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I would like to give you a short introduction about my UK Westfield Stratford based organization running very well in clothing. It is Primark, Primark is leading market retailer in clothing and operating nearly 200 stores all over the UK. Primark is based on lower end of the market and showdown their cloths according to the every single customers budget. Let's go to the Primark's structure and culture.
Task 1.1 Definition of the organisation culture: "The set of the set of beliefs, values, and norms, together with symbols like dramatized events and personalities, which represent the unique character of an organization, and provide the context for action in it and by it." Beliefs and values are words that will pop up frequently in other definitions, as well. Norms might be described as traditions, structure of authority, or routines." BY Gareth Morgan
Organisation: Organisation word is integrated with two words Org+ Nation. Means of that is how to organise.
Culture means which kind of the environment in which they produce products. Culture means what we are, what we are stand for, what we do. There is smooth feeling of an organisation means we are in between in special environment, all around of you rules and regulation. This kind of the feeling is shown that you are in different walking around an organisational culture. There are six types of organisational cultures:
Power culture: this type of culture is usually found in small and medium size of business organisation. In this system main thing is that control. Means of that a key person has controlled the organisation and they have the power of decision making. This kind of culture is like dictatorship and usually seen in SMEs.
Role culture: this kind of the culture found commonly in most of the organisations. In this type of the culture every person /employees have their own role. Like in organisation they are many employees working for a specific job, some of them are working manager, clerk, and more are on different type of job. A good example of this culture is bank (any). All of those employees working their individual role, clerk, cashier, anyone do.
Task culture: a task culture means task is team based to fulfil and completed the task in a time boundary. This kind of the culture is popular in today's world. A perfect example is of that a contractor. In construction is a team work and bound in time restriction. This culture is very beneficial and every employee feel empower and motivated in team work. In Primark we can see clearly task culture in organisation. Primark motivate to their employees to in lines of the organisational goal.
Person culture: person culture means own work and ownership, a person who is work for itself and his own boss, this kind of the culture is common in small (shops) organisations. For example of window shop, grocery shop etc.
Forward looking culture: some organisations come and across the barriers as very dynamic, they given the power to their employee to take risk and put forward new ideas. The organisations encourages to their employees for new innovations. This kind of the environment shows the forward looking culture. Ex The perfect example of that is a fashion designer and advertisement.
Backward looking culture: this kind of the culture is looking for previous methods and surveys for the organisations, they don't want to take risk. They are usually slow than others.
Task 1.2 Organisational structures: organisational structure means the way of performing of organisations. It determines the manner in which it operates and performs. A structure allows the responsibilities for different departments for their work. It provides the better environment relationship between various sections of organisation. An organisational structure is often provide chart which will show how management working. This chart makes clear who work is for that. And who is responsible for what and who responsible for whom and who handle with this/that situation.
There are three types of organisational structure:
Hierarchical organisation: Hierarchical organisations are working as downward, there are many layers are below one by one, one manger has for their team and they are responsible to them. The resulting chart is showing as pyramid. A senior manager has their subordinates, they are responsible to them. Every body knows their place in the hierarchy. This system is enabling to tight control.
But communication is a problem with this system. Without effective management it can take longer time to pass the information to upper management. Staff are not fully empowered, every decision they need to approval of their seniors. This is effect on the morale of the employee; it is reduce the working capacity of the employee at work.
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Flat hierarchical organisation: in this system chain of command is much shorter than hierarchical organisation, and span of control is much wider. It means a manager has responsibilities of many employees. This structure provides more freedom and responsibility for their work. Communication is good between manager and their employees; it is effective in decision making.
This system gives employees more responsibilities for their work. Communication system with each other is good. It has producing good results and strong commitment and team spirit. Public banks are the original example of that. The role of manager and employees.
Matrix organisation structure: this structure is most complex organisational structure. This kind of the organisation is often creating for special/specific projects. It is for developing a new product. This system managed by manager. Decision making is quick and team is responsible for project complete in and on time. Example of that is: advertisement agency. They are work for a creative developing program.
Task 1.3 Look at the factors associated with individual behaviour and discuss how they influence an individual's behaviour at work.
'Behaviour is process of thoughts; the action what inner body is acting will be reacting in front of us'. (www.answer.com)
Behaviour means how a person react and acting and express their thoughts and their ideas. Some peoples are naturally smart and somebody is adapt and adopt by learning method, and behave according this. Means of that is how a person doing and react to show and see as well. Various factors are that:
Demographical factors: in this factor the organisation wants from an employee behave on their work. A person has good academic background and effective communication skill. And the person is belongs to social background, well educated etc.
Skills and abilities: a skill person has the ability to perform well at their work. Individual behaviour and performance is highly influenced by skill and ability. A person can perform well if they are ability and skill to prove their self.
