A robot needs some kind of "smarts." This is where programming enters the pictures. A programmer is the person who gives the robot its 'smarts.' The robot will have to have some way to receive the program so that it knows what it is to do.

2.2 History:

A robot is a virtual or mechanical artificial agent. In practice, it is usually an electro-mechanical machine which is guided by computer or electronic programming, and is thus able to do tasks on its own. Another common characteristic is that by its appearance or movements, a robot often conveys a sense that it has intent or agency of its own.

The beginning of the robots may be traced to the Greek engineer Ctesibius. In the 4th century BC, the Greek mathematician Archytas of Tarentum postulated a mechanical steam-operated bird he called "The Pigeon". Hero of Alexandria (10-70 AD), a Greek mathematician and inventor, created numerous user-configurable automated devices, and described machines powered by air pressure, steam and water.

In the 3rd century BC text of the Lie Zi, there is a curious account on automata involving a much earlier encounter between King Mu of Zhou (Chinese emperor 10th century BC) and a mechanical engineer known as Yan Shi, an 'artificer'. The latter proudly presented the king with a life-size, human-shaped figure of his mechanical 'handiwork' made of leather, wood, and artificial organs.

Al-Jazari (1136-1206), a Muslim inventor during the Artuqid dynasty, designed and constructed a number of automated machines, including kitchen appliances, musical automata powered by water, and programmable automata. The robots appeared as four musicians on a boat in a lake, entertaining guests at royal drinking parties. His mechanism had a programmable drum machine with pegs (cams) that bumped into little levers that operated percussion instruments. The drummer could be made to play different rhythms and different drum patterns by moving the pegs to different locations.

2.3 Modern era evolution in robotics technology:

In these days robotics technology has progressed much more than early nineteenth century. Many new technologies have been invented. Robots are used in many fields as discussed below

2.3.1 Industrial robots (manipulating):

An industrial robot is officially defined by International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The International Organization for Standardization gives a definition of a manipulating industrial robot in (ISO 8373).

Which is

"Automatically controlled, reprogrammable, multipurpose manipulator programmable in three or more then three axes which may be either fixed physically or mobile for use in industrial automation applications".

The typical applications of industrial robot are wilding painting, assembly, pick and place, packaging, product inspection, testing, all accomplished with high endurance, speed, and precision.

2.3.2 Service robot:

Most commonly the industrial robots are physically fixed and have manipulators and robotics arms for the production and distribution of goods. The International Federation of Robotics gives the definition of service robot which is

"The service robot is a robot which operates semi or fully automatically to perform services useful to the well being of humans and equipment, excluding manufacturing operations".

2.3.3 Military robots:

The robots are also used for military purpose. Such types of robots are autonomous or remote controlled robots. There have been some developments towards developing autonomous fighter jets and bombers. The use of autonomous fighters and bombers to destroy enemy targets is especially promising because of the lack of training required for robotic pilots; autonomous planes are capable of performing maneuvers which couldn't otherwise be done with human pilots.

2.3.4 Mobile robot:

These types of robots have capability to move around in their environment, they are not fixed to the physical location. The best example of the modern robot that is commonly used in these days is Automated Ground Vehicle (AGV). An AGV is a mobile robot that follows markers or wires in the floor, or uses vision or lasers. Mobile robots are also found in industry, military and security environments. They also appear as consumer products, for entertainment or to perform certain tasks like vacuum cleaning. Classifications:

A mobile may classified by:

The environment in which they travel:


Autonomous underwater vehicles.

Unmanned aerial vehicles.

The sources they use to move mainly are:

Human like legs.

Wheeled robots.

Tracks. Mobile robot navigation:

There are many types of mobile navigation. Manual remote

This type of robot is totally under control of a person with the help of some joystick or with the help of any other controlling device. The device may be plugged directly into the robot, may be a wireless joystick. Line-following robot

Some of the earliest Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs) were line following mobile robots. They might follow a visual line painted or embedded in the floor or ceiling or an electrical wire in the floor. Most of these robots operated a simple "keep the line in the center sensor" algorithm.

Mathematical modeling

3.1 Modeling of structure:


Where b is the damping force

We also know that

b = rolling resistance + air drag

Rolling resistance = µmg

Air drag = ½ρСdA (V+V₀)²

So we get

b = µmg + ½ρСdA (V+V₀)²


ρ = air density

Cd = air resistance

A=front resistance coefficient

V=vehicle speed

Vâ‚€=head wind velocity

We know that the driving force is given as:


T = torque

η = transmission coefficient

ir = over all gear ratio

rd = radius of tire

Now put driving force in equation (2)

We know that


Put in above equation

Now Take Laplace

By taking common


3.2 DC Motor Speed Modeling:


e =back emf


Put in equation (1)

By taking Laplace

…………………. (1)




i=armature current

Put the value of "T" in above equation

Take Laplace

Put value of ""from equation (1)

Material use

We are using aluminum due to following properties

Aluminum is a very light metal with a specific weight of 2.7 g/cm3, about a third that of steel.

the use of aluminum in vehicles reduces dead-weight and energy consumption while increasing load capacity

Aluminum is ductile and has a low melting point and density

Dc motor

We are using power window motor due to high torque because in this motor worm gears which is best for producing very much torque and sufficient speed