EXTENDED INTERNET USAGE
The first question that arises in our mind when we are talking about the internet is “What is Internet?”. So Internet is basically Network of computers that is connecting millions and millions of computers globally.
Over the past 4 decades Internet has undergone a huge transformation from being used in academic research and moved into a broader platform of commercial usage. With each and every passing day Internet is turning into an indispensable and essential part of our life. With each and every step taken towards improvement of the internet every sphere of our life is directly getting affected; it is not only making our tasks much easier but also saving us a lot of time
2. Uses Of Internet
1. Communication (Fig-1): It is one best things that internet has introduced worldwide. It is very easy nowadays to communicate with people who are living very far away from us with ease. Earlier it was a very difficult task to accomplish; now we can directly chat with people very easily. Video Conferencing is making it easier for people actually see each other while talking.
Fig-1 (Communication) Fig-2 (Research)
2. Research (Fig-2):Few decades whenever we had to do some research we had through hundreds of books to find something which is of relevance. Since internet came into being we can say that “everything is just a click away”. We can easily search our topic using several search engines available to us using internet thus saving us a lot of time.
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3. Education (Fig-3): There are books, reference books, study materials, Web-help centers are available online which makes education an easy and interesting experience. Websites are available that can help you gain knowledge about everything without taking the help of any other individual. There are tutorials and even test series available in the internet so that one can test this knowledge.
Fig-3 (Education) Fig-4 (Financial Transaction)
4. Financial Transactions (Fig-4): With the use of internet Financial transactions a have become a much easier task as it was few years ago. Now instead of physically being present in the bank, we can directly log into the bank website and with the help of the provided authentication documents by the bank. Once we are inside our account we can do any transaction at our will. We can also do fixed deposits and Guaranteed investment Schemes directly through our online account
5. Real time updated (Fig-5): Any kind of news updated or any other happening or decision taken in once part of the world is available to us real time using the internet. There are websites available online through which we can actually get updates about almost every field be it business, finance, sports, entertainment, politics, Railways and airplane tracking.
Fig-5(Real time Updates) Fig-6(Leisure)
6. Leisure (Fig-6): From watching videos to listening to your favorite music, watching movies, playing games, chatting with friends and family; all these leisure activities we do in our free time are with the use of internet only. Whenever we get time we prefer doing activities in the internet which would help us relax. Internet is something which can help us freshen up our mood in few minutes.
7. Online booking (Fig-7): Online booking of airplane tickets, movie tickets, railway tickets are not only hassle free but also easier task to accomplish. Instead to standing in a queue for hours we can now directly book tickets through the internet using desired website. Thus, making this process a less tedious and more reliable job.
Fig-7 (Online Booking) Fig-8 (Job Search)
8. Job Search (Fig-8): There are countless number of websites available in the internet that gives us the information about vacancies in various companies. Even online application for the positions available. Job portal websites once anyone gets registered with them they will send you mails mentioning openings as per choice.
9. Blogging (Fig-9): People nowadays are interested in writing blogs. They have the option of publicize their work and it can reach people who as looking for a similar topic to discuss about. There are a lot of website available which can be used to write a blog, only registration with the website is required. Really good blog writers are sometimes contacted by big organization to write a blog about them. Moreover using Google AdSense money can also be earned on per click basis.
Fig-9 (Blogging) Fig-10 (Shopping)
10. Shopping (Fig-10): Online shopping has become one of the most attractive thing to do in the internet. People don’t have to leave their home just open some websites, Browse through the website and order their desirable product. One of the advantages of online shopping is that everything is available in each and every website. The product is directly delivered to your home. Product can also be returned back to the vendor if it not of good quality.
3. Extended Internet Usage
Now as we have seen some basic uses of the internet. Let us discuss some more advanced uses. Even though there many additional uses of internet but we are going discuss about 4 main topics in this research paper.
Internet protocol Television(IPTV) is an assembly in which Television services are distributed over an IP network in a digitized form. So we can say that it uses the existing broadband network to deliver us a TV service which is more reliable, efficient and data is 100% digital, thus improving the overall quality over an analogue TV
Voice Over Internet Protocol(VOIP) is a system in which voice conversation can be conveyed over the IP network. The end user in a VOIP network has the authority to make telephone calls over the Broadband network. The Network used in such type of connections can be through the internet which makes it global or Intranet which makes it local the Inside Network of the company.
- Cloud Computing:
Cloud Computing is a process in which data is stored in a Large centralized server or data storage unit. Thus providing an online access to the stored data as per requirement of the end user. The data stored in the cloud not only is shared my multiple users at the same time but also can be reallocated as per demand of the end user. Thus reducing the storage, power and space of data by using the same data for multiple users.
Miracast is basically a HDMI based dongle which is used for live streaming of Video and Audio channel without using an Access point. So a device which uses a point to point network technology which allows different devices to connect to each other using Wi-fi direct thus allowing them to share live streamed data.
