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Since the company is a construction business, there are two offices one is the on site office and the other one is the main office. The recruitment and selection process is majorly carried out for the main office.
The different posts for which recruitment is carried out are for the different departments such as marketing, human resource, finance and functional departments.
The company does not carry out recruitment process on a timely basis; it is conducted as and when an employee leaves the organization or when a new position is recognized in the organization.
Recruitment and selection
"Recruitment is the premier major steps in the selection process in the Organizations. It has been explained as an activity directed to obtain appropriate human resources whose qualifications and skills match functions of the relevant posts in the Organization. Its importance cannot be over-emphasized and can also be best described as the 'heart' of the organization".
Recruitment and selection process starts when a vacancy becomes available in an organization.
The major differences between recruitment and selection is highlighted below
Is the process of searching the candidates for employment and inspiring them to apply for jobs in the organization
It Involves the series of steps by which the candidates are screened for choosing the most suitable persons for vacant posts
The basic purpose of recruitments is to create a talent pool of candidates to enable the selection of best candidates for the organization, by attracting more and more employees to apply in the organization.
The basic purpose of selection process is to choose the right candidate to fill the various positions in the organization
Recruitment is a positive process i.e. encouraging more and more employees to apply .
Selection is a negative process as it involves rejection of the unsuitable candidates.
Recruitment is concerned with tapping the sources of human resources
Selection is concerned with selecting the most suitable candidate through various interviews and tests
There is no contract of recruitment established in recruitment
Selection results in a contract of service between the employer and the selected employee.
Recruitment and selection is a 10-step process. These steps are illustrated in the following table
The human resource department of the company carries out the following process for recruiting and selecting new employees.
Every time an employee holding high post decides to leave the firm, the director of the company with the help of human resource department sits down to analyze the structure of the organization and studies whether any change is required. Change could be in the form of clubbing different job responsibilities or whether it is necessary to recruit a new employee. If there is a change in the structure, the employees are informed about it during the weekly meetings.
If there is no change to be made to the structure then the recruitment and selection process is carried out
After the vacancy is confirmed, the HR department reviews the job description and job specification and makes the necessary changes if required.
The job description contains items such as
Job specification- lists the human qualifications necessary to do the job like-
The employers of Empire construction search for the following skills in the employee's
The selection process is then based on the job description and job specification. The HR head decides the weightage that each criterion will have in the selection of the employee
Advertisement is done to get suitable candidates aware about the vacant post.
The company finds it necessary to be as transparent as possible while displaying the job advertisement. Some of the details mentioned in the job advertisement are
All positions must be advertised for a minimum of five working days.
The company recruits employees both internally and externally; this depends on the vacant post.
For internal recruitment the vacant posts are advertised only internally, where the job details are posted on the notice board and the post is spoken about in the meetings. However internal recruitment in the company is limited since the workforce in the company is trivial.
External advertisement - The Company advertises the vacant post externally by using the newspaper. Also the company lets various job centers aware of the post. In the world of technology the company also uses various online websites such as naukri.com and monster.com to post about the job and get suitable candidates.
Following the advertisements the interested candidates are asked to fill up an application form, which is provided to them via email or can be collected from the main office. An example of the application form is attached below. Along with the application form the candidates are required to submit their CV.
After all the applications are received the Hr department of the company screens applications and short-lists the suitable candidates.
The short listed candidates are then asked to come for an interview; this information is passed to the suitable candidates using emails and phone calls. The rejected candidates are also sent a mail stating that they have been rejected for the job applied for.
The company head and the Hr manager together interview the short-listed candidates.
Some of The basic interview questions they ask the candidates are listed below.
Why do you want this job?
What do you know about this company?
What makes you think you will fit in this organization?
What are your key strengths?
What are your main weaknesses?
The interview question that they ask are situational based and is largely dependent on the post applied for.
One good example that the Hr head provided the author with was in relation to an interview for the sales head. The interviewee was handed with the brochure of the company's new project and was asked to point out reasons why the sales might or not take place with respect to that brochure.
Once the interview is done, the HR team sits down together to verify the credentials. The right to work evidence, birth certificate, passport, visa and other such documents are taken into consideration during the interview process.
Soon after the credentials are verified the process of ranking the applicants starts. The company carries out this process using the independent approach. Each member of the selection committee pens down their views and ranks the applicants on the basis of the criterion. After which the selection committee comes to a consensus where the applicant with the most merit is selected to fill the vacant position. In case of a conflict the general Manager of the firm will take the decision.
