An Egyption scribe used non-standard hieroglyphs in an inscription about 1900 BC. Example of written cryptography is the first documented that lists by Kahn. A piece of flat stone carved into a collage of images and some writing to identify themselves in trading dealings in 1500 BC antique Assyrian merchants used in intaglio. The ‘digital signature’ produced by this mechanism. This ‘signature’ belongs to the trader, but they only have that intaglio to produce the signature. The reversed-alphabet simple replacement cipher known as ATBASH is used by Hebrew scribes writing down the book of Jeremiah in 500-600 BC. A small number of Hebrew ciphers of the time are only one that is ATBASH. ‘Skytale’ a device used called by Greek which is a staff around that a long, thin strip of leather was wrapped and written on. The leather was taken off and worn as a belt. It would seem that a matching staff and the encrypting staff would be left home by the recipient.
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In the field of 100-44 BC in government communications used a simple substitution with the normal alphabet by Julius Caesar. This produce only in a little amount, but it is not stronger like ATBASH.When this read by few people it was good enough. Julius Caesar didn’t trust the messengers but trusted his associates. Inspired the solution of a cryptogram in Greek for the Byzantine emperor by A.D Abu’ Abd al-Rahman al-Khalil ibn Ahmad ibn Amar ibn Tammam al Farahidi al-Zadi al Yahmadi wrote a book on cryptography in 725-790. Plaintext at the massages start was based on the result. It was a regular cryptanalytic technique and used still in WW-II in opposition to Enigma messages. Kahn has found the first model of the nomenclature. A grouping replacement alphabet and small code compiled by Clement VII at the appeal in 1379 Gabrieli di Lavinde.
For the next 450 years this class of code was to stay in common use in the middle of diplomats and some civilians. There were stronger ciphers being imaginary in the interim in the face of the truth, probably because of its relative expediency. The manipulative a cipher disk to make things easier the process, its make-believe and available the first polyalphabetic cipher at 1466 Leon Battista Alberti. Until the 1800’s, this type of cipher was actually not working. In addition his own creation, Alberti wrote expansively on the position the art in ciphers. He also used the disk for enciphered code. These systems were much stronger than the nomenclature. The first book wrote on cryptology at 1518 Johannes Trithemius. Each letter was represented as a word taken from a succession of columns that make-believe a steganographic cipher. The now-standard form of rectangular substitution tables is described as polyalphabetic ciphers. The notion of varying alphabets with each other introduced by Johannes Trithemius.
The key for a repetitive polyalphabetic cipher is introduced at 1553 Giovan Batista Belaso the opinion of using a passphrase. Introducing the digraphic cipher wrote a text on ciphers at 1563 Giovanni Battista Porta. Transposition, substitution and symbol substitution are classified as ciphers. To confuse the cryptanalyst he uses the optional of synonyms and misspellings. The first authentic plaintext and cipher text auto key systems together with wrote a book on ciphers at 1585 Blaise de Vigenere. A biliteral cipher known today as 5-bit double encoding at 1623 Sir Francis Bacon described a cipher which now bears his name. Dr.Robert Patterson make-believe his wheel cipher perhaps aided at 1790 Thomas Jefferson. The father of US cryptanalysis was in a job as a civilian cryptanalyst at Riverbank Laboratories and performed cryptanalysis for the US Government is be honored at 1917 William Frederick Friedman.
The Enigma machine was taken over and superior upon to become the cryptographic workhorse of Nazi Germany at 1933-1945. But the Enigma machine was not profitable success. U.S. Data Encryption Standard preferred with changes by the US NSA based on the Lucifer cipher a plan at 1976 by IBM. “New Directions in Cryptography”, introducing the suggestion of public key cryptography in print by Whitfield Diffie on 1976. The Diffie-Hellman was stimulated on 1977, paper and acting as complete novices in cryptography, Ronald L. Rivest, Adi Shamir and Leonard M. To make a useful public key system had been discussing by Adleman. The full scientific report to anyone submitting a self-addressed, stamped envelope offer was included in the Scientific American article.
