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This is basically identified by the supervisor / manager as per the performance of the individual or the future plan of growth which has been charted.. But many organistaions who have a complete Performance Management System in place, fix the TNI upon mutual agreement with the concerned employee and supervisopr/manager in accordance with the goals determined and agreement upon for the next PMS cycle. Sometimes TNI is also fixed upon to improve an individual's performance/skill.
There are so many ways for conducting a Training Needs Analysis, depending on the situation. Is it to lead in to a design of a specific purpose improvement initiative? Is it for managers to identify training and development needs of their individual staff during the performance appraisal cycle? Is it to devise a calendar of training courses? How best to conduct the analysis will depend on your answer to this question.
In any case, determining training needs starts with a gap analysis - the gap between what skills your employees have and what they need to move the business forward. We should use one or more of the following data sources:
Training Needs Analysis (TNA) is an essential first step in management development. If we wish to achieve the greatest improvement in performance and best value from your investment in training, development, practical experience or networking, we should first undertake a comprehensive training needs analysis. This will form the basis for designing a cost effective management or talent development programme. Training needs analyses can incorporate a 360Â° feedback survey, or an analysis of current corporate needs. For senior individuals an intensive interview programme, including work shadowing can be justified.
Design a TNA:-
Before starting on a training needs analysis, it is desirable to carry out an audit of the current situation, desired changes in job or responsibility, and probable technological and organisational developments. This will provide the information needed to determine what is required of the individual, team or organisation.
Then we can determine performance standards in terms of skills, contacts and practical experience.
Simple questionnaires help us identify where individuals stand on a range of competences in management, corporate goverance and director behaviour, and corporate culture. Both the process of answering the questions, and the feedback will contribute to self awareness, especially if the results include contributions from line manager, peers and direct reports. The training need is the difference between the current performance and the required performance.
360Â° feedback surveys :-
A 360Â° feedback survey helps the organisation obtain quality information about performance and relationships by posing a set of standard questions to an individual's line manager, peers and direct reports. This all around (360Â°) approach identifies any variation of behaviour in different roles and minimises personal bias.
Brefi group recommends that a 360Â° survey should precede any developmental coaching programme. When reviewing an individual it is often best to ask open questions such as: -
Keep doing:Â What are the things whichÂ 'name' currently does which help you and which you hope (s)he will continue to do?
Do more of:Â What are the things you would likeÂ 'name' to start doing or do more of?
Do less of:Â What are the things whichÂ 'name' does which get in the way and which you would like to be done less often?
Development needs:Â What are the areas upon which you feelÂ 'name' should really concentrate in order to improve the managerial performance of the organisation? You may wish to highlight aspects of how (s)he manages or specific objectives or accountabilities which you feel need attention.
Personal strengths:Â What do you see as the key strengths whichÂ 'name' brings to his/her job?
This information can then be consolidated by an independent consultant and fed back in a relatively unattributed manner.
However, for a larger or organisation-wide survey it is better to get numeric information that can be analysed and presented by computer. Brefi Group has developed two on-line TNA analysis programs for this purpose.
BuddyCoach is a low cost on-line service for individuals - the basic service is free. Using standard questions based on competencies in personal effectiveness, managing communications, managing people, effective directorship and corporate culture an individual can obtain an analysis of personal strengths and development needs. For a small charge up to ten others - line manager, peers and direct reports for instance - can be invited to comment too. The graphical results contrast the results from the different categories of feedback and also compare them with the norm for our international database. For each competence result there are suggestions of how to improve.
CorporateFeedback is a powerful tool for organisations to identify individual and corporate training needs. It is a fully customisable on-line 360Â° feedback program which draws on a reservoir of independently benchmarked competencies for managers and directors. The software is hosted on our servers but can be fully integrated into the website or intranet within a template of your design.
CorporateFeedback offers a choice of job role, that can either be specified by the client or draw on our standard list. Within each job role there is a choice of modules, such as managing people or managing finance. Again, these can be specified by the client or draw on our existing selection. Each module comprises a number of competencies.
Brefi Group has evolved a large selection of competencies, many based on international standards. Clients can draw on these and also include specific competencies relevant to their own organisation. Each competence is represented by four statements which are included randomly in the questionnaires with options to agree or disagree.
The results are presented graphically, with options for department heads and HR departments to view consolidated results and for learning recommendations to be included within each category.
