Stereotyping is an effective method of mentally organize huge flow of information. It enables to simplify, predict and organize the business into tidy way. There is a chance to ignore processing new or unexpected information about each individual. Assigning characteristics to members of any group saves time and helps to predict the social world.
Stereotypes protect one from anxiety and enhance self-esteem. By designating one's own group as the standard or normal group and assigning others to groups considered inferior or abnormal, it provides one with a sense of worth.
Stereotyping determines that a person has all the characteristics and abilities of the members of that group have. Stereotypes represent social classification, which is one of the reasons for prejudice attitudes.Stereotypes serve fundamental functions for perceivers such as providing explanations for other's behavior and supporting the perceiver's motivations.
The Disadvantages of Stereotypes
Stereotyping is usually a negative statement about a group of people. A stereotype emerges when perception is applied to an entire group of people. For example, If a Bangladeshi who is very quiet, it will be concluded that all Bangladeshis are quiet and reserved.
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The effects of stereotyping can fluctuate, but mostly they are negative and not always apparent until long periods of time have passed. Over time, some victims of negative stereotypes display self-fulfilling prophecy behavior, in which they assume that the stereotype represents norms to emulate.
The negative effects of stereotyping may include forming incorrect opinions of people, blaming them for wrong doing, conducting misjudgment, preventing emotional identification and deteriorating performance.
Stereotypes are not accurate representations of groups; rather they arise as a means of explaining and justifying differences between groups, orÂ system justification. Social status or group position determines stereotype content, not the actual personal characteristics of group members.
Execom should be focusing on overcoming all types of the stereotypes. The managers who are involve with international business should be able to handle any sort of cultural issues and have to have the quality to overcome the stereotypes. As stereotypes have advantages but the managers of Execom should also bear in mind that the disadvantages of stereotypes can bring negativity among employees at workplace. The managers of Execom have to flourish the appropriate strategies of handling staffs in order to ignore any sort of unwanted circumstances. The managers should be focusing on the cultural issues, differences, rules, ethics in different countries so that they can avoid all the superstations and can build a better understanding between cultural diversified worker , in order to take Execom in a better position.
Cultural differences might be the significant obstacles for employees who may need to work in a foreign country. In this scenario it will be essential to find a common ground for comparing various societies and cultures. Hofstede's stated for dimensional model to compare the cultural differences. The model includes: individualist/collectivist, small/large power distance, and small/large uncertainty avoidance and masculine/feminine cultures. Here, Execom needs to determine the two dimension to analysis the cultural differences. The two dimensions of Execom are given below:
One of Hofstede's cultural dimensions is called power distance. In accordance with Hofstede's definition, power distance which is connected with the social acceptance of unequal distribution of the power. The inequity can be linked with prestige, wealth and power. The level of power distance states how the culture is tolerating and fostering the pecking of orders, and how actively the members are trying to reduce them. The characteristics of high power distance societies are the tolerance for inequality and the members of those societies concede that power should be unequally shared. The people who are having higher social position obtain various privileges and that is stated as something right and natural. The societies of lower power distance are those in which inequality is less tolerated. The privileges which are connected with the position are not easily accepted. The culture containing low power distance the freedom or independence is more valued then the conformity.
The uncertainty avoidance is concerned with the degree to which people in a country prefer structured or unstructured situations. Uncertainty-avoidance generally is strong people need clear guidance, guidelines and support. In weak uncertainty-avoidance cultures structures and rules are less important. In some cultures, people prefer to have everything spelled out in detail so there will be few, if any surprises. In some cultures where uncertainty avoidance is low, where people have more relaxed expectations and are not anxious when some factors of a situation are unknown.
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
Fig: Dimensions for comparing cultures
Comparing countries with implications of the two dimensions of Geert Hofstede's are given below:
The culture of Germany has lower power distance .Cultures which has low power distance scores prefer latter, the structure of the organizations is decentralized and therefore smaller proportion of supervisors exists.
