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This paper aims is to identify the roles and characteristics of CEO and their creativity in managing an organization in order to create and producing a productive organization.
The result found in the paper discussing on the role and characteristics of CEO including their contribution to the organization which are making the transformational meaningful, role modelling desire mindset and behaviour, building a strong and committed top team, relentlessly pursuing impact, working environment, able to take risk, motivation, encourage and enable collaboration, manage the commercialization handoff, provide intellectual challenge, provide the setting for good work and so on. The study shows the role and creativity of CEO in order to influence the employee outcomes and organizational standards.
OBJECTIVE OF THE PAPER
The objective of the paper is to present and share on the creativity and the role of Chief Executive Officers (CEO). This paper will focus on the roles of a CEO, and their creativity on how a CEO creating and growing an organization based on their ability, speciality and making strategy on creating something different compared to others. More specifically the paper will describe briefly on the critical success factors and highlight the major challenges faced by CEO in conducting their roles as CEO to create an effective organization by giving all what they have, and what types of creativity have been used to keep maintaining and growing profit for their organization. Then, on how the CEO will behave on conduct their roles effectively and efficiently and suggest multi-layered insight into strategic leadership of the organization in the future.
Nowadays, in the modern world with the advanced technology where everyone can create changes to themselves, same also like in an organization where the leader can lead their employees to change. There are specific types of leadership, such as "charismatic" (House, 1977), "transformational" (Burn 1978, Bass 1985), "visionary" (Bennis and Nanus, 1985), or "value based" (House et all, 1998) leadership. These types of leader are playing big role in term of their leadership styles because only they have the extraordinary power to influence and inspiring their employees in performing work and to foster a strong relationship between leader and employees.
The world today has grown more complex and challenges with the advanced technology and more skill and ability found in people on creating something new and unique and able to make changes. To be able to develop these kinds of changes, leaders play a big role in creating and adding values in themselves, their organizations and their followers. Their creativity is their heart of the business, where it was a part from their successful and achievement. The creativity of leader will determine the future of an organization based on the growth profitability and result of outcomes that they will gain after performing all the creative tasks and keep maintaining the growth in future.
Chief Executive Officers (CEO) acts as chief designer in making strategy process which is customized to the strategy context of an organization (De Wit & Meyer, 2004). The exact nature of the CEO's role will be influence by the magnitude, urgency, and nature of the transformation; the capabilities and failings of the organization; and the personal style of the leader. The role of CEO's is unique in the position they stand at the top of the pyramid of organization chart and all the other members of the organization need to take cues from them. Only the boss of all bosses can ensure that the right people spend the right amount of time at the right position to drive organization during necessary changes. (Aiken, Carolyn B, Keller Scott P, 2007).
ART CREATIVITY OF CEO AND THEIR ROLES IN
MANAGING AN ORGANIZATION
First of all, leader is someone who should start to drive and control the changes in the organization structure, culture and process on transforming into productive and effective organization. So, to draw the organization, leader has to hire the right people, at the right times and put at the right places or degrees in the creative work, to encourage employees' imagination and initiatives as a contribution to the organization. Then, the leader need to act as the catalyst that give direction, vision, momentum and creating strategies which will bring success to the organization when they are able to manage the environmental changing. The leader must have strong vision of their own to able to influence their followers on creating successful organization.
Power and authority are one of important elements on developing and measuring organizational strategies which able to help the leader to perceive opportunity on making renewal, and demonstrate proactive attitudes and actions in order to respond to the environmental changes in organization and to lead the organization. Their ability to inspire, empower and exert broad influence in the organization shown that on how their leadership style could invite disruptive innovation, encourage others to think more creatively and freely and able to take balanced risks on drawing successful organization based on their vision, these kind of leader who are inspiring to take risk and challenges able to lead organization and their employees and be role model to their followers.