Personal interviews by a trained interviewer who is independent of the organisation is a means of obtaining high quality information about an individual or members of a team. Not only can the interviewer collect standard information, but he/she can ask penetrating questions to identify the reasons for the feedback.
The information can be fed back to the subject in a non-attributable manner, but with much more information, including not only actual quotes but theappropriate voice tone and emphasis of the original quote. If the interviewer is also commissioned to coach the individual or team, this quality information will ensure that real issues are properly dealt with.
Work shadowing involves a coach spending time with an individual while he or she is carrying out their normal work. The coach sits in on meetings and observes the individual's behaviour in different circumstances. Feedback can then be immediate, or compiled into a formal report. The instant feedback is a valuable part of the coaching process.
Conventional 'training' is required to cover essential work-related skills, techniques and knowledge.
Importantly however, the most effective way to develop people is quite different from conventional skills training, which let's face it many employees regard quite negatively. They'll do it of course, but they won't enjoy it much because it's about work, not about themselves as people. The most effective way to develop people is instead toÂ enable learning and personal development, with all that this implies.
So, after covering the basic work-related skills training,the focus should be on Â enabling learning and development for people as individualsÂ - which extends the range of development way outside traditional work skills and knowledge, and creates far more exciting, liberating, motivational opportunities - for people and for employers.
Rightly organisations are facing great pressure to change these days - to facilitate and encourage whole-person development and fulfilment - beyond traditional training.
As with this website as a whole, this training guide is oriented chiefly around what's good for people, rather than chiefly what's profitable for organizations.
The reason for this is that in terms of learning, training and development, what's good for people is good for the organizations in which they work. What's good for people's development is good for organizational performance, quality, customer satisfaction, effective management and control, and therefore profits too.
This is central to a fairly balancedÂ Psychological ContractÂ in employment organizations.
Profit is anÂ outcomeÂ of managing and developing people well. People and their development enable profit. Enable people and you enable profit.
Organizations which approach training and development from this standpoint inevitably foster people who perform well and progress, and, importantly, stay around for long enough to become great at what they do, and to help others become so.
Training is a very commonly used word, butÂ learningÂ is in many ways a better way to think of the subject, because learning 'belongs' to the learner, whereas training traditionally 'belongs' to the trainer or the organization.
Training should be aboutÂ whole person developmentÂ - not just transferring skills, the traditional interpretation of training at work.
Whatever your role and responsibility, you might not immediately be able to put great new emphasis on 'whole person development'.
Being realistic, corporate attitudes and expectations about what 'training' is and does cannot be changed overnight, and most organisations still see 'training' as being limited to work skills, classrooms and powerpoint presentations. However, when you start to imagine and think and talk about progressive attitudes to developing people - beyond traditional skills training - for example:
'facilitating meaningful personal development'
'helping people to identify and achieve their own personal potential'
then you will surely begin to help the organisation (and CEO) to see and accept these newer ideas about what types of 'learning and development' really work best and produces class-leading organizations.
Training is also available far beyond and outside the classroom.Â More importantly, training - or learning, to look at it from the trainee's view - is anything offering learning and developmental experience.Â Training and learning development includes aspects such as: ethics and morality; attitude and behaviour; leadership and determination, as well as skills and knowledge.
Development isn't restricted to training - it's anything that helps a person to grow, in ability, skills, confidence, tolerance, commitment, initiative, inter-personal skills, understanding, self-control, motivation and more.
If you consider the attributes of really effective people, be they leaders, managers, operators, technicians; any role at all,Â the important qualities which make good performers special are likely to be attitudinal. Skills and knowledge, and the processes available to people, are no great advantage.Â What makes people effective and valuable to any organization is their attitude.
Attitude includes qualities that require different training and learning methods. Attitude stems from a person's mind-set, belief system, emotional maturity, self-confidence, and experience. These are the greatest training and development challenges faced, and there are better ways of achieving this sort of change and development than putting people in a classroom, or indeed by delivering most sorts of conventional business or skills training, which people see as a chore.
This is why training and learning must extend far beyond conventional classroom training courses. Be creative, innovative, and open-minded, and you will discover learning in virtually every new experience, whether for yourself, your team, or your organization. If you want to make a difference, think about what really helps people to change.
All supervisors and managers should enable and provide training and development for their people - training develops people, it improves performance, raises morale; training and developing people increases the health and effectiveness of the organization, and the productivity of the business.