‘An application for a New Block Encryption Standard’ a planned International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) was published on 1990 by Xuejia Lai and James Massey in Switzerland. The warning by the FBI to require access to the clear text of the interactions of citizens. PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) was the unrestricted first description on 1991 by Phil Zimmermann. The earlier RC2 and RC4 algorithms included in RSADSI’s BSAFE cryptographic library the author was Professor Ron Rivest on 1994. The user can vary the block size, number of rounds and key length, if the algorithm uses data-dependent rotation as its non-linear operation and parameterized.
Introduction to Encryption Systems
Encryption is a process to encrypt the messages that can be readable by the person who knows how to decrypt the messages. This method has been used for over 2,000 years. The encryption is refers to the translation of a data into a secret code by using the algorithms. In the science of cryptography the process that involved is encryption. The messages must be securely sent. These messages could be numeric data, text or secret codes. For example, Missile Launch Codes. This encryption systems providing privacy for the authorized people’s communications. The receiver must have a ‘key’ to decrypt the message to return to its original plain text form. The key that use to decrypt the message is trigger mechanism to the algorithm.
Nowadays, encryption systems is the advent of the internet and public used it rarely. Moreover, these systems became largely military tool. There are used this systems in many field. Such as banking, online marketing, healthcare and other services. Even the average householder is aware of the encryption. When an address beginning with https that shows that web browsers is encrypt text automatically when connected to a secure server. When connected to a secure website, even the browsers automatically encrypt the information but many of them still choose the use of the encryption to do their email. The feature plug-ins or interfaces for the popular email clients will be easily accomplished with the help of encryption program. The most popular and longstanding is called PGP (Pretty Good Privacy), a name for very strong military-grade encryption program. It will be allowed to not only for the messages, but also may used for the personal files and folders as well. When the information travels between the computers, interception of the transmission that cannot be readable because it was in unreadable gibberish. Even there are many types of encryption but not all types of encryption are reliable.
Other than that, there are same computer that yields strong encryption that can be used to break weak encryption schemes. Earlier years, they used 64-bit encryption and they taught that was quite strong but it was break by the 128-bit encryption. This is the standard encryption and this will not change in the future. It was undoubtful.The data makes private by the strong encryption. But, it is not compulsory will be secure. If the used data wants to be secure, the recipient must be positively identified as being the approved party. The digital signatures or certificates are usually accomplished online.
Types of Encryption
The encryption consists of 5 types of encryption systems. There are manual encryption, transparent encryption, symmetric encryption, asymmetric encryption and email encryption. Firstly, manual encryption. This type of encryption involves the use of the encryption software. This encryption encrypts the computer programs in various bits of information digitally. User’s participation must completely involve in this encryption. If the wants to encrypt the file, the user have to choose the type of encryption from a list that provided by the security system. This may use in the personal computers. For the reason that is the user easy to encrypt the personal files in a way they like, and also it will be protecting the personal material on a computer. Secondly is the transparent encryption. This encryption can be downloaded onto a computer to encrypt everything automatically. This is the most protected type, since it doesn’t leave out anything. The computer has an encrypt duplicate in every executable appliance and folder that formed endure authority surges and defends information in casing a computer is stolen.
In addition symmetric encryption also defined as one of the type of encryption. By using this type of encryption can easily encrypt information by own self. For an example, a letter or number coincides with another letter or number in the encryption code. The code can make by ourselves. Such as a=1, b=2 and so on. Besides that, asymmetric encryption is a safe and easy way that can be used to encrypt data that will be receiving. This type will do by electronically. The public key can be seeing by whoever want or post somewhere. Others can encrypt the information and send it back. There is also another key even the public key decipher that is private key. This key has only one person have. This means the data will encrypt by public key but it can be read only by the whomever has the private key.
Lastly the email encryption is typically same as asymmetrical encryption method. This method is the emails that in inbox cannot be read by others especially by the hackers. There are 2 types of email encryption. The result in who gets the private key to the email is the first an email supplier. The client of an email address is given by regularly. The second type is managed over who gets the key gives by the user. This way the encrypt emails can read by others who have the private key given.