The features of Power distance in Germany are given below:
One of the most emphasized characteristics of the Germany management is high participations of employees. They have high autonomy and the involvement employees of Execom may be considered as a very important element. In the Germany culture Execom supervisors may give general suggestions to the employees and the control is limited to encourage employees to take individual incentive, which is connected with the high level of individualism and tendency to avoid any sort of conflicts .Additionally, the Execom management may be determined by a large number of information passed to an employee. The internal communication is considered to be very important in German culture and, accordingly the low power distance, is direct.
Relations between managers and employees
In Germany the relations between managers and employees of Execom might be more open. Especially in one of them emphasis was put on the importance of the egalitarianism in the relations within the organization.
The Germany is more direct in the transfer of the information. The employees of Execom might be informed about the situation of the hotel, decisions, scenarios which might be connected with their situations, and the planned changes. There might be an effort taken to learn about the employee opinion of Execom.
The Uncertainty avoidance of Germany
The Uncertainty avoidance of Germany concerns to the degree in which the society reduces uncertainty by using social interventions rather than focusing on tolerance and coping with uncertainty. In the culture of Germany has got high level of uncertainty. This high level of uncertainty avoidance may facilitate Execom and create a less ambiguous environment. The cultures of Execom might get high on uncertainty avoidance and therefore it could be influenced by higher levels of stress and anxiety because of the members of the societies might be uncomfortable in unstructured situations. Societies high on uncertainty avoidance focus on planning and trying to ensure stability as a way of dealing with life's uncertainties.
Japan is determined as a High power distance country. Societies which contain high power distance scores, more comfortable with not only taller but also centralized organization structures with a large proportion supervising on employees.
The features of Power distance in Japan are given below
The enterprises of Japan are very hierarchical. In practice the Execom might get connected with giving a lot of competence to the top managers and more strictly established hierarchy in which one subordinate has only one supervisor. The main role of lower level management of Execom may be to provide advice to top managers and not to manage or to take decision on their own. In spite of the high power distance in Japan the relations between the supervisors and their subordinates are very strong. The supervisor of Execom may take care of the subordinates and their private life but these relations are formal, not friendly. Top managers are considered as very special persons with high authority. Their contacts with employees from lower levels are limited and very rare.
Relations between managers and employees
Japan power distance is "high". For starters, Japan workers are known to be told what is expected of them. The supervisor of Execom may take care of the subordinates and their private life but these relations are formal, not friendly. Top managers of Execom might be considered as very special persons with high authority. Their contacts with employees from lower levels are limited and very rare .In the workplace those with less power are too afraid to express their idea or disagreements with their bosses.
The results of the research conducted show in Japan enterprises the internal communication is rather hierarchical and rather in top-down direction. The managers of Execom might provide a small number of information to their employees. The information which is connected with the production indicators are regularly informed to employees during any special meetings or on the notice boards. Execom might provide special box for the employees' suggestions and questions for upward communication which might be discussed during weekly meetings.
The uncertainty avoidance of Japan
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High uncertainty avoidance exists in the culture of Japan. High uncertainty means that the people of Japan are less interested to take risks and security plays as a role of power motivators. The employees of Execom may be willing to perform if they are offered security in exchange. If the security is assured then Execom might take risks. These security seeking countries seem to have been doing better economically in the past twenty years than the risk takers. The higher uncertainty avoidance explores a low degree of tolerance for unpredictable behavior what is different is dangerous. Therefore, following the norm in terms of behavior is expected.
South Africa has High power distance. Large power distance means that a big inequality in power is considered by the less powerful members of a society as normal.
The features of Power distance of South Africa are given below:
In high "Power Distance" country like South Africa, the hierarchical system of Execom might have bases on inequality where subordinates are expected to fill exactly defined jobs and decision-making authority is highly centralized. The exclusive control of key corporate knowledge is often used to establish positions of power. Persons rather rent their expertise to accomplish a task or to solve a problem than deplete their power base by genuinely sharing it.