Perception: there are many factors that influence the perception of a person. Perception is vital part of person. They play/perform good role according to his work and perform better with their knowledge in positive manner.
Attitude: the factors are mostly influence on the formation of attitude are family, society, culture and education. Then a person cooperates with their environment in a favourable way and produce good results.
Personality: personality reflects by family, society, culture and situation and background of the person. It helps them properly in directing their effort and motivating to achieve the goal/objective. And also a person shows their unique potential. It helps others to understand yourself and you will have the important key to motivating, helping and working with others. So every organisation demands a specific behaviour from their employees and such behaviour can discover by observation, learning, exposure, and training.
Task 2.1 Compare the effectiveness of the various leadership styles: Leadership styles is that looked at styles like that the autocratic and democratic styles which they explain are with limits, but in practice the behaviour of many, perhaps most, leaders in business will be somewhere between the two.
Define by Contingency theorists "Tannenbaum and Schmidt" suggested the idea that "leadership behaviour varies along a continuum and that as one moves away from the autocratic extreme the amount of subordinate participation and involvement in decision taking increases. They also suggested that the kind of leadership represented by the democratic extreme of the continuum will be rarely encountered in formal organizations".
Four main leadership styles:
Autocratic: The leader takes the decisions and announces them; expecting subordinates to carry them out without any further question means of that leader of the team are total in power over their team and team have very little opportunity to give suggestion to them. This is an effective style of leadership and beneficial.
Persuasive: in this style leader have also took decision in organization without any discussion but they believe on some their trustful or able subordinates. They are creating a kind of positive environment in organization to motivate the employees to achieve the target. This style is also creating success for organization.
Consultative: In this style the leader discuss with the group members before taking decisions and, they are taking consideration, advice and their feelings about the project. If they want to advice from their employee if they are able and it is valuable for the project then.
Democratic: Democratic leadership has made the decision with all the advice of their team members and involves all of them in decision making process. This style creates an environment of satisfaction and also helps to develop the skills of peoples. They are feeling of motivation and they do hard work and produce better results. So it's good for the organization and their self too.
Task 2.2 Explain how management theories relate to, and influence, the actual practice of management in the real world.
Management and leadership are fulfilling each other on that way leadership should be distinguished from management. Management involves in managing, operating, and planning. So manager play the role of leader and he/she has the authority to handle the every activities in the organisation.
Management have own areas and authorities position in organisation. Main three types of management theories:
Scientific management school:
The management theory is "the one best" by Fredrick Taylor. He also advocated the systematic training of workers in "the one best practice" rather than allowing them personal judgment in their tasks. Theory said that the workload would be shared between all the workers and with management, and management divided the work to the all staff according to their capability and suited to them.
Main thing of Taylor's theory they broken down the complex task into smaller/sub tasks this was the theory by Taylor at the time of industrial revelation in UK.
Classical organisational theory school:
In this theory management are works of Max Weber's bureaucratic theory and Henri Fayol's administrative theory. According to the theories of Weber "ideal" bureaucracy as follows:
Fixed and official authority areas, a firmly ordered hierarchy of super and Subordination, management based on written records, through and expert training, official activity taking priority over other activities and that management of a given organization follows stable, knowable rules.
The bureaucracy was imagined as a large machine for attaining its goals in the most efficient manner possible. However, Weber was strictly of bureaucracy when he observed that the more fully realized, the more bureaucracy "depersonalizes" itself - that, the more completely it succeeds in achieving the discovery of love, hatred, and every purely personal, especially irrational and incalculable feeling.
According to the Weber: he imagines the pleasant environment of the organisation it is good for every business structure.
Task 2.3 Evaluate the different approaches to management:
Management is important part of every business organisation, their main task to do to make business plan, organise, control, coordinates and motivate to all levels to meet the desired result/target/objectives. Different organisations have used appropriate management theories to reach or accomplish the task. They are trying to provide the necessary knowledge about the human behaviour and possible human policies to control and motivate employees to get advantages to improve their efficiency and effectiveness.
Bureaucratic Management Theory
A form of structure to be found in many large-scale organisations is bureaucracy. Its importance in the development of organisation theory means that it is often regarded as a sub-division under the classical heading and studied as a separate approach to management and the organisation of work.
The tasks of the organisation are due as manager duties between the different situations.
A hierarchical authority applies to the organisation of offices and positions. Regularity of decisions and actions is achieved through properly well-known systems of rules and regulations. Together with a structure of power, this enables the coordination of various activities within the organisation.