Now we will have an in-depth discussion of each and every topic separately discussing about their architecture, functioning, advantages & etc.
IPTV is basically an internet based television service which uses networking and architecture methods of the IP system over a Packet switching network structure. IPTV has 3 main groups in which it can be classified
- Live Television
- Time-Shift Program
- Video on Demand
IPTV uses a set-top box which uses a broadband IP data network to access channels, subscription services and other multimedia services over and safe and end to end network.
IPTV services are sometimes bundled with internet access and VOIP services altogether over the same infrastructure. IPTV is not as simple as someone watching a video over the internet. IPTV connection to home provided by telecom companies uses optical fiber and digital subscriber lines (DSL) to set up a link towards a housing compound. For Cable operators they use a hybrid fiber co-axial (HFC) cable to provide a broadband connection to the subscriber.
IPTV incorporates the procurement, processing and safe delivery of all video content over an IP based Setup. The service provider uses various other service providers like satellite TV carriers, cable TV carriers, Telephone companies and private network operators to bundle up a single service which is provided to the end user.
Figure. 11 shows the basic block diagram for a simplified IPTV system
Fig-11(Simplified IPTV network)
4.2 Features of IPTV
There are some notable features of IPTV listed below
- Interactive TV: Rather than providing a half-duplex connection of the rudimentary cable TV connection, IPTV delivers us a two-way connection thus providing us an interactive TV packaged with services like High definition TV(HDTV),interactive games, learning programs, High speed internet browsing & many more.
- Time Shift: IPTV when bundled with a digital video recorder (DVR) provides the end user the capability to record programs as per his choice. Thus providing him an option to time shifting of programming content. There are service providers who provide 7 days’ worth of data to be recorded in the DVR.
- Personalization: Due to a full-duplex bi-directional connection between the service provider and the end user, personalization option of the set-top box is available. The user can personalize what to watch, when to watch as per his comfort.
- Low Bandwidth Requirement: IPTV technology allows the service provider to stream only one channel which the end user has demanded rather than delivering each and every channel subscribed by the user Thus allowing the service provider to conserve bandwidth and reducing cost.
- Accessible to Multiple Devices: End user have the option of using their mobile, computers & laptops to access the IPTV services instead of using television.
4.3 Architecture of IPTV
The diagram (Fig-12) given below shows us the architecture of IPTV
Fig- 12-IPTV System Architecture
The functional blocks of IPTV architecture is given below
- Super Head End: The channels from the national broadcasters enter the IPTV network from here. The content here is processed, prepared and stored for transmission.
- Core Network: IP/MPLS Network technologies are used for transporting the traffic and to gain access to the network.
- Access Network: IPTV data streams are distributed to the DSLAMs
- Regional Head End: All the area specific local content is added to the network here.
- End User Premises: This is the termination point for the IPTV data stream. All Data is viewed at the customer end here.
One super head available in the network can be used to serve millions of customers in the network by processing the video channels common to end users across the whole area. The IPTV delivery system is constructed in such a way that it can cover a large expanse of territory over the hierarchy of structure built to deliver the video content. Offices are located in each territory which are specially constructed to handle area specific local program and channels.
4.4 IPTV Networking Technologies
The diagram (Fig-13) shows the structure of IPTV and Standardization bodies
Fig-13 (IPTV Activities & standardization bodies)
- DLNA: Digital Living Network Alliance is used for setting up the home network.
- HGI: Home Gateway Initiative sets up the standard adjoining the gateway between end user home network and broadband connection
- ISMA: Internet Streaming Media Alliance sets up the broadcast of the AVC video over IP.
- DSL Forum: Digital Subscriber Line is used for remote-management of residential gateways and set-top boxes.
- ITU: International Telecommunication Union standardizes the Distribution and access network architecture.
- ETSI: European Telecommunications Standards Institute standardizes the IP network used for transmission of the IPTV.
- ATIS: Automatic Terminal Information Service is standardizing the end to end IPTV architecture including contribution and distribution
4.5 Advantages of IPTV
- The signals which are used IPTV service s are 100% digital signals so better quality and easier to propagate.
- IPTV works on the existing internet connection, So if there is an available internet connection only the set-top box is needed to be installed and IPTV services can be used.
- IPTV services doesn’t require any kind of wires to get its signal. So a wireless system reduces the overhead of wires and wear & tear of the wires with time.
- Programs can be stored in servers and can be viewed in accordance to the will of the end user thus providing flexibility.
VOIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) is a process of communication in which the user can make telephone calls over the IP network. To transmit voice Signals/Conversation over the existing Data network (Wireless/Broadband) using Internet protocol VOIP is used. VOIP technology can be used over the internet as well as over the local intranet for communication within the company or special private network which are used specially for long distance calls.
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