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According to (Robins & Judge, 10th, p.2), Organizational Behavior studies the influence and impact that individuals, groups, and organizational structure have on behavior within organization for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization's effectiveness.
In the business world today, Organizational Behavior is an essential tool for managing effective teams and it helps to understand and predict human behavior in an organization. It studies on how organizations can be structures more accurately, and how several events in their outside situations effect organizations. It has become more significant today than in previous years because organizations must master to adapt to the rapidly changing business cultures that have stemmed from a competitive market.
In order to know how to handle a new workforce, and cope with the challenges of the new environment, the employers need to deliver their message about behavior and attitude of groups, and individuals in corporation. According to Graham and Krueger (1996), soft skills were never a part of management training and it was precious that employers were advised for possessing those skills. If employer can understands on an employee's adaptability, personality, and creativity, motivating that employee the way he need to be motivated is never a gray area and a guaranteed success.
Question (A): Why it is important to study Organizational Behavior?
The study of organizational behavior is one of the most significant elements in the management sciences, as it makes management learn from what has succeeded elsewhere. Generally, financial strength is a measure of the organizations past success. What determines whether the organization will continue to deliver sought-after products, will continue to develop cutting edge technology, will continue to make the right options about which direction the market is going to go, will continue to make sound investments, is the people and the organizational culture and structure.
According to Casey Reader (2010), different organizational structures will show different types of organizations that each has strengths and weaknesses. There are four main elements which are Motivation, Culture, Change, and System. According to Motivation, it draws that individual behave differently when they are in groups. Major of the study of organizational behavior has aimed on how best to motivate group of individuals. Professionals have figure that it often doesn't matter exactly what you do, but merely that employees are aware of your efforts to motivate. Based on Culture, when individual communicate with one another over an extended period of time they intentionally to deliver a selective culture that determines how tasks get completed and common attitudes. Organizational theorists tend to practice this culture and how it influences behavior. Strong cultures align with the overall goals of an organization, such as having an emphasis on innovation. On the other hand, weak cultures degrade from business goals, and cause conflicts, such as overemphasizing bureaucratic rule-following. Today, Motivation and Culture are important to practice with Organizational Behavior because major organizations are encouraging team approach to solve difficulties. Today's post-industrial hi-tech organization requires knowledge intensive work environment and demands creativity from its own employees. Employers gave awareness to Organizational Behavior or soft skill training. The industrial revolution created the wants for hard skills. Employees who work in production line and were not required thinking or communicating to each other. But now, instead of standing behind the production line, employees need to sit in front of a computer, and control machine equipment who works in the production line. Now, employees are not only required to learn new technical skills but also how to communicate, negotiate, decentralize, and motivate within each other.
Based on (Morgan, 1997: 5), we have to accept that any theory or perspective that we bring to the study of organization and management, while capable of creating valuable insights, is also incomplete, biased, and potentially misleading. Organizational behavior shows the important key points as Regulatory, and Radical. Basically, Regulatory helps to draw what goes on in organizations, possibly to present minor changes that might improve them, but not to make any basic judgment about whether what happens is correct or incorrect. Radical tends to make judgments about the way that organizations ought to be and provide recommendations on how this could be accomplished. Traditional organization used to practice Regulatory while new modern organization tends to act Radical. To well organize in budget controlling, new modern organization in today doesn't willing to give a long time for bank credit card's salesperson to hit their sales target. New modern organizations urge to get the results from salesperson whereas the salesperson should hit their monthly sales on time and accurately, if the salesperson failed to hit the target continuously in few months, employers reserved the rights to terminate the employee. Conversely, traditional organizations used to act Regulatory whereas Hire and Fire policy will never be the options for a traditional organization to behave. Employers are patient enough and they're willing to spend times to educate, guide, and monitor an employee's performance.
Based on (Taylor, 1911: Fayol, 1949), the orthodox view in organization theory has been based predominantly on the metaphors of machine and organism. The metaphor of a machine underwrites the work of the classical management theorists. According to Figure 1, it draws the three concepts for understanding the nature and organization of social science, which is Paradigms, Metaphors, and Puzzle Solving. Metaphor plays an important role in organization behavior. Metaphor is frequently regarded as no more than a literary and descriptive device for embellishment, but more fundamentally is a creative form which generates its effect though a crossing of images.