This is designed to result in rational judgements by officials in the performance of their duties. An employment by the organisation is based on technical qualifications and represents a lifelong career for the officials
Human Behaviour Approach:
Human behavioural approach is that they believe that successful management depends mostly on a manager's ability to how understand and work with people who have a range of environment, needs, awareness, and objective. The progress of this humanistic approach from the human relations movement to modern organizational behaviour has very much subjective management theory and practice.
With the Human Relations movement, training programs recognized the need to cultivate supervisory skills, e.g., delegating, career development, motivating, coaching, mentoring, etc.
The systems approaches go to rights these two earlier approaches and the work of the formal and the informal writers. They are focused on the total work organisation and the inter-relationships of structure and behaviour, and the choice of aspects within the organisation. This approach can difference with view of the organisation as like different parts. The systems approach encourages managers to view the organisation and may be some part of the business environment. So meaning of that any activity can affect the other part of the organisation.
The effect of systems theory is helping managers to look at the organization from a broader point of view. Systems theory has conveyed a new perspective for managers to understand outline and procedures in the workplace.
The contingency approach showed renewed concern with the importance of structure as a vital influence on organisational performance. The contingency approach, it is look like the extension of the system approach and the possible means of differentiating between optional shape of organisation structures and systems of management. There is no one best state. For example, the structure of the organisation and its 'success' are dependent, that is contingent upon, the nature of tasks with which it is designed to deal and the nature of environmental influences.
My points of view every organisation running to development and make profit so they are used all the latest trends, and trends come and go. They are good or bad depending on many variables: industry; company culture; education level of workers; existing contracts and laws; etc. Mostly, however, they are good or bad depending on how well they are applied.
Task 3.1 Impact of leadership; a manager and a leader have many ways they can impact an organisations work, they have impact upon the motivation and consequently the productivity of the organisation. Good leadership qualities are able to motivate a person to achieve group or team's objective successfully, and success are based on the ability and skills of a good leader who can use according to the situation and justify with action, the example of their job action.Â These are many different approaches can adopt by a leader and it should be produce good results. We can go through basic these three methods, which can use by leader and manager to build a team to achieve objective. But it has been depending on the situations like as:
As an authoritarian style if a new employee who doesn't know any thing about the job. A good leader is become good coach for him/her. And that way employee will motivate to learn new skills with new environment to follow their goal.
As a participative style in a team of workers who don't know and understand their job and in case of any problem a leader who has all the effective skills to handle the situation and he can set example for the employees with participative manner, it could up the moral of the employee and participate in the job and become a part of the team.
As a delegate style if an employee who knows more about the job than leader. Then a leader needs to give the chance to show their skill towards the goal of the team. It could be a great reward for him and in that way a leader encourage the team to do hard work.
Using all these three styles a leader can win their employees confidence and produce good results for their organisation.
The personal recognition for team members will positive impact on team and which is play enormous role to success, it is real motivate for an employee to utilize their capability to successfully achieve goals.
If you give their employee credit for the success of the team and makes employee motivate and work hard to achieve group's assignment.
Group success is dependent on their employees' knowledge and skills.
A positive environment shows the effective style of leadership, it build good team which is working for specific purpose.
There is a metric or measure of group's success that is available to the individual
Primark is believes in bringing out the best in all our people, and allow them to realise with their full potential. And company promotes and encourages the learning and development throughout the business and aiming to build up the capability of their employees. And company recognise the area which need to improvement. This means company develop the need could achieve their target.
3.2 Explain the motivational theories of Maslow, Herzberg, McGregor and Vroom and compare how well their theories 3.3 and usefulness of the theories.
'Definition: motivation is based on three specific aspects such as the arousal of behaviour, the direction of behaviour, and persistence of behaviour. Arousal of behaviour involves what activities human behaviour and direction of behaviour is concerned with what directs behaviour towards a specific goal. Persistence of concerned with how is the behaviour is sustained'. By www. ezinearticals.com
Theories of motivation:
Motivation is very important processor of an organisation, if a company motivate to their employees they should be improve their position in corporate world. Motivated employees mean work are progressing with efficiently and effective way. Employees are working with more responsibility and always think about the progress /improvement of the work and organisation.
There are three main theories are for motivation:
Herzberg's two factor theory: it works as hygiene factor and motivator factor. Hygiene factor is works according to those elements include: company policy and administration, wages, salaries and other financial payment, quality of supervision, quality of inter-personal relations, working conditions, feelings of job security. This theory is directly motivating employees work hard. It has a problem with the theory would de motivate an employee if not present.
Motivators are more concerned with the actual job itself. For instance how interesting the work is and how much opportunity it gives for extra responsibility and promotion. Herzberg believed that businesses should motivate employees by adopting a democratic approach to a management.