Selection process is followed by then deciding the commencing salary of the employee. Salary is decided based on the experience, qualifications and also the post applied for. Applicants are considered suitable are ranked in order of preference.
The task of completing reference checking of the applicants is handed over to rather the selection committee or the director's nominee. Reference checks are important to understand the ability of the applicant to carry out his duties of position in accordance with the criterion. Reference checking is not carried out for the applicants who were interviewed. In fact it is only done for the applicant who ranked the highest. If at all there is hardly any difference between two or more applicant then their reference can also be considered.
If the selection committee decides to approach the referees that have not been nominated by the applicant, then they ought to take permission from the applicant before doing so.
Effective employee retention is a systematic effort by employers to create and foster an environment that encourages current employees to remain employed by having policies and practices in place that address their diverse needs.
Retaining existing staff saves the employers time and money of recruiting, selecting and training new employees.
Empire constructions use several ways to retain their existing employees, Mr T.s Vig the Director of the company said that retention of the key employees is necessary for the project success.
The company always has exit interviews for employees who decide to leave their jobs; these interviews have revealed some reasons why people leave the job. Such as
Better salary package elsewhere
More Benefits elsewhere
Too much workload
The various measures taken by the company in order to retain its employees are as the follows
The company believes in having a very open communication system where no employee feels alienated and all employees feel like an important part of the organization.
Making work not only about work, the company environment is very friendly. They celebrate all festivals with a lot of enthusiasm in the company, this brings all the employees closer as a group. Also the employees are allotted with special bonuses during some festivals for example during Diwali the employees are given half a months extra salary.
Pay in order to retain the employees the company keeps upgrading the employee's salary as time passes.
Benefits- Empire constructions provides their workers with some benefits such asâ€¨
â€¢ Paid vacationâ€¨â€¢ Paid holiday â€¨â€¢ Sick leave,
Fringe benefits are discussed in detail later.
Pension- The employees of Empire constructions are given a pension when retiring; this motivates them to stay longer in the organization.
Motivational strategies used by the company are to mainly make the more efficient and they also help in retaining them, as motivated employees are happy employees. This aspect is explained in the later part of the assignment
1.2 Apply legal, regulatory and ethical considerations to the selection process
Ethics is a set of principles to be followed that suggest what is right and what is wrong. No discrimination on any basis is one of the laws which has to be followed but it also an ethical responsibility of the employers and the management. Being in a construction business ethics plays a vital role since the business utilizes manpower like none other. With having unskilled labor the company needs to follow ethical practices in order to not harm anyone.
Once the final negotiations are done the following formalities are essential to convert the candidate into an employee.
· Reference Checks
· Pre employment medical tests
· Documentation: Educational certificates and previous organizational records
The above-mentioned regulations are for only the main office staff.
There are several laws the company will have to follow and are mandatory
Minimum age- according to Article 8 of Part - II of the Indian law system Minimum Age initially specified was 16 years but was raised to 18 years in 1989. According to this law all the employees if the company should be over the age of 18. Empire construction does not recruit anyone who is below the age of 18. One of the eligibility criteria that the company follows is that the age of the candidate should be over 18.
According to Indian contract act of 1872 all the employee's are made to sign a contract at the start of their work.
Minimum wages- The Indian law system specifies a minimum wage and all the employee's should be paid more than that. Empire constructions for the skilled and unskilled labor obey this law and pay the employees accordingly. This act is more applicable for the unskilled workers working at the construction sites.
Being in the construction business Empire construction has to follow "The Building & Other Construction Workers (Regulation of Employment & Conditions of Service) Act, 1996" - This act looks was enacted for safety, health and welfare measures of construction workers. The Act contains provision for
Amongst the other mentioned laws the company also has an obligation to follow The Equal Remuneration Act, 1973"(for woman) and
The Employment Exchanges (Compulsory Notification of Vacancies) Act, 1959.
2 High performance teams are truly seen as winning teams that invest much time and effort exploring, shaping and agreeing on a purpose that belongs to them, both collectively and individually. They are characterized by a greater sense of commitment to their growth and success. Evaluate how to build winning teams.
