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Change is the transition from one type to another. Every organisation has a specific goal. Change in organisation to attain specific goal. Change is the fact of business life. Change improves the functioning and performance of organisation. In today's business world, change is predictable. In order for organizations to be successful and stay competitive, they must be able to adjust to change, which is very difficult to do because of various barriers. The three main barriers to organizational change are lack of change readiness, poor leadership and poor communication. For the purpose of this article, we will be only discussing the barrier of poor communication.
In order to implement any kind of change there needs to be good communication. Communication needs to be combined among employees going every which way-up, down and across - every employee must be included. If employees don't feel like they have been communicated to properly, they will most likely not follow the change agent or leader. If leaders in fact want to lead, they need to communicate and include its followers in every step of the change process. Employees are more likely to get on-board with the change process if they participated and contributed to the plan.
A common definition used for change management is a set of processes that is employed to make sure that important changes are implemented in an orderly, controlled and systematic fashion to effect organizational change. One of the goals of change management is with regards to the human aspects of overcoming conflict to change in order for organizational members to buy into change and achieve the organization's goal of an orderly and effective transformation.
Organizational change management takes into consideration both the processes and tools that managers use to make changes at an organizational level. Most organizations want change implemented with the least resistance and with the most buy-in as possible. For this to occur, change must be applied with a structured approach so that transition from one type of behaviour to another organization wide will be smooth.
In most cases, management's first responsibility is to identify processes or behaviours that are not proficient and come up with new behaviours, processes, etc that are more effective within an organization. Once changes are identified, it is important for managers to estimate the impact that they will have to the organization and individual employee on many levels includingtechnology, employee behaviour, work processes, etc.
At this view of management should assess the employee's reaction to an implemented change and try to understand the reaction to it. In many cases, change can be extremely beneficial with lots of positives; however certain changes do sometimes produce a tremendous amount of resistance. It is the job of management to help support workers through the process of these changes, which are at times very difficult. The end result is that management must help employees accept change and help them become well adjusted and effective once these changes have been implemented.
Types of change
Mainly there are three types of change in organisation. They are;
- Developmental change,
- Transitional change, and
- Transformational change
Developmental change occurs when there is a need for development in any organization. This change is to change the current existing system and to make it better. This change does not change the entire system but instead makes small developmental changes. This change is called developmental change.
Transitional changes are the changes in which the complete change from the existing system is needed. This change is implemented within a duration of time and for this different steps and plans of implementations are used, This change is very effective and is used to make high development in organizations.
Transformational change is the change which is implemented so as to survive in the business market. This transformational change is not planned or soes not use any implementation steps but it just happens in course of time and hence it is the most interesting. The business organization tends to transform from one state to another. This is called transformational change.
Need of change
Many organisations face the problems of tackling change and its implementation. The need of change mainly occurs due to the rapid development in various different fields that are related to the business field and organizations. These various fields are technology, infrastructure etc. Technology is the major field that undergoes rapid change within short duration of time period. The companies come across different technologies and are bound to be using these technologies as they bring in a lot of development to the organization. The introduction of computers and software was a major breakthrough in the field of business. This made the companies to implement this technology as it was very efficient and had all the aspects that could help for development of the business organization. This software get updated and become better every year and hence the companies are more bound to use them and hence they implement the change. These changes are implemented and managed by the change coordinators of the organization. These are the major needs of change and change is a normal routine.
Levels or Steps in change implementation
Change implementation is the main function of the managers or change coordinator of the organisation. In an organisation before implementing the change, the change coordinator must know the merits and de-merits of that change. Then he must take the opinion about his subordinates. The decision take in change is a major part of every business organisation. So the coordinator must communicate in all levels and take all opinion about the change. There are six major steps take when apply the change. These are;
- Define the change: - Define the change is the first stage in which the manager or the change coordinator of the organisation. He must do the detailed study about the change to be implemented and find out the merits and de-merits of the change. Then he asks the opinion about the change in his subordinates and people.
- Receive change request: - Receive all requests for changes, perfectly through a single change coordinator. Change requests can be submitted on a change request form that includes the date and time of the request.
- Plan for implementation of changes: - After receiving all requests the coordinator plan what, which, or when the change implement will done. They choose the more suitable change and then plan to implement it.
- Implement and monitor the changes: - At this stage, apply the change and monitor the results. If the required result is not achieved, or if other systems or applications are negatively affected, back out the changes.
- Evaluate and report on changes implemented: - Provide feedback on all changes to the change coordinator, whether they were successful or not. The change coordinator is responsible for examining trends in the application of changes
- Modify change management plan if necessary: - In this stage the coordinator remove the negative aspects of change. It will give a good positive result in business.
Communication means of exchange of ideas one person to another. It is a process through which an information, idea or opinion is transferred to more number of persons. The information transferred must be understandable to the receiver. The word communication has been derived from the Latin word 'communis' which means common. Thus communication means sharing of ideas in common. When we communicate we are trying to share information or ideas. Thus communication takes place when one person transfers information and understanding to another person. It is refers to the exchange of ideas, feelings, emotions, knowledge and information between two or more persons.
There are two types of communication, internal communication and external communication. Internal communication means communication between different persons or departments within organisation. Communicate with different levels. Higher level, Middle level and Lower level. In a business communication flows are upward, downward, horizontal and crosswise.
There are different types of internal communication. They are oral, written, visual, verbal and non verbal communication.