'Top-down' and 'bottom-up' information flow and strategic conversations are encouraged in an effort to allow important strategic insights from line managers to bubble to the surface and inform determination of these parameters (Liedtka, 1998; Markides, 2000). This strategy is important in build commitment between both leader and their employees in determining organization's future strategic direction through build strong communication on face to face between both parties. Staff training and development in the skill and knowledge, encouraging communication between both leader and their employees and creating the important supporting organizational culture are important aspects of practising this approach to the organizational growth (Bonn & Christodoulou, 1996).
The art of directing creativity is thus to balance what happens in the boundary space in the organization between restricting and letting emerge. The director must have a vision that is open enough to capture novelty as it emerges. In order to succeed the leader needs to be flexible in his approach, to encourage, to inspire and to empathise with the team members throughout the process of emerging the organizational process (Goleman 2000). Means that, leader must set a vision that enable to motivate and encourage people to work for it. To ensure that the organization will work for it, the leader need to lead people by providing inputs needed to get the better results of outputs. According to Steve Tomasco in his paper on creativity selected as most crucial factor for future success, he stated that, "as CEO in an organization, leader should know on how to make changes in their business, by first of all, they must started to build their own strategy and realize that the strategy can achieve their expectation in the changes".
In addition, role of CEO in encouraging creativity is through designing the organization to foster an environment which able to build friendly and inclusive working conditions to encourage new ideas, able to think freely and create challenges to produce an imaginative work. Treat and embrace mistakes as part of learning process to create organizational cultures where people can take risks and decrease fear of failure to encourage new development ideas. Fail early and often is not a mistake but through the failure or mistake we can learn as much as possible in the process of learning (Khaire, T. M. 2008) in applying all the knowledge, skill and ability to meet the organizational goal. As a leader, do not ever to treat people mistakes, and take it to humiliate them, because it may discourage people to not perform well, and there will have feeling dissatisfaction between both leader and the followers.
Work environment link to creativity and effective of employees as well as leader. Therefore, not only responsibility of management to ensure that environment is suitable for employees but leader also should take apart. Leader needed to design the organization to encourage an environment more conducive such as building friendly work environment that will make employees more comfortable to work and communicate each others. To encourage creativity, leader can treated their employees as a living system and have human being with innovative dynamic and potential that exist within all employees. That is how leader try to solve organization problems. Then, leader should stop treated employees as machines to follow all the instruction (Agbor, E. 2008).
CEO need to design social structure where people have sense of belonging, feel sense of worth, secure and acceptance in organization especially in the decision making process. Then when this social structure have been well fostered, it will help to motivate people to perform at their peak, and able to score high on their performance by using their capabilities to fulfil the expectations of organization and themselves. Then, to be a creative leader, the way of leadership must be exercised in a highly ambiguous context, where there is no clear yardstick and no clear rules on how to create productive organization (Khaire, T. M. 2008) and the leader must feel comfortable with their ambiguity and experiment to create new business model which are creative, unique and acceptable and suitable with organization standard.
The CEO must play their roles very well in leading transformation so that it will useful for their employees and can also give the motivation for them. The process of transformation must be plan very well and accurately. For example, sometimes, leaders can use their lives before them successful like their determination and struggle to be successful. When organization create any change or transformation, CEO as a leader need to help employees believe in their effort on making the changes and should know what are the effect of transformation towards organization and them. To help employees understand with the new transformation, leader can share any experiences from their own lives and also recommended any alternatives to overcome the challenges that will be faced in the future as a preparation. By sharing stories and experiences, leader can highlight the previous success achievement, which can make employee more confident about the changes and know that the changes actually work.
Therefore, CEO can implement their experiences to make the transformation and also can manage and overcome any obstacle in the company by creating mental strategy among people in order to face any transformation so that employees can adapt to every changes like challenge in work life, stress, discrimination, harassment, and layoff. In addition, reinforcement are needed so that they transformation can be achieved successfully. For example, the leader can give the promotion or awards for every employee who performs well in the company to encourage and motivate employees to increase their performance in the future and increase their self satisfaction to their contribution to the organization.
