This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.
The concept of OCB has been implemented in organizations for their effective functioning and has promoted such behavior in public and private organizations, but in educational education institution OCB is still an unfamiliar concept. Thus, OCB is a useful term to describe voluntary teacher behavior that go "Extra Mile" to help students and colleagues to succeed. Thus, the study of OCB and effectiveness of teachers is vital so as to motivate them to do beyond of their formal duties and making effectiveness/performance of teachers as required for the betterment of institution. Thus, teachers in well functioning education institutions consistently go beyond the minimum expectations of formal job descriptions and contracts, hence, demonstrating goodwill, smooth functioning and efficiency of education institutions. Thus teachers in universities with high citizenship take it upon themselves to voluntare innovative suggestions, sponsor extra-curricular activities and serve on new comities and seminars more related to their studies. Moreover, teachers help students on their own time, stay after university to help students if necessary and resist the temptation to give students busy in work. Organizational citizenship behavior in universities provides a serious educational context in which teachers are rarely absent, make effective use of their time, work collaborately and emphasize on professional activities which results in increase of their effectiveness and directly influence the performance of teachers. The term 'OCB' was first introduced by Bateman and Organ (1973).
Background of the study.
Organ (1988) originally coined the term organization citizenship behavior (OCB) and defined them as individual behavior that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and that in the aggregate promotes the effective functioning of the organization. Also the willingness of the participant to go beyond the formal requirements of their position has been recognized as an essential component of the effective organization. Thus, OCBs can be said to "lubricate the social machinery of the organization".
Organ (1988) provided a multidimensional scale of OCB. The scale consists of five dimensions that make up the OCB construct the five dimensions are:
Altruism: It is the behavior directed at helping a specific person at work (e.g. coworkers or supervisor). For example, altruism involves activities such as volunteering to assist a coworker with a project in you are not directly involves activities, or without being asked, assisting new employees.
Compliance: Generalized compliance is employee conscientiousness that surpass enforceable work standards. For example, generalized compliance involves activities such as doing more than what is required to meet minimum task requirements or offering specific ideas to solve organizational problems without being asked.
Sportsmanship: Sportsmanship is the tolerance of nuisances on the job (e.g. when employee endure impositions or inconveniences without compliant). Sportsmanship involves activities such not complaining or making huge issues out of minor problems or inconveniences.
Courtesy: Courtesy is the act of touching the base with others before taking actions or making decisions that would affect their work (e.g. issuing reminders to coworkers, giving coworkers advance notice and passing along information).
Civic Virtue: Civic virtue is the active participation and involvement of employees in company affairs and includes activities such as attending meetings, responding to messages and keeping up with organizational issues. As an example of different conceptualizations of OCB
Statement of the problem.
Teaching effectiveness is a major goal of education. It is recognized that teaching effectiveness has a far-fetched effect on the overall educational programme. Teachers competence refer to the behavior while teaching in a class. Effective teachers use pupils time differently than the less effective ones. Effective teachers spend more time in academic activities and teaching learning process. They inculcate the ideas into the minds of the students by applying various teaching strategies for this purpose they become humorists and witty in the classroom. They concentrate on communication skills. They focus on the subject matter and monitor the overall educational activities in classroom specifically and in the educational institution in general effectiveness in the sence that optimal results or near to such is obtained on the part of the pupils we in Pakistan are divided into different types of educational systems i.e. Government run, private and Madrassas or Maktabs. The teaching standard is different. Their evaluation criterion is also different. More conveniently, the curriculum and examination system are not the same. Due to these reasons the effectiveness need to be evaluated and its relationship with organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). But as an individual each of the employee, whether he/she is a teacher or not, must be able to show the most favourable results in their respective fields. Different approaches are followed to assess effectiveness. It is conditional to the concerned field for which the employee's contribution is judged. The variables or yardsticks may be different; the ultimate purpose is the same "Effectiveness". Similar is the case with measuring organizational citizenship behaviour
Objectives of the study.
The main objective of this study is to find out any relationship between organizational citizenship behavior and effectiveness of university teachers.
Finding on job or internal factors that influence a teacher organizational citizenship behavior and his/her effectiveness.
The extent of personal growth and overall integrity provided by the institution.
Giving recommendations for further improvement.
1.4 Scope of the study
A teacher can be effective if he/she gets out of the job what he wants to get. There is a close relationship between organizational citizenship behavior and effectiveness (teaching).