Relations between managers and employees
South African employees are known to be told what is expected of them. The employees of Execom working in South Africa might be less powerful and might depend on the powerful people insights of what is right or wrong. Furthermore, the employees feel that the decisions of their employers are correct because of the power an individual encompass. In the workplace those with less power are too afraid to express their idea or disagreements with their bosses.
South African culture generally prefers high power distance inside its hierarchical organizations. These structures of Execom might be shaped by formal layers of management working to make decisions. The tasks of Execom might be assigned on basis of status by using detailed and definitive instructions of managers. In this culture there is more formalized structure for communication between African managers and subordinates.
Uncertainty avoidance of South Africa
The uncertainty avoidance of South Africa is low. Cultures that score low on uncertainty avoidance accept uncertainty, do not find it upsetting and therefore take risks easily. A low uncertainty avoidance ranking indicates that Execom might have less concern about ambiguity and has more tolerance for a variety of opinions.
From the above discussion it can be seen that power distance is a way to interpret the handling of differences between groups existing in a system of inequality. It reflects a culture's attitude towards human inequality which defines itself inside Execom through a manager subordinate relationship. Where low power distance is present, managers and subordinates of Execom have egalitarian relationships with access to near equal levels of power. High power distance thrives inside hierarchical organizations where importance is placed on social status of employees.
Training is an educational process. People can learn new information, re-learn and reinforce existing knowledge and skills, and most importantly have time to think and consider what new options can help them improve their effectiveness at work. Effective trainings convey relevant and useful information that inform participants and develop skills and behaviors that can be transferred back to the workplace
The goal of training
The goal of training is to create an impact that lasts beyond the end time of the training itself. The focus is on creating specific action steps and commitments that focus people's attention on incorporating their new skills and ideas back at work. Training can be offered as skill development for individuals and groups. In general, trainings involve presentation and learning of content as a means for enhancing skill development and improving workplace behaviors.
The importance of conducting training
The training programs can increase the commitment to the goals of the organization by satisfying the self-actualization needs of the employees.
Training ensures that employees have the variety of skills need. Through the training employees can develop the multi skills.
Training and development process support an internal job market like transfer or promotion. Through training employees self-development needs can be satisfied internally without the need to change employers for task variety and challenge.
Execom can provide trainings to their employees which are given below:
It is essential mangers as a part of effective management to recognize that members of staff have strengths and weaknesses. Delegation of tasks is less appropriate to those best suited for them. The manager of Execom has to know and find out which of the hotel staff is more appropriated for a particular role, but they also have to make sure that all of the staffs are adaptable and trained in every necessary area. The new staffs of hotel should get a proper orientation to get comfortable with the new environment and the manager should provide a general training for them to get to know the rules and regulations of the hotel, the polices, health and safety procedures and their duties as well.
General training is provided for all the new staffs in a hotel. Specific posts might need specialized training. Like Executive Housekeepers, where the post holder makes sure about everything in the hotel, it is usually from the foyers and fitness rooms to the guest rooms to the conference rooms are maintained and clean. They are also in charge of the housekeeping staff, including training and scheduling, and keeping supplies stocked.
If a staff wants to get that particular position then he or she needs specialized training for that position. If a staff wants to learn how to work in a special field the staffs need to have a special training. The management will provide the training if the staff is eligible for the post and the training. The Execom managers should be focusing on their employees according to their positions and trainings. They also need to evaluate who is eligible for the special training and who deserves a specific post.
Determination of training needs of Execom
Company provided training
Self or individual requested training
Company provided training
The Execom group can provide training to their new or current employees. This sort of training can be conducted in the following ways:
On-the-job training takes place in a normal working situation, using the actual tools, equipment, documents or materials that trainees will use when fully trained. On-the-job training has a general reputation as most effective for vocational work. The features of on the job training of Execom are given below:
Demonstrator shows the trainee how to do the job and exactly how get along with the job. The demonstrator should be showing the right and appropriate way to conduct the job by using the right media.
