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Apple is 56 and Intel is number 62 among fortune 500 company. I have selected these two companies to describe organizational structure and culture.
Organisational structure and culture
To meet goals, an organization finds a way to organize employees some kind of structure. Normally most of company use four types structure.
Line structure, 2) Line and staff structure, 3) Matrix structure, 4) Team structure.
Command from top to downward.
Common of small company.
Line Managers are collect analyzing all information.
Line and staff structure
This is for mid and large size company.
Here employees hired to help line manager
For a special project employee come from different department to help.
Need to respond customer quickly.
Brings people together with different skills to meat particular goals.
Lower level manager need to approved decision.
Team have power to take any decision.
The organizational structure of Apple is approximately non-existent and decided on introduction decision making in the hands of the people in the playing pitch. Apple is doing in credibly well and had attention of many people because; the company worked well and was very responsive to change. However, things took a downward turn and Apple found them in a financial nightmare. Apple suffered problems in regional areas, specifically in the accountability of spending and in fiscal decision-making. The same "top-down" ideology that helped Apple grow also opened the door for some serious financial losses. With employees at different levels making decisions, it became difficult for the corporate office to keep track of spending and purchasing. They have different adviser and manager for different product. As like every company they have retail operative, finance division, marketing etc.
Intel is number 62 of fortune 500 company. As like apple, Intel also uses flat organizational structure. Intel has seven directors, one CEO, and one chairman. And they have also different manager and adviser for different products. As like, PC silent group, this group is work in mobile and desktop sector. Data processing group, they work different forms of calculation. Visualization group, they work for advance solution. Marketing sector, they work to improve marketing and sales.
The culture of apple was based on an idea that self-motivated individual will work hard if they do not have boss on their work. The structure of apple had allowed it. The reason is to take quick responsiveness. They believed it is much easier to get value of work. Apple initially grew fast because decisions were made at the lowest possible level. Head office made policy and oversaw all activates. But local employees take their decision day to day in all over the world.
Intel is the world's largest microprocessor company. They found a place in fortune's list because of their work. Intel believes it is their obligation to provide their employees with challenging work that encourages them to create and innovate. Intel's goal is to frame human resource polices that make easier for work. The company is believes in providing good opportunities of their employees. Employees are judge on their performance. For that employees can hold their position by preordaining well.
Relationship between structure and business performance
'Underlying culture'refers to organisational culture; 'bad patch' refers to a period where business performance is low or employees are moving away from the organisational culture resulting in low business performance. Structure is the guideline of a business. It helps to work done easily. And culture increase employees mentality, so productivity will increase automatically. If organizations culture will strong, then business performance will end soon.
Factors to influence individual behaviour
Those two companies have many factors to influence individual behaviour. Those companies do not push their employees. They take decision upon their individual performance. Apple use self-motivated theory. So that individual will work hard to hold their performance. Intel believed individual with challenging work encourages them to create and innovate. I think those factor influence individual behaviour.
Approaches to management and theories of organization
Leadership is a person who guides or inspires others. We have four basic leadership styles.
Autocratic is a classical approach. Here manager does not consult with any employee. Employees have to flow the order without any explanations. This leader ship style do not trust employee.
Bureaucratic is leader flow book. Everything must be done according to the book, otherwise those leader refer to their upper level. This style effect when employee works with their routine, when they know standards of work, when they are work with danger.
Democratic leadership style is known as participative style. It help employee to take any decision. Normally democratic leaders are allows employees to establish their goals, leaders want to provide opportunities.
Laissez-faire is known as hands off style. Here manager provide little information but the leaders give much freedom. This leadership can be apply, when employees are high skilled.
Motivation is the driving force behind an action. It is very important because motivation decide our behaviour. Lots of motivation theory to motivate. But among them tow is very effective.
Need hierarchy theory
Herzberg's two-factor theory
Need hierarchy theory in know as Maslow's hierarchy of needs. This is a theory of psychology. This theory is one of the most discoursed motivation theories. Humans need cannot be fulfilling. This theory has five stapes to motivate people: 1.Self-actualization, 2. Esteem, 3. Love and belonging, 4. Safety needs, 5. Physiological needs. This motivation theory starts from physiological needs.
Herzberg's two-factor theory motivates certain factors in the workplace. Two-factor theory distinguishes between: Motivator that is responsibility or can say that gives positive satisfaction. And the other is a Hygiene factor that is job security that does not give positive satisfaction.
Motivation theory is the key element of a leader. It changes management decision. Motivation theory describes to that how management take action with their employee. Because decisions change upon an employee's demand. To motivate employee management have to fulfil their demand. So this theory has impact upon management actions.
Nature of group and group behaviour of organization
In general views describe how a group to be planned and how its actions are be passed away.
A group is a collection of two or more public who work with one another regularly to complete general goals.
Groups help organizations achieve vital tasks.
Effective groups get high levels of concert.
Situations in which groups are better to individuals, when there is no clear expert in an exacting difficulty or task.
Effective team work
Team work, it has been now a common practise in most organization. There are a certain people of an effective team that should be ensuring a good amount of output. It is right that an useful team at all times have clear team goals that give confidence team members to return priority of individual goals with that of team one.Â Common faith is also essential between team members and that can be facilitating from side to side open, honest and mutual managerial culture.
Technology always helps everywhere. Technology change team and maintain their knowledge. Some technology improve team function, like
Email takes less than a second to send news, by that group work can be done. Mobile phone is now most useful technology. I phone 4, recently apple launch it. It have video calling feature, so by that group work can be done.
In USA employee change their job 10 times in 20 years because of organization. If every organization should flow structure, culture, motivation theory then it can be reduce. And organization will get benefit from that.