Falling standard of education is common now a days. So one may blame the teachers responsible for the deterioration of education teachers may be termed responsible but identification of the facts of their job, which sometimes lead the teachers towards ineffectiveness is also the responsibility of the system. These facts belong to both the external and internal environments of the teachers this study will help in the finding of such factors.
CHAPTER - 2
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Organizational citizenship behaviors and performance has actually the subject matter of numerous research scholars. They have conducted various research studies and collections. The views of the various research scholars regarding organizational citizenship behavior and performance are enumerated as under.
2.1 Employee Behavior and Job Performance.
Rotundo and Sacket (2000, P. 66) defined job performance as "those actions and behaviors that are under control of the individuals and that contribute to the achievement of the organization's objectives". In higher education setting, Regoxs (2003) finds support for the relationship between OCB and the performance of university teachers, and in turns of students professional motivation and self confidence. His finding suggest that university teacher OCB may be associated with the quality of the teaching learning processes, however, that association is a unpublished to date.
Most of the early research on OCB focused on its antecedents. More recently, increasing attention has been paid to the consequences of OCB (Padaskoff, et al.,2000).
Finding from this line of research indicate that OCB has important consequences for both the organization and individual employee (Podaskoff, et al.,2000). At the organizational level, studies indicate that OCB I related to organization effectiveness (Podsakoff, Ahearne, and Mackenzie, 1997; Podsakoff and Mackenzie, 1994; Walz and Wiehoff, 1996).
At the individual level, OCB has been found to affect supervisory evaluations of employee performance (Podaskoff, Mackenzie and Hui, 1993) reward recommendations .
Katz (1964) states that three basic types of employee behaviors are critical for the overall effectiveness of any organization.
People must be induced to remain within the system.
People must carry out their role assignment in a dependable fashion.
There must be innovative and spontaneous activity in achieving organizational objectives that goes beyond the role specifications.
Behaviors (2) and (3) are the examples of "Organizational citizenship behavior" (OCB) (Organ, 1988) other examples of OCB are willingness to give time helping others who have work-related problems, taking steps to prevent problems with other worker and obeying organization rules, regulations and procedures even when no one is watching. Postulating that OCB may lead to positive outcomes such as high organizational performance and low turnover, researcher have investigated key antecedents of OCB (e.g Moorman, 1991; Organ and Konvovsky 1996; Podsakoff et al., 1990; Smith et al., 1983).
Gregory Murphy et al., (2002) made a study to examine the role of OCB as a component of job performance. Participants comprised 41 human-service workers, who completed a job satisfaction questionnaire and were rated for their organizational citizenship, as well as being measured on three discretionary organizational participant behaviours job satisfaction correlated significantly with organizational citizenship behavior (Correlations ranged from + 0.40 to 0.67).
2.2 Factors Effecting the Organizational Behavior.
Carol C. Bienstock, et al., (2003) have investigated that OCB links human resource management policies to desired service employee performance, enhancing customer perceptions of service quality and organizational financial outcomes. Furthermore, it demonstrates that these behaviors results in more effective service delivery to an organizational standards and enhance customer perceptions of service quality.
Aaron Cohen, et al., (2004) were find the relationship between the dimensions of professionalism (profession as referred, sence of calling autonomy) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) was direct or mediated by variables representing justice perceptions (distributive justice, international justice, and formal procedures). Respondents were 1,0.35 registered nurses in four public hospitals in northern isreal. Supervisors in each medical unit at the hospitals provided data strongly supported the mediated model, namely the relationship between professionalism and OCB was mediated by variables representing justice in the workplace. The mediated effect as stronger for jewish nurses than for non-jewish nurses and for nurses with academic education in comparison to nurses with a non-academic educational several implications are drawn for the continuing examination of OCB.
Carmen Barroso Castro, et al., (2004) have analyzed the effect of the service company employee behavior on customer perceptions of the quality of services received, and the consequent company performance. Organizational citizenship behavior has been recognized as relevant behavior of some employee, but its role regarding customer perceptions and company profitability remains unexplored. Beginning with a brief review of the conceptual background of the organizational citizenship behavior, service quality, and its consequence, this paper proposes a model to test these relationships empirically.
Daniel J. Comeau et al., (2005) have conducted experiment on how the interaction of interdependence work environment and employee personality affect organizational citizenship behavior (OCB).