Types of Encryption Software
There are two main encryption-software types:
Disk-encryption software, which protects mutually programs and data
Data-encryption software, which protects just data
Disk Encryption Software
This type of software also called as full-disk-encryption software that used to protects the complete hard drive. This including the operating system, all software programs and its folders and files except for the MBR (Master Boot Record). Disk encryption hardware will protect the whole hard drive as well as MBR. This software no needs to buy, it will be already contain in a new computer or upgrade to a new operating system. For instance, Microsoft Vista and Windows 7 Enterprise and Ultimate editions. This software will protect the computer when not using it only. The laptop must switch off when not using it.
Data Encryption Software
This type of software will protects the chosen folders and files in an implicit ‘vault,’ ‘volume’
Or ‘safe’. In the computer must be store all the sensitive data in a virtual vault. When the virtual vault is closed only the data encryption software will protects the data. Whereas not actually working on any data within it should always closed the virtual vault.
Process of Encryption
1The Encryption Process
Binary message is very simple process of encryption
The binary message is simply xor’ed with another binary sequence
The second sequence must be random
Example: Let the message be “ECE 101”
Using ASCII encoding, we get:
45x 43x 45x 20x 31x 30x 31x
In binary form:
01000101 01000011 01000101 00100000 00110001 00110000 00110001
Now select a random sequence of equal length, example:
1010011 1000011 0101101 1101110 0110010 1010001 1101010
The encrypted message is then:
2The Decryption Process
To decrypt the encrypted message it must be xor’ed with the same random sequence that was used for encryption.
Fundamentally, this works because
$0 oplus 0 = 0$and $1 oplus 1 = 0$
$x oplus 0 = x$, for x=0 or x=1.
3Comparison of secret key and public key cryptography
Uses of Encryption
There are five uses of encryption:
Uses of encryption
The person correspondent or the recipient can normally be implicit of encrypted data
The inside of the message have not unintentionally changed will be checking
The recipient that the correspondent is the real creator and not someone else by the verification
The messages have not been lost or interfered with when do the verification
Proof of Origin
The message came from the declared correspondent is providing to the third party
Types of Encryption Algorithms
There are six types of encryption algorithms. They are RSA, DES/3DES, Blowfish, Idea, Seal and RC4. The key length is discerned by the strong encryption used the algorithms.
The idea of a public key system was proposed in 1977. After, this proposed the 3 mathematicians, Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir and Len Adleman give a concrete example of how the method can be implement. A private and public key was used by this system and this method refers to RSA Scheme. This system used the term n=p*q.
U.S was developed and endorsed the Data encryption Standard (DES) in 1977 as official standard form. A block cipher with 64-bit block size that uses 56-bit keys by DES. Some of them not concern about the DES secure. The Triple-DES (3DES) has emerged with a strong method. With the help of DES/3DES giving it a cumulative key size of 112-168 bits.
This is like a symmetric block cipher same as DES or IDEA. The blowfish was created on 1993 by Bruce Schneier. Then it gets acceptances as a strong encryption.
On early 1990s the International Data Encryption Algorithms (IDEA) by Dr.X.Lai and Prof.J.Massey in Switzerland replacing by the DES standard. This system uses encryption and decryption at 8 bytes in a time.
In 1993 Software-optimized Encryption Algorithm (SEAL) was designed by Rogaway and Coppersmith. Block Ciphers is slower than Stream Ciphers. This SEAL is considered very safe because it has 160 bit key.
Ron Rivest was invented RC4 cipher. Commercial systems like Lotus Notes and Netscape was used this cipher. This cipher used 2048 bits (256 bytes) key size. It relatively fast and strong ciphers.
Advantages and Disadvantages
Encryption is playing a most important role in day-to-day. Even it play role in important, there also have some negative points.
