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Wireless Internet is also called Wireless Web, Mobile Internet, and Internet Wireless.
Wireless Internet means access the internet through a wireless devices, For Example laptop, cellular telephone , PDA, etc… , Using Wireless internet any person can do their day today activities like e-mail, e-banking, communication, conferencing, etc.., In addition to that can be accessed weather and travel information, etcâ€¦ any where any time.
Advantages of wireless Internet
Efficient use of resources
Less susceptible to disruption
Capacity can be added, removed or reallocated more easily
To enable users to bring their own laptop, therefore reducing the cost of owning many PCs.
To enable you to easily move PCs.
Disadvantages of wireless Internet
Technology is newer and more expensive for some applications
Radio Frequency (RF) characteristics make
high data transfer rates more difficult with wireless than with wired
Wireless signals are relatively easy to intercept
Frequency spectrum saturation
Scope Of The Survey
What are the current wireless internet technologies
Give detailed view about each technology
Compare each technology by giving advantages & disadvantages of them
What are the new trends of wireless internet and the improvements of them with compare to current technologies
Current Wireless Internet Technologies
LEO IEEE 802.11 IEEE 802.16 LMDS 1G-Analoge Cellular
MEO (WIFI) (WIMAX) MMDS 2G-Digital Cellular
3G/3.5G Mobile WiMAX
Detailed view about each technology
Mobile Wireless Internet Technologies
First Generation mobile wireless technology (1G)
First Generation mobile wireless technology (1G) are analog , voice-only cellular, telecommunications standards, that were Introduced in the 1980s. One such standard is NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephone), used in Nordic countries, Eastern Europe and Russia. Others include AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System) used in the United States, TACS (Total Access Communications System) in the United Kingdom, JTAGS in Japan, C-Netz in West Germany, Radiocom 2000 in France, and RTMI in Italy.
Second generation wireless technology(2G)
Second generation mobile wireless technology is based on GSM was launched in Finland in the year 1991, 1G technology use analogue radio signals but 2G technology use digital signals to transfer data,but both technologies connect to the tower using digital signals ,In 2G voice call is encoded to digital signals but 1G signals are modulated to higher frequencies like 150 MHz and up.
There are three common technologies used by 2G cell-phone networks for transmitting information
Time division multiple access (TDMA) -GSM,PDC(japan),iDEN(US,Canada),IS-136(US)
Code division multiple access (CDMA) -IS-95(US,Asia)
The term “2.5G” usually describes a 2G cellular system combined with General Packet Radio Services (GPRS). that means it implements a packet-switched network domain in addition to a circuit-switched domain. It can be provide data rates 56 kbit/s-115 kbit/s and also Services like Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) access, Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS), and for Internet communication services such as email and World Wide Web access.
EDGE Defined as GPRS with 8PSK encoding, EDGE was introduced in 2003, EDGE achieves higher data-rates (up to 236.8 kbit/s)
Third generation wireless Internet(3G)
Third generation mobile wireless technology is based on International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000), 3G is collection of standards mobile telecommunications which includes UMTS, and CDMA2000 with non-mobile wireless standards DECT & WiMAX, Compared to 2G and 2.5G services, 3G allows simultaneous use of speech and data services and higher data rates (at least 200 kbit/s). today 3G systems can provide up to 14.0 Mbit/s download speed and 5.8 Mbit/s upload speed.
Mobile WiMax(IEEE 802.16e)
Mobile WiMAX or 802.16e standard was introduced by the IEEE in late 2005 as real competitor to 3G technologies, However South Korea elected to take a mobile WiMAX compatible standard called wireless broadband (WiBro) to market. WiBro/Mobile WiMAX uses an OFDMAâ„¢ technology called 1K-FFT. Service for the WiBro/Mobile WiMAX standard is in the 2.3 GHz spectrum range at least in Korea. The technology can be easily adapted to other licensed spectrum.