Other than that, leader needs to involve employees in any planning and decision making for the whole system and respect any ideas of employees and allows them to give their own perspective. Even the ideas are not accepted, leader needed to explain why the ideas are rejected to prevent employees feel down and upset. By engage employee in organization process, employee can give any suggestions about how to implement transformation effectively with creative thinking because employee knows what they want and what are suitable for them. Then it can make employee increase their performance when they have satisfaction to the organization. N. R. Narayana Murthy, chairman of the board and former chief executive of India's Infosys say that the first responsibility of a leader is to create mental and energy among people so that they enthusiastically embrace the transformation. (Aiken, Carolyn B; Keller Scott P, 2007)
Mahatma Gandhi's stated that "For things to change, first I must change (Keller, C. B. 2007). Therefore, CEO also needed to be role model within organization and also out the organization. This mean, the CEO need to be an example to the employees so that they can follow and make their leader as a guide when they perform their tasks and duties. Types of behaviour shown always will be seen by others. Then, they needed to act as a good role model to encourage their employees to also show good behaviour. Next, take symbolic action such as provided rewards for encourage employee to contribute high performance. From there, employees will compete among them to perform effectively but they need to understand that reward will be given based on performance without any biases.
The leader need to change first if they want make the transformation among their employees and their company. This is because the transformation from leaders is the most important thing before they change their employees as good as they want. The leader needs to sacrifice themselves first and they need to encourage their employees to make the transformation and become a successful person one day. The symbolic action on signalling to the employees to behave and always perform their tasks and duties in a good way is one of the actions taken. The transformation of leader may also lead their followers to make changes, when both parties able to make changes, the organization able to achieve their standard or beyond that.
The role of CEO also to created a strong and committed team in order to make the transformation in the company. This is because cooperation on work and team is useful to make the changes and can access the ability that could be produce and share by everyone. For example, if one of the team members has the strong and good ability, it can motivate to the other members in their team. The CEO need to take time for assess the abilities of employees that will give high performance toward work and also high commitment when they will ask to work in group. Any tasks that are given should have the dateline to complete for ensuring that the task will complete on time and in clear direction stated by the CEO.
The leader can implement skill and ability together with the team member to ensure that they able to work toward organizational goal. This is important because from the team building, it can improve and all the skills and knowledge needed can be achieved through the work with the team members. The good and valuable teams can give the effectiveness and transformation in the company, when they able to communicate and interact with each others to ensure that the vision set up can be achieved based on what have been agreed in order to avoid any conflict or misunderstanding occurs during the discussion on work on achieving organizational goal. When there is difference in opinion on renewing the organizational vision, new skill and knowledge needed, and on how to adapt with the changes in economic environment, the CEO need to manage the complexity to deal with the organization success (Tomasco, S. 2010).
Moreover, relentless pursuing impact also one of the roles of CEO's that can lead to organizational success. The leader needs to struggle to change and make the transformation of their company and also the behaviour among employees. If the CEO can achieve their effort in leading transformation, the problems can be solved and all the obstacle can be manage nicely. So, the leader and also the employees need have responsibility to manage the company in a good way so that can achieve the goals and standards that the company perceives for the long-term. Sometime, as a leader they needed to roll up their sleeves through willingness to leave their high level position and come to helps resolve difficult problems and issues with employees.
The creativity of the leader is very important to ensure that the company progress well and creative because creativity has always been at the heart of business in every company by encouraging and builds collaboration in the company which can give the best impact for the company when the leader can encourage their employees to collaborate between each other like make the task in the group and so on. Then, leaders can also enhance diversity by looking outside the organization for sources of creativity. The leaders can also looking out at the other leaders or other company and gain the knowledge to make some improvement to their company. The collaboration of CEO and their teams which are courageous and visionary is needed in order to make decisions that alter the status quo between both CEO and their employees to decrease the feeling of differentiation between 'top-down' and 'bottom-up' level in order to work together.