The leader's ethics and behaviour set the standard for their people's, which determines how productively they use their skills and knowledge. Training is nothing without the motivation to apply it effectively. A strong capability to plan and manage skills training, the acquisition of knowledge, and the development of motivation and attitude, largely determines how well people perform in their jobs.
Training - and alsoÂ enabling learning and personal developmentÂ - is essential for the organisation. It helps improve quality, customer satisfaction, productivity, morale, management succession, business development and profitability.
Use these tools and processes to ensure that essential work-related skills, techniques, and knowledge are trained, but remember after this to concentrate most of your 'training' efforts and resources onÂ enabling and facilitating meaningful learning and personal development for people. There is no reason to stop at work-related training. Go further to help people grow and develop as people.
Induction Training is especially important for new starters. Good induction training ensures new starters are retained, and then settled in quickly and happily to a productive role. Induction training is more than skills training. It's about the basics that seasoned employees all take for granted: what the shifts are; where the notice-board is; what's the routine for holidays, sickness; where's the canteen; what's the dress code; where the toilets are. New employees also need to understand the organisation's mission, goals and philosophy; personnel practices, health and safety rules, and of course the job they're required to do, with clear methods, timescales and expectations.
Managers must ensure induction training is properly planned - an induction training plan must be issued to each new employee, so they and everyone else involved can see what's happening and that everything is included.
These induction training principles are necessarily focused on the essential skills and knowledge for a new starter to settle in and to begin to do their job..
An organisation needs to assess its people's skills training needs - by a variety of methods - and then structure the way that the training and development is to be delivered, and managers and supervisors play a key role in helping this process.
People's personal strengths and capabilities -Â and aims and desires and special talents (current and dormant)Â - also need to be assessed, so as to understand, and help the person understand, that the opportunities for their development and achievement in the organisation are not limited by the job role, or the skill-set that the organisation inevitably defines for the person.
As early as possible, let people know that their job role does not define their potential as a person within or outside the organisation, and, subject to organisational policy, look to develop each person in a meaningful relevant way that they will enjoy and seek, as an individual, beyond the job role, and beyond work requirements.
If possible 'top-up' this sort of development through the provision of mentoring and facilitative coaching (drawing out - not putting in), which is very effective in producing excellent people. Mentoring and proper coaching should be used alongside formal structured training anyway, but this type of support can also greatly assist 'whole-person development', especially where the mentor or coach is seen as a role-model for the person's own particular aspirations.
It's important that as a manager you understand yourself well before you coach, or train or mentor others:
Are your own your own skills adequate? Do you need help or training in any important areas necessary to train, coach, mentor others? What is your own style? How do you you communicate? How do you approach tasks? What are your motives? These all affect the way you see and perform see the training, coaching or mentoring role, and the way that you see and relate to the person that your are coaching, or training, or mentoring. Your aim is to help the other person learn and develop - not to create another version of yourself. When you understand yourself, you understand how you will be perceived, how best to communicate, and how best to help others grow and learn and develop.
And it's vital you understand the other person's style and personality too - how they prefer to learn - do they like to read and absorb a lot of detail, do they prefer to be shown, to experience themselves by trial and error? Knowing the other person's preferred learning style helps you deliver the training in the most relevant and helpful way. It helps you design activities and tasks that the other person will be more be more comfortable doing, which ensures a better result, quicker.
Â Many organizations face the challenge of developing greater confidence, initiative, solutions-finding, and problem-solving capabilities among their people. Organisations need staff at all levels to be more self-sufficient, resourceful, creative and autonomous. This behaviour enables staff can operate at higher strategic level, which makes their organizations more productive and competitive. People's efforts produce bigger results. It's what all organizations strive to achieve.
However, while conventional skills training gives people new techniques and methods, it won't develop their maturity, belief, or courage, which is so essential for the development of managerial and strategic capabilities.
Again, focus on developingÂ the person, not the skills.
Try to see things from the person's (your people's) point of view. Provide learning and experiences that they'd like for their own personal interest, development and fulfilment. Performance and capability are ultimately dependent on people's attitude and emotional maturity. Help them to achieve what they want on a personal level, and this provides a platform for trust, 'emotional contracting' with the organisation, and subsequent skills/process/knowledge development relevant to managing higher responsibilities, roles and teams.
2.Examining training in large municipalities: linking individual and organizational training needs.