Structural interdependence, as defined by levels of tasks and goal interdependence, was manipulated in the laboratory setting to determine the effect on individual level OCB. Also, a regression analysis was utilized to determine whether interdependence could act as a moderator for the relationship between the personality variable agree bleness and OCB and conscientiousness and OCB.
Ferry Koster et al., (2006) have conducted a survey and gathered data from 674 employees nine organizations scales are constructed using multiple group method. OLS regression is used to test the hypothesis, which contribute to the literature on OCB by examining how this kind of behavior is affected by the behavior of the supervisors and coworkers and this article also focus on horizontal and vertical dimensions of cooperative behavior simultaneously.
Jose Varela Gonzalez, et al., (2006) have shown the relationship between organization service orientation (OSO), contact employee job satisfaction and organization citizenship behavior (OCB). For this they have carried a survey of 149 hotels firms which provides eimperical evidence about the positive effect of the OSO on employee job satisfaction and citizenship behavior in the hospitality industry.
Soumend Biswas et al., (2007) indicated the relationship between psychological climate and employee performance, in the Indian environment that includes organization citizenship behavior (OCB) and job satisfaction as mediating variables. Data were taken from 357 managerial employees in the manufacturing and service sector to analyze the relationship. The result supports the hypothesis that individuals perceptions of the psychological climate in the organization has a significant positive impact on his/her willingness to engage in OCBs, as well as on his/her job satisfaction levels. Further, OCB and job satisfaction levels have a significant impact on individuals performance.
Jawahar, I.M and Dean Carr (2007) conducted and survey to measure conscientiousness and contextual performance of professional employees. Data of 158 professional employees were subjected to confirmatory factor analysis and moderate hierarchical analysis was used to test hither to untested hypothesis. This study makes several contributions. For instance, it extends Motowildo et al., theory to include subjective measures of situational conditions as factor that interact with personality to influence contextual performance the study responds to lepline et al's call for theory based attempts to identify variable that have different relationships across the dimensions of contextual performance.
Drawing on individual difference and social exchange perspectives this study theorized and found that perceived organizational supports moderates the relationship between conscientiousness and organization directed contextual performance and that the quality of the leader member exchange experience moderates the relationship between conscientiousness and supervisor directed contextual performance.
EVIJ, Hetty et a., (2007) examined the relationship between personality and three types of OCBs (Organizational Citizenship Behaviors), and to test for the potential moderating effects of team leader effectiveness on the relationship between personality and OCBs. Hypothesis were test with data from 268 teachers of secondary schools. The result indicate that extroverts and teachers open for experience engage more in OCBs towards their school than introverts and teachers less open for experience do. Teachers that are more conscientious score higher on OCBs towards students. That fits with the idea that being conscientious is being careful and responsible. Teachers with introverts and neurotic personalities become more engage in OCBs than extroverts and emotionally stable teachers do when they appreciate their team leader effectiveness.
Omer Torlak and Umut Koc (2007) has made a study in which they examined the relationship between the materialistic attitudes of sales people working in pharmaceutical and household white goods and furniture (HWGF) sectors and their OCB. A total of 199 sales people who work for pharmaceutical and HWGF sectors in Eskischir, Turkey were surveyed. The questionnaire consisted of two scales to measure materialistic tendencies and OCB, respectively.
The results of the study early indicate that materialistic attitude is one of the antecedents that have a negative impact on OCB. There are negative correlations between all dimensions of OCB and materialistic attitude.
Manrique de Lara, PZ et al., (2007) have examined the relationship between an unfavourable attitudinal environment and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) the proposed model suggests that organization anomic (OA) acts as a moderator of that link, and thus OA interacts with unfavourable attitudes and OCB by tightening their theoretical negative association. Data collected from 154 non teaching staff at a Spanish public university. Accessibility of the individual email accounts was similar for all employees. E-mail asking for collaboration were sent in two phases. A questionnaire was posted on the university interanet and could be accessed by clicking on a link in the e-mails multiple hierarchical regression results support the moderating role of OA of the unfavourable attitude OCB link because the unfavourable attitudes towards coworkers and towards the boss as-a-person among employees with compared with high OA, have a stronger negative relationship with OCB. OA moderation existed, but to varying degrees, between attitudes toward. One's job and some dimensions of OCB (OCBI, and OCBI client). OA also intensified the unpredicted positive relationship between attitudes toward boss's performance and OCB. No moderating influences were observed in the case of attitudes toward oneself and toward clients (students).