Assess the benefits of team working
"A team is any group of people organized to work together interdependently and cooperatively to meet the needs of their customers by accomplishing a purpose and goals." Susan Heathfield
Empire construction utilizes project teams. In the company several people of different functional groups come together and work on a project, this has many benefits for the organization some of them are listed below.
Efficiency- Teamwork leads to higher efficiency, which will evidently is beneficial for Empire constructions. Teamwork in Empire construction aids in getting the projects undertaken in the most efficient manner.
Morale- working in teams helps employees have higher morale and feel more comfortable and well adjusted in the organization. Higher employee morale helps in their retention.
Information Preservation- working in teams, all information about activities are shared, hence protecting the company from loss of important work when someone leaves the company. Sharing information can cut down on time spent learning valuable information a former employee understood well.
Innovationâ€¨- Brainstorming for ideas and pooling in resources makes innovation likely for the company. In Empire constructions the project team sit together and analyze projects and brainstorm ideas and this usually leads to innovative ideas.
Reduced Waste- â€¨Team working reduces chances of duplication of efforts and streamline production.
Unity- â€¨Working in teams fosters a sense of unity and this overall benefits the company by creating a work atmosphere enjoyed by the staff.
Project teams are also vital for Empire construction since without it the success of projects would be challenging, each individual working independently on one common project would create a lot of chaos and duplication of work will be high.
Demonstrate working in a team as a leader and member towards specific goals dealing with any conflict or difficult situation.
Conflict is the perception of difference of interest among people" (Thompson, 1998,p.4)
Conflict management and problem solving skills are important for all leaders to possess. It is important to understand the reasons of conflicts . Most of the conflicts that happen in teams are due to the difference in ideas and the problems that arise are due to individuals but have an effect on the entire team. Stulberg (1987) identified traits common to all disagreements; He called them the Five-P's of Conflict Management and these are shown below.
Conflict management, source- Stulberg (1987) http://www.innovativeteambuilding.co.uk
In empire construction for conflict management the team leader listens to all the people and then brainstorms and understands the conflict then comes up with a solution.
The author would recommend the company to use "Interest-Based Relational (IBR) Approach" for conflict management. This approach respects individual differences and helps in people not becoming too embedded in a fix position.
All the team members of the company would have to follow the following rules in using this approach.
Make sure that good relationships are the first priority: During conflicts all the people involved should be courteous and calm, also should try to be constructive under pressure.
Keep people and problems separate: During a conflict other personal issues should not be kept under consideration, this will help in dealing with real issues without damaging working relationships.
Pay attention to the interests that are being presented: Listen carefully to the other person
Listen first; talk second: To solve a problem effectively you have to understand where the other person is coming from before defending your own position.
Set out the "Facts": Before trying to argue or try to manage conflicts the leader should know all the facts about the conflict.
Explore options together: Be open to the idea that a third position may exist, and that you can get to this idea jointly.
Review the effectiveness of a team in achieving the goals.
Effectiveness of teams refers to how efficient the team is while achieving their goals. For an effective team all employees should be more proactive and self-sufficient, hence employee empowerment can help improve team effectiveness.
In empire constructions the effectiveness of team is vital to achieve the goals. Being a construction company they have deadlines to meet and their main goal is to complete projects within the time and budget and with good quality.
To achieve their goals and targets Empire construction utilizes several ways to increase the effectiveness of project teams. The company sets clear goals in the start and these are clearly communicated to all the team members since to achieve the goals the goals and objectives should be clearly known by all the team members. The team leader to review the effectiveness of the team in achieving goals conducts regular project meetings. To have effective teams during the start of the project the project plan is created where all the team members are allotted with different responsibilities and roles.
From the past trend of the company it can be seen that all their deadlines are mostly met and hence it can be said that the teams in Empire construction are efficient and effect
The author feels that the company can make use of team building evaluation attached below to review the effectiveness of the teams.
Team Building Evaluation
Scale: 1= Strongly Disagree, 2= Disagree, 3= Agree, 4= Strongly Disagree
Leadership means influencing people so that they will strive willingly towards the achievement of group goals
"A leader is a person who has the ability to get other people to do what they don't want to do and like it"
There are two types of leaders in every organization official leader and informal leader. An official leader is the one who has been established by the organization and has the right to delegate or give orders to co-workers in the firm. An unofficial leader is the one who has the natural ability to be a leader and has the ability to influence people. In empire constructions the Directors of the company are the official leaders.