Wireless Wide Area Networking Technologies
WIMAX(Interoperability for Microwave Access)
Wimax is a telecommunications technology that offers transmission of wireless data via a number of transmission methods; such as portable or fully mobile internet access via point to multipoints links. The current WiMAX revision provides up to 40 Mbit/s which is based on Standard IEEE 802.16, it also called Broadband Wireless Access and it was formed in Mid June 2001
Wireless Local Area Networking Technologies
WiFi uses radio waves to provide wireless high-speed Internet and network connections. WiFi is owned by the organization ‘Wi-Fi Alliance’, and it is based on IEEE 802.11 standards.
802.11a transmits at 5 GHz and can be provide data rate up to 54 Mb/s and it uses technology orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM).
802.11b is the slowest and least expensive standard which transmits at 2.4 GHz can be provide data rate up to 11 Mb/s and it uses complementary code keying (CCK) modulation to improve speeds.
802.11g transmits at 2.4 GHz and it can provide data rates up to 54 Mb/s. 802.11g is faster because it uses the same OFDM coding as 802.11a.
802.11n is the newest standard that is widely available and it can achieve data rates up to 140 Mb/s.
Fixed Wireless Internet Technologies
LMDS (Local Multipoint Distribution System)
LMDS is a technology for broadband microwave wireless transmission direct from a local antenna to homes and businesses within distance 1.5 miles (2.4 km) . LMDS offers a download speed up to 1.5 Gb/s and 200 Mb/s upload speed. LMDS commonly operates on frequencies across the 26 GHz and 29 GHz bands. In Europe, (ETSI) is equivalent technology. In Canada, it is called Local Multipoint Communication Service (LMCS) and it is based on IEEE 802.16.1 standards.
MMDS(Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service)
MMDS provides digital video- and Internet- (including VoIP) access using various over-the-air microwave frequencies. Services are provided within distance 20 miles or 32 km from the transmit site. MMDS commonly operates on frequencies across the 2 GHz and 3 GHz. The MMDS band was separated into eleven “channels” and Each “channel” was capable of 10 Mbit/s
Satellite wireless internet technologies
Communication via satellite can be done using one or two way dish. Satellite dish was placed minimizing the interference with other satellites . the dial-up connection can be used for uploading purposes and the satellite internet connection can be used for downloading data. Mostly, the two-way communication dish is preferred by residential users and small businesses. The two-way internet service is characterized by Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) and single channel per carrier (SCPC).
There are three satellite constellations,
GEO (geostationary earth orbit), LEO (low earth orbit) and MEO (middle earth orbit).
low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite is placed in between 160 – 2,000 km above the Earth’s surface.
Medium Earth Orbit (MEO), satellite place in between 2,000-35,786 km above the Earth surface
High Earth Orbit(HEO) , satellites place in between 35,786 km above earth surface
Comparison of wireless internet technologies
Compare some wireless internet technologies
3GPP Release 7
HSDPA widely using today, Typical download rates 2Mbit/s, upload ~200 kbit/ HSPA+ download up to 56 Mbit/s.
Use 16QAM modulation like HSDPA+HSUPA
288.9 can gain 600 using 40Mhz channel width
throughput and/or spectra efficiency (310km &382km
WiMAX update to IEEE 802.16m expect download speed up to 1 Gb/s fixed speeds
LTE update to LTE-Advanced expect rates of at least 1 Gb/s fixed speeds and 100 Mb/s to mobile users
Compare throughput of the wireless internet technologies
Maximum Download Speed(Mb/s)
Maximum Download Speed(Mb/s)
Typical Download Speed(Mb/s)
GSM GPRS Class 10
GSM EDGE type 2
GSM EDGE Evolution
UMTS W-CDMA HSDPA
up to 124 mi
4.1 (Tre 2007)
UMTS W-CDMA HSUPA
up to 124 mi
UMTS W-CDMA HSPA+
up to 124 mi
CDMA RTT 1x
Future trends of wireless internet
Why world move towards new wireless technologies
Requirements of the people are increasing day by day also so they need to communicate and get connected with each other and get information at any where any time, that increase the demand for mobile wireless technologies.When the demand increase the major wireless service providers keep on monitoring the growth of new mobile wireless technologies. North America, Europe and Asia Pacific total mobile uses in 2010 is expected to grow up to 2500 million and penetration will be greater than 50 percent So to survive from this kind of demand growth, need new wireless technology with higher capacity and higher data rates, so world move towards 4G,LTE Advance, IEEE 802.20,IEEE 802.16m technologies.