Maslow's motivation theory; it's belonged with the psychological needs of employees. Maslow put forward a theory that there are five levels of human needs which employees need to have fulfilled at work.
All of the needs are structured into a hierarchy and only once a lower level of need. A business should therefore offer different incentives to workers in order to help them fulfil each need in turn and progress up the hierarchy.
Taylor motivational theory: Workers are motivate by organisation paid to employees to number of items they produce in bound of time with pay according to how much they produce. As result workers are encouraged to work hard maximise their productivity. Method of Taylor is mostly adopted business saw the benefits of increase productivity levels and lower unit of costs. Taylors approach has close with like as an autocratic management style, this theory is soon dislike by the employees. It makes employees as machines.
Vroom's motivational theory: Vroom describes expectancy motivational theory (Yale school of management1964). Vroom stresses and focuses on outcomes, he is not gone through the process had adopted by Maslow and Herzberg. The theory is telling us how intensity of a tendency to perform in a particular style is highly dependent on the intensity of an expectation. And the performances are getting the desired outcome by team or individual.
Task 4.1 In your explanation of groups show the difference between groups and teams
"A team is not a bunch of people with job titles, but a congregation of individuals, each of whom has a role which is understood by other members. Members of a team seek out certain roles and they perform most effectively in the ones that are most natural to them". Dr. R. M. Belbin
Role of teams are suggested by Belbin used in many organisations around the world today. Team role we are use our strength as advantages and that manage our weakness as best we can. It is well define of your drawback and trying to avoid them nicely.
Definition: a group of highly skilled peoples those are working for specific purpose and goal, working for a common goal and share the reward (profit), they are cooperating with each other.
Group means those people are get together for specific task that is group. It can be a social relationship between two and more than two peoples. They are getting together for a social work, or any organisation /affinity. Like as animal rights organisation PETA is working in India organised by Monica Gandhi and now all over the world. This group is working for security of animals and their rights, abnormal behaviour against them.
Group building a process that is start to working for special arrangement in specific area to develop or improve the situation in special case. For example Cancer research group UK, RSPCA, NCPCA etc groups are working to develop or making sure of provide facilities in Africa to survive new born children's to give them resources.
Task role; This role is related to finishing or getting done the work. They are playing different-2 role to finish a task step by step from early start through to action. (Individuals may fulfil many of these roles for the duration of a project. In this case is providing the guideline how to accomplish the task.
Maintenance Roles maintenance is role like referring to every individual's action to help to defend the relationship in the group. Role of every individual is working to satisfy peoples with their work. They are trying to maintenance of the task, look after the emotional life of the group, help to make it work, believes the needs of individuals. They open up the channels of communication. There are few types of style in Maintenance Roles:
Expressing group feeling
Standard setting and testing
Individual role: individual role means a person who has authority and supervisory in group progress and process. Individual play roles like a dictator or dominant person which has been the authority to finish the task and it is like leader as well. If this person is not a leader then their behavior in group like a team member how to effecting the project with their unique behavior.
Task 4.2 development of teamwork:
To improve a team's effectiveness, it is necessary to understand the factors that impact on to the group's performance. Those factors make a team perfect:
A team agreed to work together for a clear goal and objective
They are trust each other,
Communicate with each other,
Review its progress regularly,
It concerned with career and personal development of its members.
Cooperate with other groups
Environment of the team management is trust worthy and support to each other.
According to those factors a team get success and reached their target easily. With those factors a team effectively work in an organisation. In my point of view can't be a threat for an organisation because of their environment, and discipline. They appreciate their work of all
Encouraging: The leader (managers) using the encouraging style does so to help the team member to increase self-confidence and ability to perform the task extremely well and without any help. The encouraging style has lots of conversation about the goal and a sharing of views on how it should be deal with. The person who has been performing the task is encouraged to specify their own performance. Progress is evaluated together with importance placed to build self-confidence so task can be understood by you (leader) in the future. The encouraging style is particularly useful with able young professionals who are not yet have experienced and who are not ready to work without help.
Task 4.3 Evaluate the impact that technology:
Technology is vital part of the business organisation. We can't think about a business without technology, means of that without technology a business like a sun without shine. So business can't survive without of technology. Technology is a key of success of an organisation.
A technology plays and fulfils the every area of the organisations, technology effect and left their footprints on generation. Technology effects on every aspects of the business of working life. A business organisation can reach and get latest information from market and how those react on it and what effect occurring.
Primark working with fully loaded new technology. But today's world an` organisation is nothing without this; they have the latest techniques to reach peoples to give them best services. Rapid changes in media, transport and communications technology have made the world economy more interconnected now than in any previous period of history. Nowhere is this more evident than in the world of textile manufacture and clothing distribution. Consumers want fashionable clothes at affordable prices.