Since it is a construction company the roles are very distinguished. Responsibilities are not clubbed together and given to one employee it is widely distributed among the employees.
There is an importance of a leader in every organization. In most cases, people will perform at about 60% of their potential with no leadership at all. Thus, an additional 40% can be realized if effective leadership is available
There are several skills and attributes needed for leadership
An effective leader should be self-aware. Should know own strengths and weaknesses.
A leader should hold themselves responsible for every decision made
An effective leader should be able to establish meaningful relationships.
An effective leader should be able to engage in active listening and open dialogue while working in a group or team
A leader should have defined and established personal values
An effective leader should actively contribute to the team's seasonal goals and objectives
A leader should be able to implement changes for improvement and betterment of the organization.
Project and Program Effectiveness
A leader should be able to organize, delegate, and evaluate the impact of a future project
A leader should possess critical thinking skills to understand and to deal with dissimilar environments.
An effective leader should be able to motivate the employees to get work done from them.
The table below highlights the skills and attributes needed for leadership.
Leadership in empire constructions
The company has several leaders and they are primarily the directors of the company. All the three directors who are basically the leaders are self-aware and self managed. The leaders of the company are friendly with the staff and tend to inspire and motivate the staff. The directors take all the major decisions, which involve change, so it can be said that they lead change in the organization for the betterment.
Difference between leadership and management
"Managers are people who do things right, while leaders are people who do the right thing."- Warren Bennis.
There are several differences between a leader and a manager. In empire construction the directors are the leaders whereas there are several managers such as project manager, marketing manager etc.
Time- managers work for a particular time period of the day whereas being a leader is about being responsible 24 hours. Manager takes tactical decisions whereas a leader takes strategic decisions. The director being the leader takes strategic decisions such as which project to undertake and about future expansions, the tactical decisions such as how many brochures to print are taken by the managers.
Roles and responsibilities-Leaders are responsible for a broader range of responsibilities that managers are. Mr. T.S Vig being the leader in empire constructions is responsible or the entire company whereas the managers in the company are responsible of only a certain tasks.
Influence on others- Leaders inspire and motivate people, whereas managers being in authority instruct and order employees.
Risk taking- managers follow predetermined rules and regulations of the company whereas a leader will challenge the status quo. In empire constructions the managers work on establishing tasks whereas the leader is rather radical in his thinking.
Vision- "A leader is a dealer in hope" Napolean(1769-1821) A leader has a strong vision whereas managers lack that and abide by the company procedures.
The table below highlights the skills and roles of managers and leaders.
Do things right
Do the right thing
Doing what's right
Knowing what's right
Directing and controlling others
Motivating and inspiring others
Delegating tasks to subordinate
Follow orders from senior executives
Inspire others to follow a shared vision
Conform to norms of the organization
Create and foster a change culture
Official position of responsibility within the organization
Traits within people, irrespective of their rank
Planning, directing, monitoring
Strategic decision making
Listened to by others
Respected, appreciated, liked and trusted by others
Achievement of objectives through compliance of others
Achievement of objectives through acceptance and willingness of followers
Organization of staff
Support and guidance for followers.
Management and Empire construction
At times the companies leaders play the role of managers for running the company effectively since it is a small business. This is not very desirable since leaders and managers portray different traits and strengths to meet the organizations objectives. However the company does have several managers responsible for varied tasks.
Rajkumar Singh is the site manager for one of the projects and he manages the site office of that project. His job is to ensure that all the work at the project site is being conducted appropriately and meets the predetermined quality, time and budget. He being the manager instructs all the workers about the work to be done on the site.
There are three unique leadership styles highlighted in the diagram below.
Figure 11- leadership styles, Fieldwork- source of information; Paul hoang (2007). business and management. australia: IBID press. 750
A specific leadership style cannot be determined for the organization because the style varies from leader to leader. Leadership style undertaken depends on the relationship between the leader and his sub-ordinates and also the leaders thinking about his subordinates.
The organization makes use of situational leadership style, which means that the leaders and managers do not follow a particular approach towards leadership but make use of a mix of autocratic, democratic and laissez-faire leadership style.
The owners of the firm who do not make decisions based on departments but make them considering the 360-degree approach adapt situational leadership.