By Willow Jacobson & Ellen V. Rubin & Sally Coleman Selden Â | Â Â Public Personnel ManagementÂ - Â Winter, 2002
Both practitioners and academics in the private, not-for-profit, and public sectors are increasingly focusing attention on organizational andÂ human resourceÂ managementÂ performance. An important component or predictor of government performance isÂ itsÂ trainingÂ infrastructure. It helps organizations recruit and retain workers, as well as ensure that workers have the requisite skills and opportunities to perform in their current and future positions. Training is a direct means of developing individuals, and subsequently organizational capacity. This capacity, in turn, is linked to overall organizational performance. This article utilizes data collected as part of a national study of local, state, and national government--the Government Performance Project. Specifically, it focuses on training in the largest municipalities in the United States.
First, this article briefly reviews the existing research on training, demonstrating the need for a holistic examination of training in the public sector. Second, using data from the Government Performance Project, it describes the nature of training in 33 of the 35 largest cities in the United States. Finally, drawing upon what was learned through survey questions and personal interviews with city officials, this article presents a training model that integrates employees, the organization, and the environmental context in which employees and the organization operate.
A recurring discussion in the training literature relates to the categorization of training--management training, technical training, and skills of an aging workforce--and the inclination on the part of scholars is to limit their research to a particular type of training. As responsibility for the delivery of public sector goods and services is passed down to local governments, understanding the opportunities and mechanisms for developing employees becomes increasingly more important. With this delegation of responsibility come expectations that local government employees will deliver an increasing range of services. The need to provide additional services corresponds to a need to train employees for the delivery of extended services. Furthermore, in an increasingly competitive job market, it is essential that governments explore training as both an opportunity to retain employees and as a means to attract and develop new employees.
This article is designed to fill the gap of knowledge about training in local governments by examining and discussing training for all employees and managers. In addition, this article will look at the relationship between different measures related to training and the environment. Finally, based upon data collected and analyzed, we develop a framework that can be used to guide government planning and training analysis.
The humanÂ resourceÂ managementÂ survey instrument contained a series of multi-part, open-ended questions designed to yield information about a given city's training system. The survey instrument was designed and pretested in four states, four local governments, and four federal agencies in 1997. Based on this pilot study, the instrument was revised and streamlined to focus as directly as possible on the evaluation criteria for human resource management. After completing a survey of 50 states in 1998, the survey was revised.
Training need identification:-
Some cities track employees' training records centrally, while others assign this responsibility to individual agencies in which employees work. Specifically, in 76.0 percent of cities, the central personnel department keeps records of individual employee training, and in 66.6 percent, individual departments keep records. Records kept by the central office were computerized more frequently (82.6 percent) than those kept at the department level (50.0 percent). Computerized records allow managers and policy makers easier access for planning and analysis.
Having a training catalog on the Web can make it easier for employees to stay up-to-date with course offerings. Honolulu and Jacksonville are two cities that provide online training catalogs.
Finally, cities may offer incentives to encourage training.
Other incentives for obtaining training are the rewards employees receive for completion. The GPP identified five possible rewards for training: class certification, college credit, recognition by supervisor(s), meal (ceremony), and skill pay. Rewards for training can motivate employees to not only seek, but complete training. Despite their potential positive impact, the survey results show that less than a third of cities offer rewards for completing trainingÂ explored a series of bivariate relationships between training-related measures and environmental factors including unionization, workforce planning, and workforce age. Unionization and workforce planning are significantly associated with diversity of training opportunities and training capacity. Monetary encouragement is significantly associated with average workforce age; however, the nature of this relationship is negative.
Â While the data is useful in providing information about the array of courses offered and a broad sense of the training environment structure, it offers limited insights about the quality of course offerings or the extent to which training meets the strategic needs of the government. As a result, this article develops a framework that structures our understanding of training from both the individual employee perspective and the organizational perspective.
The model clarifies how the organization's training structure represents two distinct components and how these components may be prioritized.
Strategic Systems Training Model: An Integrated Approach
The Strategic Systems Training Model (SSTM) is based on the premise presented by Abraham Maslow's A Theory of Human Motivation (1943) in which he describes a hierarchy of needs: when a foundational need is met, a more complex need emerges that an individual strives to fulfill. It is the emerging tension that motivates employees. Maslow's model is based on the assumption that all individuals have needs that underlie their motivational structure, and as a lower level need is fulfilled, that need no longer drives behavior. However, a new higher order need becomes the source for motivation. (22)
Component 1: The Individual Employee
Using Maslow's model as a starting point, he argues that humans have individual motivational structures. We take a similar approach and argue that individuals have individual training structures. In Maslow's model, individuals are motivated at the most basic level by "physiological" needs that include their basic survival needs. In the individual's training structure, the most basic level of need is training on minimal occupational skills needed for basic employment survival. Depending on the individual, this may be basic literacy training or basic computer training. As shown in Figure 1, as an individual moves up the hierarchy, his or her motivation becomes more refined and specific. Similarly, as public sector employees progress through the training hierarchy of needs, the training requested becomes more advanced and specialized.
