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In the era of economic development, many people are employed in variety jobs in society; therefore, employers should find way to motivate their employees. In addition, with the improvement of living standards, there is a growing emphasis on good working conditions. According to the Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y (1957), on the one hand, Theory X said people are very lazy and don't want to work. If the people of Theory X can do not have work, they will avoid to work. On the other hand, Theory Y said people work very seriously because the environment will motive the workers work. If employers give the comfortable environment to employees, employees will do their best in their job. Consequently, employers need to develop motivational states to meet their different staff needs and work output. This reserved focuses on motivating in the food service industry, different restaurants motivate their employees in different way so their employees how treat the customers will. This essay will analysis the Theory X employee in Norwich restaurants, second analyses the Theory Y of employees in Norwich restaurants, and finally analysis which motivational method leads to have effective workers.
Literature Review (by Li Yu Xuan)
F.W. Taylor think that the maximize income is the most important thing to motivate them. It means money is the only thing can motivate them. This led to Taylor's belief in a differential piece-rate system of payment. This meant staff can get the wage by each unit of output at a standard piece rate. (p.14, F.W.Taylor) And another famous person who named Frederick Herzberg said that: "split workers' needs into two categories--- hygiene and motivators. Hygiene factors are concerned with the environment in which the job takes place - working conditions, relations with the boss and co-workers pay. Motivators are factors that relate to the job itself-sense of achievement."(p.15, F.Herzherg) in this person's view, we can see the working conditions and working environment are very important for the workers. When the workers satisfied with these two factors, they will work more hand. Some people have anther view, "From a staff effectiveness point of view, there are times when you want to be Theory X: for instance, in health & safety issues the rules will be rigid; there will be serious penalties for not following them. But if the issue is how best to handle a piece of new business, then results are likely to be far better if all involved have been consulted, their issues taken into account and an agreed best process determined. Collaborative working will favor Theory Y approaches." These people think workers in different situations prefer the different theory. The theory X and theory Y are all have advantages to the staffs. From these, we can see different people have different opinions to the two theories. Researches these two theories are important to the managers, understand them and know how to use them can help managers make the right decisions and motivate their workers in right way.
Main body: Theory X (by Zhang Cheng Cheng)
In theory X, people are assumed only working for money and security. Workers do not like to work and would try to work as little as possible if they can. Workers in the company or organization are lack of ambitions and hope to avoid responsibility.
According to McGregor theory X is really based on the assumption that a) laziness is the human nature; and b) people only work for money. The perception of human laziness has long been recorded in religion history. In religion, Catholic declares human's seven SINS, one which is "the lazy". Human beings are divided into two groups, most people are afore-mentioned lazy, only a few people can restrain themselves. To most people, working is a kind of burden to human rather than enjoyment. As far as they are concerned, they only need to do minimum work to survive. Theory X therefore has argued that as a result of this human nature most employees in the organization do not have ambition. Their personal goals and objectives are self-centered and not associated with the company's goals. They lack confidence and consider the personal safety is important. They do not want to be a leader and content to be just a follower who prefers to be led by others.
Under the theory X management approaches range from "hard" to "soft". With "hard" approach to deal with human's laziness the model of theory X management must rely on outside force strict control in order to achieve organizational goals which is so called "hard approach". The management believes that workers need to be closely supervised and comprehensive systems of controls developed. A hierarchical structure is needed with narrow span of control at each and every level. By exerting the external force, command, control and punishment the theory X management will ensure their employees to feel threats so that their employees can make proper efforts to achieve the objectives of the organization. With "soft" approach theory X management appears to be lack of disciplines and to be permissive and only seek harmony with hope that in return people will cooperate when asked to do so.
McGregor has argued neither "hard" nor "soft" approaches are optimal management approach because assumptions in theory X are incorrect. At one extreme, management is "strict", people's behavior methods include forced and intimidation, strict supervision. At the other extreme, management personnel is "mild", people's behavior, peaceful methods include tolerance. "Severe" may result in employees to against pressure and hostile while "The gentle way" may often lead to abandon management. The optimal management will be between "hard" and "soft" approach.
We agree with McGregor that the management model should be the carrot and stick. On one hand, they stimulate employees' effort to meet the organization objectives by offering money. On the one hand, they enforce the tight control and supervision and punishment for the organization work force.