Based on Figure 2, by Burrell and Morgan (1979), functionalist paradigm, which is also named as objective-regulation, is the first paradigm for organizational study. It's also a strong outline for the study of organizations and assume that rational human actions and believes one can be understand through the hypothesis testing. Due to the problem-solving orientation which is leads to rational explanation. It seeks to provide rational explanations of human affairs and it's pragmatic and deeply rotten in sociological positivism. Relationships are concrete and can be identified studied and measured via science. Functionalist paradigm is based on upon the assumption that society has a concrete, real existence, and a systemic character oriented to produce an ordered and regulated state of affairs, it encourages an approach to social theory that focuses upon understanding the role of human begins in society. Behavior is always seen as being contextually bound in a real world of concrete and tangible social relationships. The functionalist perspective is primarily regulative and pragmatic in its basic orientation, concerned with understanding community in a way which arise useful empirical knowledge.
According to Figure 2, by Burrell and Morgan (1979), interpretative paradigm, which is also called as subjective-regulation, is the paradigm whether organizations exist in any real sense beyond the conceptions of social actors, so understanding must be based on the experience of people who work in them. Basically, individuals seek to explain the stability of behavior from the selective viewpoint. Interpretative also explain the behavior from the individual's viewpoint. It emphasized the spiritual nature of the world. The interpretative social theorist tends to understand the process through which shared multiples realities arise, are sustained and changed. Like the functionalist, the interpretative approach is based on the assumption and belief that there is an underlying pattern and order within the social world. However, the interpretative theorist looks the functionalist's attempt to institute an objective social science as an unattainable end.
Question (B): How this learning may be useful to you in the future?
According to (Krech, Cruthfield and Ballachey, 1962), leadership draws as a personality trait. Leadership has traditionally been seen as a distinctly interpersonal phenomenon demonstrated in the interactions between leaders and subordinates. The differential characteristics and career experiences likely to influence the development of these selected skills also are considered along with the implications of these observations for leadership theory and for the career development of organizational leaders. Due to (Jeroen P.J. de Jong, and Deanne N. Den Hartog, 1990), the leadership abstract's purpose is to provide an inventory of leader behaviors likely to enhance employee's innovative behavior, and including idea generation and application behavior. In order to be most effective, leaders in an organization must have a clear vision and understanding of the organizational structure. With the well observation of Organizational Behavior, individuals can built a good and high quality of leadership throughout this selected observation. Individuals able to own a good personality traits, and known well with the own roles and responsibilities of a leader.
Human beings encourage seeking satisfaction in every phase of their life. From satisfying their basic primal needs and wants, which is hunger, thirst, rest and social interaction, the complex community today has its benchmark of goals and fulfillment that should be accomplished by individuals. This selective set of fulfillment and goals encloses securing a good job, preferably with a good pay and hopefully, with a high level of job satisfaction. There is no fixed and formal guideline on how to overcome challenges at work into a motivation for individuals to reach job satisfaction, so that with the good practicing of Organizational Behavior, individuals are able to well handle the task pressure, and overcome the variety of challenges. Due to the research and learning of Organizational Behavior, individuals will be able to present and well-practiced a positive working attitude towards his own task and job responsibilities. This selected learning of Organizational Behavior helps individual to create self-awareness all the times. Individuals will be able to draw and execute his own action plan, and well known the current position of him, and be aware of where is the next position he is going to reach.
Organizational Behavior is the application of knowledge about how peoples, individuals, and groups act and react in an organization, in order to reach and accomplish the highest quality of performances, and dominant results. One way for an organization to become more innovative is to capitalize on its own employee's to innovate. All organizations and groups experience the direct relationship between job satisfaction, and performance. In order to maximize the performance of those within a system, it is significant important to develop an optimal interpersonal chemistry. There is more evidence that the teaching and implementation of soft skills should get higher emphasis in education and organization training process, but it should only complement hard skills, not substitute for it.