In the company Autocratic style is adapted when result or deadlines are supposed to be met in a short period of time. The marketing head adapts to this leadership style when it comes to putting up the advertisement hoardings and placing orders for standees. The staff is often seen de motivated because there is lack of input from their side. This de-motivation has been observed by the communication during the daily tea breaks when the employees get together to discuss general matters.
The company undertakes democratic leadership style during various situations; in the meetings conducted the employees are consulted for problem solving and decision-making. This motivates them and makes them feel important for the organization.
For small daily decisions such as how many more plain sheets for the printer should be ordered etc, laissez-faire leadership style is used within the organization.
Contingency theory of leadership- this theory suggests that there is no one best way to manage or lead and organization since what's best in one situation is might not necessarily work in some other situation.
The Fiedler Contingency Model states that there is no one best style of leadership. Instead, a leader's effectiveness is based on the situation. This is the result of two factors - "leadership style" and "situational favorableness" (later called "situational control")
This theory applies to the chosen organization since the leadership style undertaken is situational based.
Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory-This theory states that instead of using just one style, successful leaders should change their leadership styles based on the maturity of the people they're leading and the details of the task. Using this theory, leaders should be able to place more or less emphasis on the task, and more or less emphasis on the relationships with the people they're leading, depending on what's needed to get the job done successfully.
According to Hersey and Blanchard, there are four main leadership styles based on the behavior of subordinates, these are illustrated below.
The Hersey Blanchard model is applicable to the chosen organization since not only the leadership style varies with the situation but it also varies with the staff. In any given situation not all employees are instructed equally for example when a deadline is to be met a rather autocratic style is adapted by the leaders however it is fairly difficult for the leaders to direct each employee so some of them who have high skills and willingness may not be directed as much with leadership style for them being delegating and not telling.
Motivation is the "The general desire or willingness of someone to do something."
For a firm to be successful it is important for the employees to be motivated. Motivation can be either intrinsic or extrinsic. Intrinsic motivation is the motivation that the employees feel from within, self-motivated people. These people usually choose their interests and hobbies as their career. Extrinsic motivation is when employees need to be motivated through external factors like money or non-monetary ways.
Managers in a firm can inspire their employees in different ways; money may not always be the key to the employee's happiness. The managers of Empire construction use time and attention to motivate their employees. They motivate their employees financially and non-financially.
It is important for the managers to understand which employee is motivated by which factor. The company makes this analysis during the interviews; Where the HR head takes the final interviews. The employees ask certain set of questions, which help the firm to understand which motivational factor is important to them. For eg- if they ask about the salary then money could be a criteria.
Salary- Salaries are payments made each month. The employees of Empire construction are paid monthly instead of yearly, this helps improve the cash flow of the company, and also it motivates the employees to work efficiently every month.
Bonus- is when an extra or an unexpected increase in efficiency of the employee has contributed to the firm. This helps the company in two ways one that employee is motivated and second that it helps the company improve its overall performance. The chosen organization does make use of cash bonus to motivate the employees.
Loyalty bonus is paid to the employees who have stayed with the company for a certain length of time. The company also gives the employees a Diwali bonus, which consists of a month's salary.
Pay rise- the salary of employees is increased with time in order to motivate them.
Fringe benefits- All payments and benefits to an employee in addition to the salaries.
If a customer comes through an employee he or she is offered a discount by the company however the employees who bring customers for the company are not rewarded the author would suggest the company to start rewarding the employees in the form of commission for bringing new customers, this will motivate them financially and help the company by getting new customers.
Empowerment- this involves granting workers the authority to be in charge of their own job, this will provide the employees a sense of achievement and hence motivates them.
Recognition and praise- the employees of Empire constructions are always praised when a job well done this is important to motivate the employees.
Working environment- Empire construction tries to make work a comfortable place. The office is well resourced. The office is fitted with TV's and other entertainment devices so that the employees can enjoy their breaks. The company also celebrates all festivals, recently on request of the staff an idol of lord Ganesh was bought into the office during the festive season of Ganesh Chaturthi. The friendly atmosphere within the organization also makes the employees feel comfortable and motivated. The directors communicate with all the staff and the flat organization structure does not make any employee feel left out.
Worker participation- The situational leadership style adapted by the company involves employees in decision making when necessary, this motivates them since it provides them with a sense of respect and makes them feel vital for the organization hence achieving the esteem needs in Maslow's hierarchy.