n Maslow's model, individuals still need to fulfill lower-level needs as they progress up the hierarchy. The training model begins to deviate from Maslow's model at this point. Basic training does not need to be continually re-taught as more advanced training is undertaken, but the basic skills gained through previous training do need to be maintained. An individual's training structure is theÂ blueprintÂ for the training the individual needs to build his or her capacity, based upon the foundation of skills and training the person has already received.
Component 2: The Organization
An organization, like an individual, has its own training structure based on its needs and the skills of its workforce. (23) The training structure for an organization is made up of its employees, who bring their own training structures. Employees fill the layers within an organization; the organization needs to be aware of an employee's current level of need and train him or her accordingly. The organization must also consider how the different needs and skills of its employees fit within the overall needs and mission of the organization. An organization that works to train all employees at the most basic level can then shift resources to other areas of training the organization needs to prosper. Furthermore, an organization must reconcile the obligation of meeting the training needs of its individual employees with its responsibility to develop an organizational training structure that suits its overall needs. An organization with a strategic focus advances and develops through its acquisition of new human capital and the development and training of its current human capital.
The diversity of employees' training needs means that an organization has to carefully plan its training structure to train employees at the appropriate level according to both individual and programmatic needs, which requires a more holistic understanding of how employees fit into the largerorganizationalÂ structureÂ and how that employee contributes to the accomplishment of the organization's mission. Matching employees to training levels actually results in the separation of the organizational training structure into two training sub-structures or components: one that focuses on training managers and the other that focuses on general training. These two components are then treated as separate but interactive pieces of the organization's training structure. They can be prioritized and developed differently. The priority that one component may receive over the other is often due to limited resources, training philosophy, or other contextual factors. In an ideal system, both components receive attention. In reality, one part is often prioritized over another due to budget constraints and other limited resources. This prioritization often relates to greater philosophical and contextual factors (see Figure 2).
For example, cities that believe in succession planning, or filling management positions with people that have worked their way up through government, are more likely to focus their attention on the bottom triangle, expecting employees who complete thoseÂ trainingÂ courses to later progress into management positions. Thus, they want to advance the individual within that individual's training structure because they will take those skills to their next positions. This type of city is likely to prioritize the general training component.
Cities that place a priority on the manager training structure might feel that trained managers transfer information to employees, so general training is not as important. This notion implies that managers act as trainers for employees, and as a result, fewer formal courses may be offered to general employees. This could lead to a less-developed training program. The transfer of training through informal networks does not allow for formal record keeping of an employee's progress, thus making it difficult for the organization to accurately plan organizational training that meets individuals' needs. Another explanation for the focus on the manager component could be justified by cities that are undertaking massive change; the priority may be to familiarize managers with changes so they can help transition the organization.
Research has demonstrated the significance of the environment on organizational structure and behavior
These examples demonstrate this significance by presenting factors that are outside the organization's training structure, yet have a serious impact on how the training system operates. The influence of these contextual factors on the training system are included as important explanatory factors in this model. This model serves two purposes in the planning process. First, it allows planning for individual training needs, and second, it allows planning at the organizational level. This second purpose is multidimensional, including the individuals that make up the organization, the capacity they bring to the organization, and how this interacts with meeting the future goals of the organization
This article presented a picture of training in 33 city governments, as well as key relationships that help us to understand training capacity, both overall and in relation to some of its key components. Cities offer a range of courses to general employees, ranging from the most basic to more advanced skills. Interestingly, fewer cities offer basic training than a more specialized set of training courses
Finally, this article provides a model that helps to conceptualize individual training structures and the organizational structures, keeping in mind the contextual factors involved. This model presents a structure that places training needs into a hierarchy for individuals, based on both their past training and future training needs to meet present and future organizational needs. The organizational structure of this model demonstrates how cities break training into two components, general and managerial, and how these components are treated and prioritized differently, often because of the contextual factors the city faces. It is important to explore the relationship between individuals and the organizational training structures in order to adequately plan for the needs of both the organization and its members.