Furthermore, cognitive preferences also help to reveal leader on how their work styles and decision-making activities. For example, take collaboration as opposed to independence. Some people prefer to work together on solving problems or in making decision, whereas others prefer to gather, absorb, and process information by themselves. These two different conditions may lead to the satisfaction of different types of employees through the way they work. Or consider thinking as opposed to feeling. Some people may evaluate the evidence and make decisions through a structured, logical process or theory, whereas others may rely on their values including their skill, ability as the evidence or use their emotions to guide them to the appropriate action, (Prof. Dora Thompson, P. M. 2012). But, having different skill and ability are very helpful in organize the changes for the organization standard because the employees can contribute each strategies for the organization mission which can bring to achieve organizational goal and create differences with others. These preferences, show how people can be independent in their work and how they react to the work based on different ways, when they able to think freely and creatively and decide on how they want to act on their work.
Besides that, manage the commercialization handoff can make the creativity in the company. There are few people having equal capabilities in idea generation and ideas commercialization and why large corporation normally separate these two functions. Motivation can lead employees to perform well; the leader needs to motivate their employees to perform at the peak as especially vital in creative work. Moreover, leader needs to provide intellectual challenge for the employees by giving them the task that can challenge their mind or create a case and monitoring on how they can handle the situation. This kind situation can help employees more motivated and more independence in the future. The leader needs to provide the comfortable arrangement in the company so that the employees can feel comfortable and do their tasks well by considering all the roles that able to gain loyalty and truthfulness from their employees.
In addition, the creativity in thinking styles, which can values different types of employees in their analytical, intuitive, conceptual, logical, or values driven possess by them, can be very useful approaches in making decisions, problem solving, assimilate data, and build a relationship with others are important aspects in an organization structure. According to (Prof. Dora Thompson, P. M. 2012), most leaders will come up with more than one great idea and then they will merge in the brain to confuse, overwhelm and produce frustration to ensure that they can think freely and creatively through how their brain can manipulate the information. Make lists of your ideas to get them out of your mind by sharing to others, or draft the ideas into creating products or services. Broadening horizons for the sources of inspirations can be a tool of the thinking styles, when the ideas can be generated through observation and experiencing on surrounding like travelling to be used in organizational growth of creativity.
Nowadays, most of the leaders today faced a complex challenges in managing their organization (John Ryan, 2010). Through the complex challenges arise, the leader must be mentally and physically prepared on how they want to react to the environmentally changes of economic, structure or culture when they want to lead and expanding the organization globally. According to (Tomasco, S. 2010), the biggest challenge facing by enterprises from here on will be the accelerating complexity and the velocity of a world that is operating as a massively interconnected system. These challenges will be more complex from time to time if the leader does not find any resolution to these changes. The CEO, need to come out with the solution which can help the organization to retain and improving their standard before going globally by using pilot testing on their operation, to ensure that their organization able to stand and maintaining their standard for long-term and able to compete with international organization to increase their growth of profitability, and revenues.
As the conclusion, organizational leadership is the important aspect of the organizational creativity and innovation dynamics. The leader must play their important roles in order to manage their company and also their employees. If the leader especially CEO's very creative, they can give the motivation and can make their employees more motivate and enjoy to do their task and duties. The creativity of CEO's can lead their organization more meaningful and can achieve their long-term objective and also can improve the organization standard. So, if the objective and standard was achieved, the organization will be gain more growth profitability on their production and build their name globally. Finally, the role and creativity of CEO is the most important aspects, so that the CEO can inspire everyone and encourage people to make the transformation in the organization. The best career development that the leader have shown, is what they love to do or what they great at and how they will pursue that career development. Once, they able to accomplish their career, they will gain more value and satisfaction in the workforce.