The information that stored in the computer from not permitted access-even from people who not have access the computer system that can be defend
An aggressor can cooperation the encryption series itself
The transmission from one computer to another computer can protect the information
An aggressor might find a earlier anonymous and comparatively simple way to translate messages encrypted with the algorithm that using
The data can be used to deter and detect accidental or intentional alterations
The deleting all the data cannot be prevent by attacker
To know the author of the document can be verify
Before it is encrypted or after it is decrypted could access the file by attacker
Cryptography VS Encryption
The science and study of secret writing is defined as cryptography
The desktop-computer insurgency has made it likely for cryptographic techniques to become widely used and accessible to no experts
Cryptography is a part of the history, on the ancient years complex based codes and algorithms and machines was created
By having some secure communications the Enigma machine was developed by Germans, throughout the World War I
The secret Ultra project through World War II was Enigma codes that decrypted by the British
Users suggestion is always encryption of the unbelievable on system, or the holder or the law of the enforcement
This system changed a plaintext to the cipher text, which always has the look of casual
The encrypted form called as cryptogram, the process of the encryption will be determined by the encryption algorithms
The transformation will be truthfulness, genuineness and privacy provides by the encryption
The information that send by the A is authentic and has not been tampered
4Figure 2.1 Image Encryption Algorithm Property Comparison Table
Importance of Encryption
This is a very mysterious subject. The administration seems have no realistic application outer surface. The computer has distorted the age. In this world has do whole thing was recorded on computers that was connected to the Internet. There are many areas use encryption:
The outsiders cannot snatch a copy of the transit that will assure by the encryption. The transit will be going between the commerce with many places of work locations needs to send computer data files among themselves.
The encryption system allows them to hide the information among themselves when dissimilar people share the computer system. But nowadays almost they share similar in some form.
The possible document only can read by the person who designed the encryption. Even others have the physical access to it. This issue modified encryption keys to the people.
If everybody keeps their personal data in encryption form, this was worried by the law enforment authorities. Because of this, they tried a limit of using the strong encryption by the general public. The encryption software treats as military ammunition by the laws of the United States of America and it will be allowed export with case-by-case permission from the government.
Examples of Encryption
There are few examples of encryption. This example can easily break by the unauthorized people. By this examples, can understand more about the encryption.
EncodeThis type will be the reverse of whole message. If someone want to look the encrypted words, they can see the words by the backwards.
Example: hello olleh hello
EncodeThe letters incremented by one so a becomes b, b becomes c and so on. The message will be more easier when incremented. By this type of encryption also others can see the letters.
Example: hello ifmmp hello
EncodeThis is done by flipping every two characters. This is done by switched the 1st and 2nd letters, 3rd and 4th letters and so on. This also easy to encrypt the letters again.
Example: hello ehllo hello
EncodeThis was made by Julius Caesar. This can be seen in the history. This also can be easily broken. The encrypted message is being used to replace the real message.
Example: hello khoor hello
Challenges and Technologies
5The encryption is very useful to the worldwide. Even it is useful, there are some challenges that faced by the encryption:
GLBA compliance and emerging technologies by Paul Rohmeyer, Contributor – The second decade of managing information risks under the regularly oversight of Section 501.
RSA 2008: Financial industry security challenges – The unique security challenges facing the financial industry its talks by the Executive Director Ed Zeitler. This can put strain on IT.
Overcoming USA Patriot Act challenges – This was contributors by Michael Rasmussen and Michael Landers. The authority to regulate various activities of financial institutions and they required them to maintain anti-money laundering programs.
Regulatory and competitive forces – The privacy laws are required to protect identity and personal financial information from unauthorized parties.
Key management challenges and best practices – This explains that to all procedures related to generation, exchange, storage, safeguarding, use and replacement of keys.
BITS releases guide for implementing email authentication protocols – 500’s consumer-facing services brands adopted DKIM and Sender ID (SIDF), Microsoft’s version of SPF. The challenge is to locating all their sources of email.
6Other than that, there some technologies in the encryption. RSA encryption system was the top of the list, it developed by Ronald Rivest, Shamir, and Leonard Aldeman in the late of 1970 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Security Sockets Layer (SSL) is a public-key encryption seems widely used in client-to-server applications. It was developed by Netscape and supported by Microsoft browsers. This SSL was suffered from its complex computation system, which prolongs the time it takes to perform the encryption and decryption processes. Besides that, Pretty Good Privacy (PGP), also a technology was developed by Phil Zimmermman. It was released on 1991. This was easy to use and strong encryption. After 1996, PGP was launched as commercialize the software. Then, Zimmerman man continued to develop more the PGP. There are some companies operating over a large network to protect the information on their hard drives, the program was Symantec Corp’s Norton Your Eyes Only. On 2000, Windows 2000 was equipped with automatic encryption schemes. Alternatively, the programs could encrypt data onto a company server and allow with authorized access the files to decrypt them.