(T.Saito et al ,2009)
Trend towards 4G over 3G
3G network not compatible with demand of higher data rates so wireless world move towards fourth generation (4G) wireless networks, it will expect to support above 100 Mbps data rates and also high quality video and audio than 3G technology because of 4G networks consist of some advance technologies like Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) and Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) , 3G networks are based on ITU-T, IMT2000 standards but 4G standards are not defined yet.
OFDM and OFDMA can be used to effectively allocate resources of the network to multiple users. In addition to that 4G is expected to provide higher security and lower data transmission latency than 3G. The emerging 4G will be fully packet-switched network. All the elements of the network must be digital and also 4G services have some key features like adaptability and dynamism.
Throughput of the 3G only greater than 2, but throughput of 4G is greater than 200, moreover operating frequencies of 3G is 900,1800,1900,2100(MHz) but 4G operates on 2-8(MHz) frequency , so data transmission is more efficient in 4G than 3G, in addition to that signal coverage of 3G technology is greater than or equals 6 miles but in 4G signal coverage is greater than or equals 30 miles.
Trend towards IEEE 802.20 -Broadband Wireless Access (MBWA)
The IEEE 802.20 is designed for support internet client in vehicle which is moving speed up to 250 Km per hour . IEEE 802.20 supports Qos to give good quality, low-latency services like IEEE 802.16e, and also like IEEE 802.16e its uplink and downlink are synchronous but in 3G uplink and downlink are Asynchronous. IEEE 802.20 is support global roaming facility with the support of 3G, but with compare to IEEE 802.18e it only support local roaming facility.
IEEE 802.20 made up of combining good features of 3G and 1EEE 802.16e and reducing the limitations of them.
Trend towards LTE-Advance
LTE uses Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) technology to gain good frequency performance, and also it uses single-carrier FDMA(Frequency division Multiple Access) technology, LTE support Multiple Input Multiple Output( MIMO) technology in order to gain good spectrum usage and increase coverage. LTE also support SU-MIMO(Single User MIMO) and MU-MIMO(Multiple User MIMO) and also LTE support spectrum between 1.4-20 MHz. Latency of the LTE is very low (10-20ms) with compare to other technologies. Low latency is very important feature for time critical application like online gaming, etc , And also LTE only use packet switched domain which leads simple protocol architecture.
LTE-Advanced can be defined as LTE plus IMT-Advance requirements and it is backward compatible with LTE , With compare to LTE, LTE-Advanced is support collection of multiple carriers which help to gain higher transmission rate with compare to LTE using multiple frequency blocks each have 20 MHz bandwidth. And also LTE-Advanced is support DFT-S-OFDMA combining with aggregation improves user throughput and uplink capacity. With compare to LTE, LTE advance also support SU-MIMO but will have eight uplink and four downlink which improve user throughput and spectrum usage. LTE advance also introduce relay stations to improve coverage, newly introduced technology for LTE-Advanced is relay stations which expand the signal coverage.
When compare Peak Spectrum usage efficiencies(b/s/hz) of LTE and LTE-Advanced, Peak Spectrum usage efficiency of LTE is greater than 5 in downlink and greater than 2.5 in uplink, but Peak Spectrum usage efficiency of LTE-Advanced is greater than 30 in downlink and greater than 15 in uplink. When Consider average spectrum usage efficiencies(b/s/hz), LTE has 1.6-2 spectrum efficiency in downlink and 0.66-1.0 in uplink, but in LTE Advanced has 2.4-3.7 Average spectrum efficiency in downlink and 1.2-2.0 in uplink. So Peak and Average Spectrum efficiencies both uplink and downlink in LTE-advance is greater than LTE .
Operating Bandwidth of the LTE is 1.4-2.0(MHz) and Operating Bandwidth of LTE-Advanced is greater than 100(MHz), Connection setup delay of the LTE is greater than 100 and, in LTE Advance it is greater than 50, so LTE-Advance is more efficient than LTE
Because of advantages of LTE-Advanced researchers found that world will move towards LTE-Advance technology over LTE.