The trainee will be given several jobs in succession to gain experience of a wide range of activities.
An individual may be promoted to the superior's position whilst the superior is absent. This gives the individual to get the experience of a more senior position.
In action learning, managers are brought together as a problem-solving group to discuss a real work issue. An "advisor" facilitates and helps members of the group to identify how their interpersonal and problem-solving skills are affecting the process.
Off-the job training takes place away from normal work situations - implying that the employee does not count as a directly productive worker while such training takes place. Off-the-job training has the advantage that it allows people to get away from work and concentrate more thoroughly on the training itself. This type of training has proven more effective in inculcating concepts and ideas. The features of off-the job training given below:
In day release system, employees take time out from the normal working hours to attend a local college or training centre to get training on a particular activity.
While conducting sandwich courses generally the employees spend a longer period of time at college (e.g. six months) before returning to work.
Self or Individual requested training
While employees are working in any organization, they are usually getting training from the organization but sometimes employee feels that he or she needs training for any particular area. It means the employee is willing to develop his or her skills on that area which not only enrich the quality of his or her work but also it will reflect on the organization as well.
While managing cultural differences training current and new staff is one of the main considerations. The new and current employees of Execom should be taking training in order to understand their own responsibilities and to get comfort with the new cultural job. Trainings should be provided by Execom and that could be general or specialized training. If it's a new employee then he or she is going to have a general training in order to learn the hotel's rules, regulations and culture. If it's a current employee then he or she might be asked to have a specialized training for a special post. This type of training helps to explore skills highly. Sometimes employee feels on his or own that he or she needs training on a particular subject then he or she may ask his or her manager to go for training. Thus how, employees learn loads of works through different sort of training and which helps to understand the culture. By providing these kinds of training Execom can get high skilled employees.
It is one of the best known facts in business that the foundations of success of a company lay greatly within its staff. Without them, the best product in the world, supported by the most comprehensive company strategy, is still likely to struggle. In an international hotel like Execom the role of an international manager is very significant for the successful operation of the company. The appointment of wrong person here may be disastrous for a company. Such a person must have a great personality with a combination of high skills and professionalism. It is very difficult to identify three key skills for such a person, since there are numerous skills such a person should possess. However, after much consideration, the following three skills are identified as key skills for an international manager.
The Skills of an "International Manager" obtains are given below
Interpersonal defines as the skills which one needs in place to communicate effectively and efficiently with another person or as a group of people. Some features of interpersonal skills are given below:
Demonstrate high moral standards
In any organization, good leadership of managers is based on strong knowledge and experience which lead to results. A leader needs to have all the expertise and knowledge personally and be involved regular consultations with experts in the departments. This is inevitable to draw an accurate picture of the organization. The manager of Execom may also maintain good leadership by sharing strong knowledge and experience their knowledge with employees on particular issues.
Helping or facilitating
It is manager's responsibility to help and motivate employees at work. This is considered an important aspect of interpersonal competence. Helping from psychological point of view has also an important influence in case of working on research and developments in the area of interpersonal skills.
Being assertive is one of the important interpersonal skills for interactions in all aspects of work. Assertive person can conduct varieties communicative actions including viewing any situation clearly and avoiding conflicts of interest.
Non-verbal communication is also considered as communicative activity. It involves an ability to detect and convey messages and is also seen as a central interpersonal skill.
Conceptual skills are very difficult to learn. Good managers must know what is going on both inside and outside their business. They must be able to break down problems in to solvable chunks and be able to assimilate small bits of data to connect the dots into meaningful issues, problems and opportunities. They must connect the dots to make decisions. These decisions involve planning, assessing performance, solving problems and collecting resource.