The firm uses Maslow's hierarchy of needs to motivate the employees.
Maslow's motivation is a pyramid depicting various needs of every employee.
Its starts with psychological needs- these are the basic needs that have to be fulfilled in order that the employee takes up the job. These basic needs can be like the salary. Salary is an important need for every human being for him or her to exist.
Safety needs- these are needs to be protected. The company to fulfill the safety needs follows various law and regulations, which are discussed previously.
Social needs; this is how comfortable the employee feels in the working environment. It is important that team -spirit is taken into account. The employee should feel wanted and recognized by his co-workers. The management does this by encouraging certain tasks to be done in a group.
Promoting the employees after they have completed certain duration in the company fulfills their self-esteem needs. Some posts are based on just the duration of work and some are based on the valuable input made by the employee in the organization. This however does not mean that internal employees fill all posts in the firm. If the management feels external employee is required then they get an employee through external media. The company provides positive feedback to tasks well done to fulfill this need of the hierarchy. Job enrichment fulfills their self-esteem needs.
Self actualization- is the highest in the hierarchy of needs; Self-actualization is the desire to become what one is capable of becoming. Many employees do not achieve this stage in the work environment.
4.1 explain the factors involved in planning the monitoring and assessment of work performance
There are several factors involved in planning, monitoring and assessing work performance.
Empowerment- empowerment is "A management practice of sharing information, rewards, and power with employees so that they can take initiative and make decisions to solve problems and improve service and performance."
In Empire construction they try to empower employees by coaching them rather than supervising them, this gives all the employees an opportunity to learn and grow. Delegation is also an empowerment technique used by the organization.
Delegation means giving subordinates an authority to perform a task, but not the final responsibility.
Empire constructions follow a delegation process, which is highlighted below.
Communication styles and techniques;
For efficient work performance the Company makes use of several methods of communication. The basic communication style of the key stakeholders is illustrated below.
4.2 plan and deliver the assessment of the development needs of individuals
Development needs of individuals
All employees seek to develop while working in an organization. For retaining employees and satisfying their need it is important for an organization to fulfill the development needs of individuals.
Empire constructions make use of a process to meet employee development needs,; this process is highlighted below.
Empire constructions basically provide the employees with on the job training, to help them develop. The on the job training is life long learning for the employees; also the experience the employees get everyday at the work place is life long learning since they learn new things with every new situation.
All employees have different learning styles the company needs to be able to cater all they styles, for this the company makes use of various methods such as makes use of presentations for better understanding and to cater visual learners.
4.3 evaluate the success of the assessment process.
"A performance appraisal is a review and discussion of an employee's performance of assigned duties and responsibilities." The appraisal processes at Empire constructions is listed below.
Personal performance review interview
The first step of the performance appraisal process adapted by the company is conducting a personal performance review interview, this includes the managers and the employee sitting together and discussing the processes. This is convenient for the organization due to the small size. The interview consists of the following things
Empire construction makes use of 360- degree review; this provides a chance of getting feedback from all levels. This is also very useful for evaluating and assessing management style and in knowing development needs. This process helps the organization in improving work performance at all levels within the organization.
Management by Objectives (MBO)
According to George Odiome, MBO is "a process whereby superior and subordinate managers of an Organization jointly define its common goals, define each individual's major areas of responsibility in terms Of results expected of him and use these measures as guides for operating the unit and assessing the contribution of each of its members." In simpler words MBO includes assessing whether the objectives are met or not.
Empire constructions make use of this process for assessing the employees work performance. The company follows the four major steps of MBO highlighted below.
Correcting under-performance and making all employees efficient is the main aim of the appraisal system. The company does several things to correct under-performance.
Feedback and review
The performance appraisal process is inoperable without feedback and correction of the under-performance. After the employees work performance has been reviewed all the employees are given with feedback as to what should be done to improve their performance or to correct under-performance, in the feedback the positives (strengths) as well as the negatives (weaknesses) are given to the employees. However the feedback focuses on overcoming the negatives.
Benchmarking performance processes
This technique adapted by the firm focuses on some processes, it involves identifying best practices and processes and comparing the actual performance to that and trying to follow the best processes and practices. Its main focus is to improve sub systems, which lead to an overall improvement. This technique is used for correcting under-performance since the employees are given standards to be achieved, and these pre-determined standards help them to achieve the standards.