Employees decide what best they can do and gladly accept the challenge. Every individual is responsible for something has to take responsibity of the work assigned to him. Nowadays in most organizations there is role culture. It is the specialization of employee to a job where they are the best. By having the role culture in an organization, it should increase the productivity. This is a functional structure and it is also a divisional structure.
The task culture:
The task culture is to put the right people together and then give them a task. This type of culture is teamwork. The people with more knowledge and experience will lead this type of culture in an organization and bring the teams together to work towards the same goal.
Decisions are made quickly because people are able to discuss with each other freely. Staff feels motivated because they are allowed to make decisions within their team.
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This is a matrix structure.
The difference between role culture and task culture is that one is individual and the other one is teamwork. In a role culture power comes from the personal position whereas in the task culture the power is derived from the team.
There are three main organizational structures:
The first advantage is the specialization where each unit operates as a type of independent with specific role. Employees develop specialized knowledge. They become experts within their functional area. The company will benefit from their expertise and experience over time.
Then we have like advantage the Efficiency and Productivity.
It is where a worker completes a tasks with a high level of speed and efficiency, which improves productivity. The employees may be highly motivated to advance their careers, which may also make them more productive.
The disadvantage is a lack of teamwork where employee may have difficulty working well with other units. And if they have to work with a team it can be a problem where specialized workers can not be agree with others.
Difficult Management Control can also be a problem where management can maintain control when the organization expands. If management doesn't control it, the different department can think that they have autonomy.
A Matrix structure organisation contains teams of people created from various sections of the business. These teams will be created for the purposes of a specific project. At every new project there a new team.
The advantages of a matrix are that workers are chosen according the needs of the project. Project manager are directly responsible
While the disadvantages can be in conflict between teams mate. And if team have lot of independence it can be difficult to monitor them
According to John Ivancevich and Michael Mattson, the major factors that influence individual differences are demographic factors, abilities and skills, perception, attitudes and personality.
The demographic factors are socio economic background, education, nationality, race, age, sex, etc. companies prefer persons that belong from good socio economic-background, well educate. Young and dynamic professionals that have good educational and effective communication skills are always in great demand. The demographic factor helps managers to select future candidates for job.
Abilities and Skills:
The physical capacity of an individual can be the ability. Skill is the ability to act in a way to perform well. The individual behaviour and performance is highly influenced by ability and skills. The managers plays vital role in matching the abilities and skills of the employees with the particular job requirement.
It is the process that interprets external environment stimuli. But they are different reasons that can influence the perception of persons.
The study of perception plays important role for the managers. It is important for mangers to create the positive work environment so that employees notice them in most favourable way. Employee would perform better within a good environment.
Attitude is the best way to succeed in life. It is the tendency to respond positively to object, persons or situation. Employees will perform better if they have a positive attitude. They should have the attitude to work with their heart for the company. Job should be a prayer for people.
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It is the study of the characteristics and distinctive traits of an individual. Heredity, family, society, culture and situation are factors that influence personality. It's the manner to respond in an environment. Personality offers opportunity to understand the persons. It helps them by motivating them for the accomplishment of the organizational goal. Every organisation demands a particular type of behaviour from their employees.
All these factors are important. Let's take an example when a company offers a job of helper. The manager should look the physical capacity of the man before employing him.
There are many others example we can make. Individual behavior is very important for an organization because if the manager chooses right workers, his workforce will increase.
There are three types of leadership; the autocratic, democratic and the "laissez faire".
Melanie seems to use the autocratic leadership style. This leadership is characterized by an individual control over all decisions and little contribution from group members. Autocratic leaders naturally make choices based on their own ideas and hardly accept others suggestions. They control the groups. She makes the decision. Melanie is a leader where she doesn't want to hear "NO" or "WHY" when she tells what workers have to do. I think an autocratic attitude is good for the organization because when Melanie has to make a decision it is direct. But by having this attitude, the workforce is falling down. She doesn't have direct connection with his employees; she only gives instruction through officers. The communication is only one side. There is not really a relation between workers and Melanie. Workers have lost interest in theirs jobs that's why the labour turnover is high. Furthmore employee fear Melanie. This situation was created by the instauration of a powerfull discipline of work. As we know, employee should have some flexibility of work. Melanie has just run after high productivity, she didn't take care about the condition of her employee. She should have know that automatically if the workers are not happy the productivity would decrease. But Melanie didn't see that this way she had prefer to take new workers than keeping the ancient one. Which has result to a high labour turnover.
Having an autocratic leadership is also good because it helps the company to take decision quickly. This kind of leadership is mostly present in most Small medium companies.
There is a problem in Melanie's department. To change this, as an HR we can use "Maslow's hierarchy of need model".
Abraham Maslow developed where humans have "five needs which will fulfill their needs.
Humans need begin with needs, which are vital to survive, and then one by one he try to satisfy higher needs.
The needs are as follows:
In order to improve the organizational performance, it is vital that the company recognizes the individual need and provides openings for satisfaction for workers.
At Innovative Prods Ltd., the worker works with fear because if they do something wrong they can be fired and also Melanie has establish a high power discipline. It can be result into a poor productivity. The most basic needs for an employee is to have a decent pay so he can live and make his family living.
The safety needs to be fulfilled by having a security of work tomorrow. As we know there is a high level of labour turnover. The relationship need is very important because employees should have a direct contact with their boss. They constantly need to know that their boss is counting on them. They should fell valued. But Melanie does not even talk to her employee. She should start interaction with them so that the motivation level can increase. Melanie is proud of her productivity but she doesn't reward her employees and the need of recognition could enable them to have be valued into this company. Melanie should understand and appreciate her labor's efforts rather than staying apart from them.
To improve motivation:
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Esteem needs: Management can reward employees on accomplishing and reaching their targets. Or simply increasing their salary.
Social needs: management can encourage teamwork
Self-actualization needs: the management can propose professions in which the employees' skills and competencies are fully utilized.
However, Maslow's hierarchy has some limitations in this case. For example, the eight workers may not have any safety needs with regards to their work. Herzberg's theory of motivation could be applied to the present case. For instance, a motivator would be to receive feedback on their performance. And then Melanie has to talk to her workforce about their performance.