Trend of IEEE 802.16m over IEEE 802.16e
Current WiMAX technology is based on IEEE 802.16e but next generation WiMAX will follow IEEE 802.16m standard which is extended version of IEEE 802.16e. so it will support basic WiMAX technologies like OFDM, TDMA/FDMA, MIMO, in addition to that, it will be also introduced extended MIMO technologies. IEEE 802.16e is using two antennas to transfer and receive data, but IEEE 802.16e will use 8 antennas to transfer and receive data moreover it will support SU-MIMO technology which help to gain high data transmission rates, furthermore, MU-MIMO, Multi-BS MIMO technologies are being considered. And also Multi carrier technology is being introduced to support higher throughput.
Hierarchical frame structure is being included in IEEE 802.16m, which is being consisted of super frames and sub frames to improve spectrum usage efficiency. It is being decided to introduce another new technology is femtocell technology which improve the throughput, in addition to that multihop relay system is supported to the IEEE 802.16m in order to overcome low signal strength in indoor due to the loss of penetration through building, so multihop relay system increase signal strength and that leads wide signal area, high indoor troughput.
Future Of WIFI
When consider the recent history of WIFI in 2009-2010 main target of WIFI was access points and laptops, but 2010-2011 it is and it will be mobile devices like mobile phones, PDA , etc, then 2011-2012 main target of WIFI will be consumer electronics like TV, Cameras, etc, 2012-2013 and beyond main target of WIFI will be embedded systems. That is the deployment road map of WIFI, more over current WIFI technologies are IEEE 802.11n and IEEE 802.11w, main purposes of these technologies are Throughput efficiency and security, future WIFI technologies will be IEEE 802.11v, IEEE 802.11s, IEEE 802.11aa, IEEE 802.11ac, IEEE 802.11ad, Main purpose of IEEE 802.11v will be power efficiency, and Main purpose of IEEE 802.11s will be compatible with mesh networking and Main Purpose of IEEE 802aa/802ad will be high throughput.IEEE 802.11v will expect to available to public in end of 2010, IEEE 802.11s and IEEE 802.11aa will be available in 2011, and IEEE 802.11ac/ad will be available 2012 0r beyond .
IEEE 802.11s will be capable of using mesh standards, self configure in to multi-hop wireless technologies where access point from different manufactures. And also IEEE 802.11s support different functional requirements of Applications like, some Applications require large scale high throughput and some require quick setup. IEEE 802.11v Systems to control the clients connect to it which leads to efficient use of system infrastructure so using that can improve performance of the system.
Internet was introduced early 1980 but it became more popular after 1990, from that day wireless internet technologies have became more and more popular until today, it will be more popular in the future to match with the complex life style of the people , that means when the world develop with other fields, requirements of the man is increasing rapidly when the requirements are increasing, Collection of data, services over data, communication requirements is being increased , so data can be able to access any where any time and also any person can be able connect other people any where any time to exchange ideas, that is why world move towards wireless technologies, because of its mobility, so demand of wireless technology is being increased so existing wireless technologies couldn’t bear such a high capacity and can’t provide higher data rates and bandwidth.
For a solution to that problem we can see how 1G,2G,3G,3GPP LTE, etc like new technologies have introduced and became more popular time to time to satisfy communication and data requirements of developing world, when reading the document can be found out how technology increase and how data rates, capacity, bandwidth has increased according to the improvements of the technology, but performance requirements are not the only reason for introduce new technologies, some people need low cost solutions with fair data rates, for a example WIFI IEEE 802.11b over 802.11a which 80211b is cheaper than 802.11a.
Today, demand for the wireless technologies are increasing more rapidly, to survive from that, in future world will move towards 4G,IEEE 802.16m,LTE-Advanced,IEEE 802.20 technologies over current wireless technologies like 3G, LTE, WIFI, WiMAX, etc, because current wireless technologies cannot provide higher capacities and data rates that the world is asking in future.
According to the document wireless technologies also have disadvantages like security issues, data rate issues, cost issues over wired technologies, but over that disadvantages, people cannot survive without wireless technologies because of the reasons above mentioned.
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