7Language that used to develop the encryption
The application in programming language must be in order form to develop it. There are two popular and relevant high level programming languages that is Java and C#. The features in terms and portability were compares between Figueroa & n.d. and Java and C#. By this comparison can be identify which has the better performance in processing images. The both languages are portable based on the study. The architectures and operating systems in different to run a program in flexibility is refers to portability. The term of the programming languages was only portable for C#. Java in the other hand is portable for in source code, hardware and OS. When manipulate the image is converted into matrix where elements of the matrix represent a pixel of the image. There are two types of size, they are vector size and matrix size. C# is faster when both sizes are greater than 4096. Java is faster when processing small sizes.
8Technique of encryption
Younes & Jantan, 2007 has proposed a simple and strong method for image security using a combination of blocks based image transformations and encryption techniques. The original message divided into blocks, which is rearranged into a transformed image using a transformation algorithms and then transformed image is encrypted using the Blowfish algorithm. Without the key, encryption and decryption process cannot take place. The following figure shows the model of the proposed technique:
Figure 2.2 An Overview Diagram of the Proposed Technique
Depending on the key supplied by the different cipher codes have the similar image. The confidentiality and security will provide when the image based data transferred with the help of suitable user-defined key. The resulting image will not be generated because of the result of hash embedded inside the image file. The below figure shows the architecture proposed:
Image Encryption Model
(An encrypted image)
Decrypted (Original) Image
Image Decryption Model
User Defined Key
Figure 2.3 The Architecture of the Image Encryption and Decryption Model
The future of encryption is brighter than ever before. The protection of corporation information assets and third-party information is increasing spectacularly and it is demand for more control. Even five years ago, the amount of information being communicated and stored by electronic means is hugely great. The information security products are growing at a higher rate than any other aspect of IT technology must be more effective within the enterprise today. From the perimeters of communication, the Internet and the mobility of its users have removed it. For the modern day enterprise the last line of the defense is encryption.
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In future, the encryption systems will be more useful to the users. Moreover, this encryption is tough, complicated, jargon and it is not user friendly. Even, by the IT people also cannot know what is actually encryption. How about the the common people. Many of them said that encryption is so great, why Microsoft did not use this. Because it is very expansive, too advance for the unknowledgeable persons and is not simple to use it. In future, the encryption will improve the PIN security. The unique encryption key can be used only by the EFT networks members only. But this costs high implementations, since some of the ATM owners ignored it. The remote key distribution may improve the compliance rates. There are 6 critical market drivers that will be the shape the future encryption  :
Email privacy and regulatory requirements – The global enterprises provided easy way exchange information can conduct the business electronically by the Internet and adoption of Internet protocols.
Increasing compromises and unauthorized access to critical business information – To improve the quality and level of protection enterprise employ to guard their information assets and the assets of their customers and business partners.
The expanding enterprise – The increasing number of regulations are aimed in a part at ensuring enterprises maintain and fulfill their fiduciary responsibilities.
User mobility – Ensure that the information during travel safe and the electronic communication also remain safe as it is transmitted across the Internet.
Communications appliances – Credit card may need protected for much longer periods of time.
The Art of Storing and Retrieving Corporate Information Assets – There are emerging the solutions for how to communicate among the various enterprise members in a secure manner.
The future of the encryption will be using by electronically for the purpose of enterprise conduct business. In future the encryption and the innovation of the applications providers. At Backblaze is protecting the privacy of the users data is a top priority that means encryption system. This is easy to use as a key part of the vision and makes the product hard to use for the encryption. For the military grade encryption made easy by mix of the public/private and symmetric key algorithms.
The encryption is refers to the translation of a data into a secret code by using the algorithms. In the science of cryptography the process that involved is encryption. The messages must be securely sent. These messages could be numeric data, text or secret codes. For example, Missile Launch Codes. This encryption systems providing privacy for the authorized people’s communications.
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