R. Gert et al., (2007) has conducted a survey of the development of the knowledge sharing and the role of knowledge sharing in predicting turnover intensions of registered professional nurses. A literature study was conducted to determine the concepts and activities linked to knowledge sharing in order to compile the questionnaire. The questionnaire was factor analyzed in order to determine the factor structure of the instrument. Thereafter, the construct of knowledge sharing was introduced together with organization culture and various proposed mediating variables, namely organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behavior and job satisfaction, as well as various demographic variables to develop a predictive model of turnover intentions through applying general linear modeling. A cross sectional field survey design was used with a sample of 530 registered professional nurses in south Africa. A significant negative relationship was found between knowledge sharing behavior and turnover intentions. Furthermore, knowledge sharing interaction with organization culture in a final model where all the selected mediating and demographic variables were simultaneously entered into the equation to predict turnover intentions.
Kim, Sangmook (2006) the main theme of this study is to investigate whether the distinct classes of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) such as altruism and generalized compliance are shown in the Korean context, and whether public service motivation, job satisfaction and organizational commitment are predictors of OCB in Korean civil servants.
Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) is applied to survey data of 1584 civil servants in Korea to examine the relationship between predictors and two dimensions of OCB. This analyzed the effect of public service motivation on OCB, and shows that public service motivation emerges as a more significant predictor of OCB in the public sector of Korea.
It contributes to enhancing the applicability and meaningfulness of the concept of OCB across different cultures.
Juliana D. Lilly et al., (2006) have made a study on the effect that work locus of control has on perceptions of trust, perceived organizational support, procedural justice and interactional justice. Data were collected from 679 alumi of a university in the southwestern USA. Regression analyses and structural equation modeling were used to test a series of hypotheses.
The result indicate that work locus of control has a significant positive relationship on all variables. Perceived organizational support fully mediated the relationship between the work locus of control and perceptions of both procedural and interacional justice. Organizational trust fully mediated the relationship between work locus of control and interactional justice, but only partially mediated the relationship between work locus of control and procedural justice.
2.3 Perception Regarding OCB
Caroline Aube et al., (2007) have conducted a research on that perceived organizational support (POS) is positively and significantly correlated with affective and normative commitment. The sample data includes 249 prison employees, that is by questionnaires. The results of hierarchical multiple regression analysis also support the moderating effect of locus of control and work autonomy with regard to the relationship between POS and affective commitment. This study highlights the importance of providing support to employees in order to faster their affective and normative commitment to the organization. Moreover, the results provide evidence in favour of managerial interventions aimed at enhancing perceived control and consequently, minimizing the negative effects of a lack of organization support on employees affective commitment.
In addition to taking into account here dimensions of organizational commitment, this study underlines personality and job design factors that can modulate the relationship between POS and organizational commitment.
Joo Y. Jung et al., (2008) have explore the relationship between the organizational culture (Organizational Citizenship Behavior OCB), TQM practice and organizational performance of the manquiladora companies. A structural equation modeling based on a cross sectional survey (N = 230) is conducted. As multinational companies (MNCs) implement innovative management methodology such as TQM practices, their organizational culture elements play significant roles towards the outcome. The organizational culture, represented by OCB, significantly impacts how TQM is managed and implemented. Furthermore, the result point out "soft TQM elements" have more significant impact than "hard TQM element" towards firms performance. The findings suggest that management should also focus on the intrinsic motivations of employees represented by OCB rather than the role emphasis on training and education.
3 - RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
`The previous chapter shows that a lot of research has been carried out in the past to study the relationship f organizational citizenship behavior with different variables. Here is another attempt to evaluate the correlation between organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and effectiveness of teachers a case study of University of Peshawar this chapter consists of population, sampling, sources of data collection, method for gathering data and statistical analysis.
3.1 Purpose of the Study
As stated earlier the main purpose of the study is to find out the relationship between organizational citizenship behavior and effectiveness of university teachers.
All teachers working in University of Peshawar constitute the population for this research study.
Sampling is a process of selecting a sufficient number of elements from the population, (i.e. sample), so that a study of the sample and understanding of its properties or characteristics would make it possible for us to generalize such properties or characteristics to the population elements for example sample statistic X (the sample mean) and S (standard deviation) are used as estimates of the population parameter 'm and d .