- Oral communication: - The majority of organisation used oral communication. Oral communication means communicate with two people in face- to- face, telephone or intercom system. Generally oral communication used in group discussion, interviews, meeting conference. Oral communication is faster and less expensive to compare with other communication system.
- Written communication: - written communication means sending message in letter, circular, office memo, telegram etc. Generally Written communication moves downwards. The main advantage of written communication is, it is readily available for future reference. The main draw backs is time consuming and expensive.
- Visual communication: - visual communication means when a message is received through the eyes. It is generally used in meeting and other business conference.
- Verbal communication: - verbal communication means the exchange of message through the use of written or spoken. in other words verbal communication means one way for people to communicate face-to-face.
- Non verbal communication: - Non verbal communication means message communicated without words. In nonverbal communication actions, facial expression and symbols are used. Non verbal communication mainly used to wish someone. Greetings, letters, touch, expression etc.
Process of communication
The communication process indicates seven major points such as sender, encoding, message, transmission channel, receiver, decoding, and feedback. Communication can break down at any one of these elements.
- Sender: - The communication process starts with sender. Sender is necessary for communication. Without sender there is no communication. The sender wishes to send a message to the receiver.
- Message: - The message means what the sender wants to convey to the receiver. Message is necessary for communication. Message like words, letter etc. Every message has a reason or objective.
- Encoding: - Encoding the matter is a important part of communication. Using appropriate words and symbols can make the message clear and useful. To encode is to put message into words or images.
- Transmission channel: - The channel is the medium of sending message from one person to another. Channel necessary for sending message one person to another. In face-to-face communication air is the channel. In a written communication letters and reports are the channel. Without channel there is no communication.
- Receiver: - Every communication has a receiver. The receiver is a person or a group for whom the communication effort is intended. If the message does not reach a receiver, communication has not taken place. The situation is not much improved if the message reaches a receiver but the receiver but the receiver doesn't understand it.
- Decoding: - Decoding is the process by which the receiver interprets the message and translate it into meaningful information. Decoding involves two things: one is technically receiving the message as it has been sent, and the other is interpreting the message the way sender wants receiver to understand.
- Feedback: - feedback is reaction. Without it, the sender of the message cannot know whether the recipient has received the entire message or grasped its intent. The need for feedback should be clearly understood.
Barriers of communication
Communication barriers refer to the problems that stand in the way of effective communication. These communication barriers give rise to many interpersonal and interdepartmental problems. There are often the main source of confusion and conflict in an organization. Even in the best of communication system, there are some defects which become barriers to effective communication. Some of these barriers are the following.
- Physical barriers: - Organizational communication is a two a process. In a communication process, on the one end there is the sender and on the other end there is the receiver. This separation constitutes physical barriers. The environments of both the parties are separated.
- Psychological barriers: - psychological barriers arise by the feelings, fears, desires and hopes of persons involved in communication. These exist both in sender and receiver of the communication. The higher level authority can control the same to a limited extent by hard work and will.
- Language barriers: - Communication message must be understandable to the receiver. Words mean different things to different people. Language by its very nature is incomplete and creates communication problems. In organizations, people come from different regions, different back grounds and speak different languages. People will have different academic backgrounds, different intellectual skill.
- Mechanical barriers: - The defects in the devices used for communication are simply external and often met within the control of the parties engaged in communication. The telephone, the postal system, the telegram, computer, internet my break down or suffer from disturbance and may not convey the message properly.
- Overload barriers: - The effectiveness of communication is likely to be hampered when messages are overload with wealth of information. When overload comes, many of the important information's may be deleted and misinterpreted.
- Status barriers: - There are different hierarchical statuses in an organization. These hierarchies are ranked according to the status. Organizational communication takes place within the parameters of these status relationships and these status relationships stand in the way of true and accurate information.
Barriers of change
There are number of barriers to successful change - both in terms of implementing it and equally if not more essentially satisfying it. The important barriers of change are given bellow:
- Not enough understanding about the change itself and poor arrangement following it. For example, no clear vision, direction, priorities
- Lack of leadership is needed to motivate and connect people's energies as well as to keep persistently moving forward
- Lack of focus and strong project management of the change
- No engagement and/or buy-in of key stakeholders
- No clear process for managing endings and beginnings, and co-ordinating the change process
- People's issues/ barriers to change are not defined and there are no actions to address them leading to low appointment, poor confidence.
- People practices are not reviewed is needed to ensure the change is sustained and to enable people to operate in a new way
- Successes are not predictable, communicate is needed to increase the pace of change and increase promise to the new way of doing things.
- Progress is not measured and the learning is not reviewed is needed to sustain the change
The most important developmental factor in every business organization is the implementation of change. Change is thus considered as a normal procedure or activity in every organization. Change implementation and change management is one of the major concerns of every organization. Change management is the major concern of the manager who implements the change. These managers are called change coordinators.
The main activity that helps the change coordinators to implement change is internal communication. Internal communication is the communication between the employees within the same organization. This internal communication helps the managers to introduce the change in the organization. Using the different flows of communication the change coordinator must communicate with the concerned employees and convince them about the development that the change can bring about. The feedbacks from the concerned employees are also very important as they help in bringing about improvement in the change that is implemented. All this happens with the help of internal communication. internal communication continuously helps to monitor the change and its results and hence proves very effective for change management. Hence internal communication proves to be very important for change management and implementation.