Effective communication is to convey the messages to other people concisely and unambiguously. It is also about receiving information from other with as little distortion as possible. This involves effort from both the sender of the message and the receiver. However it is a process that can be filled with error, mistaken by the sender, or misinterpreted by the recipient. If error can not be detected, it can cause enormous confusion and prevent new opportunities. Therefore, communication will only be successful when both the sender and the receiver understand the same information as a consequence of the communication. The manager of Execom should have communication skills in order to avoid any sort of consequences.
Effective skills includes contributing to corporate objectives, focusing on customer demand, working at multiple tasks, negotiating skills, managing project, reviewing operations and implementing improvements, setting and maintaining performance standards, setting priorities and time management.
The features of Effectiveness skills are given below
Creative problem solving skills
Creative problem solving helps to analyze a problem then it figures out the cause of the problem, then it develops creative functions and then it focuses on choosing the best action. After all these steps it implements and evaluated the effectiveness and efficiency of the decision.
Identifying common mistakes in negotiation and finding ways to avoid them, developing rational thinking in negotiation, and developing effective skills in negotiation that benefits all parties involved.
Conflict management skills
While working at a organization there conflict may arise for different purposes a manager's duty is to resolve the conflicts between the employees. The manager of Execom should be focusing on the best way of resolving any problems which might occur in future.
These four managerial skills are essential for any international organization like Execom. These skills are important for developing effective management skills to deal with any sort of circumstances, challenges and problems of Execom to deal the businesses and hotel in the global competitive environment, rapid changing of technology and environment. So the Execom group should be focusing on the Managerial skills in order to get the best result in their own region and worldwide.
Cultural Diversity within an organization
Workplace diversity determines a lot of differences between people in an organization. Although that sounds simple, but diversity encompasses race, gender, ethnic group, age, personality, cognitive style, tenure, organizational function, education, background and more. Diversity explores how people perceive themselves and others. In Execom there are cultural diversities among staffs. For a wide assortment of employees to function effectively as an organization, human resource professionals need to deal effectively with issues such as communication, adaptability and change. Diversity will increase significantly in the coming years. Successful organizations recognize the need for immediate action and are ready and willing to spend resources on managing diversity in the workplace now.
The Advantages of diversifies human resource within an organization
A different point of view is important for any organization. People from different culture can provide Execom more opportunities that may have not seen or known about. Ideas for products that offer to a particular culture or community of people can come from the employees. By hiring a diverse set of people Execom can make better chance to enter into markets that might not have even existed.
Organizations with diverse workforce can provide a greater variety of solutions to problems in service, sourcing, and allocation of resources. Employees from diverse backgrounds can bring new ideas through their individual talents and experience for adapting to fluctuating markets and customer demands.
A diverse workforce communicating varying points of view can provide a larger pool of ideas and experiences. Execom can draw from that pool to meet the business strategy and the needs of customers more effectively. If Execom encourage diversity in the workplace, all of their employees will be motivated to perform to their highest ability. This will help to contribute in company's higher productivity and profitability.
Execom may face four types of additional cost when they invest in workforce diversity policies.
Cash Costs of Diversity
The main cash costs of Execom are for having specialist staff, providing them education and training, ensuring good working conditions and benefits, introducing employment policies, monitoring and reporting processes.
Costs of Legal Compliance
Potential costs of Execom include documentation systems; training of staff and communication of new policies. However, the extent of these costs for particular business will depend on the nature of existing internal processes and current legislative requirements.
Opportunity Costs of Diversity
The opportunity costs represent the loss of benefits because a scarce resource cannot be used in other productive activities. These include diversion of top management time, diversion of functional management time and productivity shortfalls.
Organizations need to inspire the innovation and creativity of their employees in order to survive in global market. In Execom the managers can take their workforce diversity effectively which can lead to higher innovation. Creativity helps organizations to face global challenge and achieve competitive advantage. Managing diversity helps to stimulate the creativity at the work place. Creativity encourages by increasing a wider range of perspectives and less group think.