3.4 Stratified Random Sampling Method
As its name implies, involves a process of stratification or segregation, followed by random selection of subjects from each stratum. The population is first divided into mutual exclusive i.e. each of the groups should be internally homogenous and externally different from one another, groups that are relevant, appropriate and meaningful in the context of the study and subjects are selected randomly from each stratum. In the present research case a proportionate stratified random sample is used because there is a probability that the population frame of different stratum may be the same sample and the same percentage of population is taken. For the purpose of collecting data the University of Peshawar having faculties of Arts and Humanities, Islamic and oriented studies, life and environmental sciences, management and information sciences, numerical and physical sciences and faculty of social sciences have been considered as a stratum. Employees of each strata have been selected through stratified random sample for the comparative study.
Null Hypothesis: Ho: Teachers have OCB and teachers have not OCB are equally effective.
Alternative Hypothesis (HA): Teachers have OCB is more effective than teachers have not OCB.
3.6 Research Tools/Instruments
The following two instruments will be used and utilized for collecting and gathered data. They are:
Observation check list
3.7 Test Statistic
Sometimes, the actual measurement or counts of individual or objects are either not available, or accurate assessment is not possible, they are then arranged in order according to some characteristics of interest. Such an ordered arrangement is called a ranking and the order given to an individual or object is called its rank. The correlation between such sets of ranking is known as Rank correlation.
di = xi - yi
xi is the first observation
yi is the 2nd observation
It is known as spearman's coefficient of Rank correlation.
has the least value and is zero when the numbers are incomplete agreement.
When they are in complete disagreement attains the maximum value equal to
rs = -1 for =
In case any tied observation is found the formula becomes.
Where xi and yi are ranks given to two objects.
Î£ stands for summation/sum
x stands for organizational citizenship behavior-OCB
y stands for effectiveness of teaching
n stands for number of observation.
Bateman and Organ (1973). "Employee Psyche", International Journal of Manpower, Vol 27, pp. 728 Bateman and Organ (1973). "Employee Psyche", International Journal of Manpower, Vol 27, pp. 728
B. Soumendu, V. Arup (2007) "Psychological climate and individual performance in India: test of mediated model", Employee Relations, Vol. 29, No.5
C. Aaron, K. Yardena (2004) "Professionalism and OCB: An eimperical examination among isreali nurses" Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol. 19 No. 9
C.B. Carmen, A.M. Armario, R.M. David (2004) "The Influence of employee organizational Citizenship behavior on customer loyality". Internal Journal of Service Industry Management Vol. 15 No. 1
C.J. Daniel, G.L. Richard (2005) "Structural Interdependence, Personality and organizational citizenship behavior: An examination of personal environment interaction", Personal Review, Vol. 34 No. 3.
G. Teresa, G.V. Jose (2006) "Structural relationships between organizational service orientation, contact employee job satisfaction and citizenship behavior", International Journal of Service Industry Management, Vol. 17 No. 1.
H. Soonkwan, J.Y. Joo (2008) "Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), TQM and performance at the maquiladora", International Journal of Quality and Reliability Management, VOl. 25
J. Everd, R. Gert (2007) "The development of a knowledge sharing construct to predict turnover intentions", Aslib proceedings New Information
Jawahar I.M, C. Dean (2007) "Conscientiousness and contextual performance, the compensatory effects of perceived organizational support and leader member exchange, Journal of Management Psychology, Vol. 22 No. 4.
Katz (1964) "Effects of Organizational Citizen Ship", Management Research News, Vol. 5
K, Sungmook (2006) "Public service motivation and organizational citizenship behavior", International Journal of Manpower, Vol 27, pp. 728
K. Ferry, S. Karin (2006) "Organizational citizens or reciprocal relationships: An eimperical comparison" Personal Review, Vol. 35 No. 5
Lara.de, R. Espino (2007) "Organizational anomie as moderator of the relationship between an unfavourable attitudinal environment and citizenship behavior (OCB): An eimperical study among university administration and service personal", Personal Review, Vol. 36 No. 6
M. Gregory, A. James, K. Neville (2002) "Job satisfaction and Organizational Citizenship behavior": A study of Australian human service professionals Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol. 17 No. 4 P. 288
M. Gregory, A. James, K. Neville (2002) "Job satisfaction and Organizational Citizenship behavior": A study of Australian human service professionals Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol. 17 No. 4 P. 288
Organ (1988) "Concepts of Organisational Behaviour ", Employee Relations, Vol. 29,
T. Omer, K. Unut (2007) "Materialistic attitude as an antecedent of organizational citizenship behavior", Management Research News, Vol. 30 No. 8