In conclusion, the carrot and stick incentive theory in certain circumstances can be reasonably functional. This management model above is an example which on the one hand offered money in order to buy and stimulate employees' working enthusiasm, on the one hand, used the strict control, supervision and punishment for the organization work force.
Main body: Theory Y (by Shih Chia Chi)
In contrast, McGregor's theory Y mentions that managers tend to be democratic as they conduct their workers. This is because employees enjoy work actively and accept responsibility. In this theory, employees are motivated efficiently by many different factors. Unless workers have proper conditions in many ways such as working environment, welfare or salary, workers do not argue about their job. They are satisfaction and committed. This is because Managers of Theory Y believe both employees have ability to control themselves in accomplishing targets and they are enjoyment of doing a job. Therefore, managers will provide more authority and power to their employees so that they have an opportunity to incentive their aggressive of the work. It is believe that they are full of ambition to pursue their aims. Thus, this type of workers not only has an excellent creativity but also contributes at work which helps them to figure out whole problems. These people always have clearly life achievement, so they always work hard and most of them interested in their jobs and try doing their best. All of the reasons are to improve productivity in order to increase more profit in every company. This is why McGregor create this theory, and many managers use it to organize their employees. As a result, workers who are belong to theory Y have a higher achieved then theory X. Theory Y which is a more people-centric management style applies to the human relations and human needs approaches(Bruce Jewell,2006).
Findings (by Shih Chia Chi)
We conducted a survey in Norwich by random sampling of people in the city centre restaurants. This survey search the reasons for what motivate employees efficiently in the service industry, and fit into McGregor's theory X and Y. This purpose is to find an optimization method for managers to administer workers. According to the table (figure 1, page 11), most male are satisfied with the salary nearly 13 percent and working environment around 8 percent; otherwise, female are satisfied with holidays less than 15 percent and personal reason more than 12 percent. Therefore, the amount of men and women do not want to promote to a higher position by 25-28 ages in Norwich. (Figure 2, page12) Even though most people belong to theory X, a few workers are part of theory Y. Approximately 5 percent of whole data in working environment is more essential than other reasons as well as women. (Figure 3, page 13) A few people about 8 percent want to have a higher position from 25 ages to 28 ages. This sort of people is self-motivation, so they suit for using soft management style and power-sharing in McGregor's theory Y that they are easy manage. Moreover, in the theory Y, most workers have high level job, e.g. professional servicers, knowledge worker- managers and the high educated workers. Those results can apply McGregor's theory X to prove this finding, so managers of service industry must use strict management or give them reward. This finding will help companies to find the best way of classification people in order to enhance the efficiency of effort and output.
Conclusion (by Huang Tan Yun)
It has emerged that the large amount of employees were belong the Theory X, who avoided to work in their job and the small amount of employees, who belong the Theory Y's persons, can work seriously by the work environment. According to our survey, manager should give the Theory X's staffs more money and seriously management way to work effectively and also the manager should make the great work environment to let the Theory Y's staffs bring into the talent in their job. In order to solve the problem which is the Theory X or Theory Y in the Norwich restaurants, renewable management policy has changeable. Although, this essay just only has examined the motivations in the Norwich restaurant, other areas have the different motivations to affect their employees. There are a number of factors which contributed to the different effective motivations are happened in different people, therefore, the policies in employers are created. In addition, the employees in work areas have the Theory X of people or the Theory Y of people so they have the different motivated effectible causes. That was why the policies have the serious management and soft management for employees. Generally, the good way of aim in the working areas will accord to the Theory X's staffs to improve their factors for their work effectively.
Bibliography (by Zhang Cheng Cheng)
Douglas MÂ· Mc Gregor (1957) The Human Sideof Enterprise in Management Review, US
http://baike.baidu.com/view/499453.htm Viewed: 11/03/2010
Smallbizguru (29/01/2010)"Leadership in recession for small business- John Adair's Action- Centred Leadership" in Business Ideas
http:// smallbizguru. Wordpress.com/ Viewed 11/03/2010
Jewell, B(2006) "McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y" in Tricky topics:6-7
Taylor, F.W(2006) "High-street motivation" in BUSINESS Review: 14-15
Herzberg, F(2006) "High-street motivation" in BUSINESS Review: 15