Emphasis on Market
Market is composed of people with a variety of backgrounds with different marketing needs and purchasing behavior. Success in managing organization's diverse workforce has at least three marketing competitive advantages:
Organizations with diverse workforce have better public images and reputations. If women and members of minority groups prefer to work for these firms, they may also prefer to purchase their products and services.
Culture can significantly influence consumer behavior. Diverse workforce can relate to their own cultures and understand the factors that influence the purchasing decisions of women and minorities.
Diverse workforce benefits domestic market and also creates competitive advantages in the international phenomena. Employees of such organizations are more sensitive with cultural differences.
Cultural diversity plays an important role in any country. In Execom group diversified human resource is helping to increase adaptability, emphasis on market, enhance creativity and so forth. All these factors will help the employees of Execom to work with a diversified working environment. By working in such areas employees will be in touch with different cultural employees. So in the field of business cultural diversity have more of the positive influences.
Global and virtual teams are teams containing people who a primarily interact electronically and who may meet face-to-face occasionally. There physical limitation in virtual team and the team operates virtually. The team members of virtual team usually use electronic collaboration technologies and techniques to communicate other organizational staffs that live in different region to lower travel and facility costs. This team also reduces project schedules and helps to improve decision making time and communication.
The critical areas that need to be addressed in managing global and virtual teams:
Human resource policies
Human resource policies should assist working virtually. Systems must be integrated and aligned to recognize, support, and reward the people who work in the global and virtual teams. Organizational reward and recognition systems offer helps to motivate people working virtually. Virtual and global team members of Execom may usually work in a cross-functional and cross-organizational environment. The leaders need to develop performance objectives for team members that include working across boundaries and sharing information to support the virtual teamwork and global team work.
Handy use of technology
The virtual and global members of Execom should have instant access to electronic communication and technology, training. Virtual team and global leaders of Execom may set a standard for technology and make sure that everyone has access to the same hardware, intranet and internet. They should also provide formal training for virtual team and global members for using technology. Execom should select communication channels and technologies for the entire member to work virtually. Information sharing requires simple technology.
Exploring skills through training
The virtual team and global members of Execom may acquire the training and support which is needed for using technical and nontechnical methods. Training should be an inevitable part of the curriculum for team leaders and team members. Many organizations provide consulting support and training to virtual teams and global teams in this area of collaboration skills.
The employees who work as global and virtual team members of Execom have to develop their own competencies. Some individuals feel difficulties working in a global and virtual team. They need face-to-face interaction in a work environment. Without the traditional structure of the organization and day-to-day contact with team members, they may feel isolated or left out. All members of traditional and virtual teams of Execom need disciplines at their work. However, global and virtual team members need new competencies. Team leaders can help to develop competence by providing training to the team members. Team member competencies may depend on the team's type, mission, and objectives.
Focusing on team motivation
Sometimes global and virtual team members of Execom may show increased capability and motivation at work when there is high "social capital". Social capital comes from interactions between team members. Three things necessary to develop social capitals which are given below:
Seemingly irrelevant, unrelated-to-work conversations among employees make working relationships more effective and act as a "trust accelerator".
Giving will eventually result in receiving.
A key message is that communication and relationship development must be more carefully considered in the virtual environment than in the traditional one.
Global and Virtual offices explore how people in different regions live, work and network. In an international hotel group like Execom is existence of cultural diversity. The employees of global and virtual team should understand the other countries culture with which they are conducting their team works. Language is one of the most effective barriers of communication with other cultures. To make all the difficulties easier there should be video conferencing to communicate with other cultural people to understand them and their culture. This will create a positive working environment for both global and virtual team.
Virtual team and global team is an important factor for any international organization. Global and virtual teams of Execom may include employees that work together however; they are separated from time and place. Using management principals and trust are the most challenging cases that virtual teams encounter them. Ways which are used by staff management of virtual teams make also classical patterns of human resource management challenge. Execom being an international hotel group should be focusing on global and virtual team to manage their business around the world. The global and virtual teams of Execom should follow the critical success factors of virtual teams in order to achieve the best result and making their team successful.
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