Organizational Behavioral Structures And The Cultures Commerce Essay


Organizational Behavior has been defined as clusters of people who work interdependently headed for a goal. This definition clearly indicates that organizations are not buildings or pieces of machinery. Organizations are, indeed, people who interact to achieve common goals. The study of organizational behavior (OB) and its affiliated subjects helps us understand what people think, feel and do in an organizational setting. For managers and, realistically, all employees, this knowledge can anticipate, understand and control the events of the organization. There are three determinants of behavior to make it more effective: individual groups, and structure. Individuals within the organization and their behaviors affect the organization's performance.

Explore Organizational structure and culture

Every organization will have a clear direction and objective which will determine a series of activities in orchestrating both inputs and outputs to realize its goals. For this to happen, there are various basic principles that apply for organizations and management.

Compare and contrast different organizational structure and culture

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All companies have a defined organizational structure. The organizational structure involves the methods companies use to align resources, departments, and functions across the organization to achieve organizational goals. Organizational structures are both horizontal and vertical in nature. Differentiation means the organization has many parts, with a specialization of different individuals and groups in the organization performing different tasks, also known as a division of labor. Coordination is necessary to link various tasks, such as administrative tasks with specialized tasks, to assist the company in achieving its overall mission. Span of control affects the organizational structure because the number of subordinates reporting to each manager determines if the organizational structure is a tall structure or a flat, wide structure. Managers must also delegate tasks and responsibilities so that the manager can focus on assisting with higher-level responsibilities. Two types of organizations exist, the centralized organization and the decentralized organization. In the centralized organization, most of the decision-making occurs at the top and is disseminated to lower-level managers and employees, while the decentralized organization allows for decisions to be made at various levels throughout the organization. The functional organization is the response to the requirement for additional managers to assist the organization in meeting its goals. Departments are implemented and managers hire additional management beneath them to assume delegated tasks. This organizational structure is inflexible because the horizontal structure is too tall and therefore requires additional personnel to assume delegated tasks and assume decision-making processes. The answer to the issues with the functional organization is the divisional organization, where the tasks and divisions coordinate together and the resulting organizational structure has more vertical integration. [4]

Morrison is a decentralized organization that encourages personnel from all levels of the organization to contribute ideas; consequently, the organization responds well to changes in the personal computer industry and from competitors. Morrison is also a divisional organization because it uses various departments that are autonomous from other departments/divisions in the organization. The company has a Vice President and subordinates in various departmental categories such as Educational Services, Government Services, and Business Services. It is important for an organization to assess its structure periodically to ensure the organizational structure allows the company to respond quickly to change. If the organization discovers the organizational structure does not work, the members of the organization will provide suggestions as to how to change the organizational structure to suit company needs. [1]

According to Charles handy there was culture in the organization to obtain as different cultures such as power culture, task culture, role culture and person culture. Task culture means "The idea of organizing is a team of talent or resources to respond to a specific project or task, in a less individualistic culture club and faster than one working culture". In addition, it specifies another person culture as" The idea of organization is that individual talent is all important, but there is a need for organization structure for minimum service". Further more he defines power culture as a 'web'. He suggests that this reflects the concentration of power of a family-owned business, which can either be extremely large or small. The family operation with strict responsibilities going to family members' responsibility given to personalities rather than expertise creates the power structure of the 'web'. Finally, it defines Role culture as a part of "The image of this organization is a pyramid of boxes, with a job title in each box. The current structure is what even if the individual in the square. "[2]

Relationship between an organization's structure and culture

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Organizational structure seems to be the conduits, the lines of authority, the system set into place through which individuals can come together collectively in order to fulfill the expectations of the organizational culture. The success of a company meeting the goals of its organizational culture is dependant on having an effective set up and clearly defined relationship between organizational structure and culture. A well thought out and planned model that can clearly distinguish the relationship between organizational structure and organizational culture will allow for a more efficient directing of both employer and employee efforts towards the company's ultimate goals. One of the most important aspects in the relationship between organizational structure and culture that will allow a model to thrive, or fail, is to make sure that each individual understands the full extent of responsibilities and work expected out of them. Likewise, the workers and supervisors should also know their limitations, and so not have to worry about issues that are beyond their scope of expectations. [5]

Factors which influence individual behavior at work

According to John Ivancevich and Michael Mattson, the major factors that influence individual differences in behavioural patterns are demographic factors, abilities and skills, perception, attitudes and personality. Let us discuss them and they are as follows: [12]

Demographic Factors: The demographic factors are socio economic background, education, nationality, race, age, sex, etc.

Abilities and Skills: The physical capacity of an individual to do something can be termed as ability. Skill can be defined as the ability to act in a way that allows a person to perform well. The individual behaviour and performance is highly influenced by ability and skills.

Perception: The cognitive process meant for interpreting the environmental stimuli in a meaningful way is referred to as perception.

Attitude: According to psychologists, attitude can be defined as a tendency to respond favorably or unfavorably to certain objects, persons or situations.

Personality: Personality can be defined as the study of the characteristics and distinctive traits of an individual, the inter-relations between them and the way in which a person responds and adjusts to other people and situations.

Different approaches to management and leadership theories for organization

Organizational theory underpins principles and practice of organizing and of management.

Fayol was a key figure in the turn-of-the-century Classical School of management theory. He saw a manager's job as:




coordinating activities

controlling performance [13]

It should make every item management functions can implement to a actuators. Don't scatter duties, cannot implement bull leadership, cause mutual shuffle disputes over trifles, the organization should coordinate each other and cohesion, play advantage, make overall functions within the organization, and both division, coordinated and achieve a common goal, unified leadership, classification management, combining centralization and decentralization. To determine the scientific management and management levels. Insist on the necessary centralized and unified leadership, business leaders and the implementation of effective command decisions rapidly. To implement classification management, arouse the enthusiasm of each respect, persisting in the division of labor, the enterprise daily production and operating activities of enterprises, institutional setup according to actual needs, economic activity, to carry out effective management, improve management personnel streamlining measure of quality. [14]

Different approaches to management and theories of organisation used by two organizations

In bureaucratic organization all employees have specialized job so this type of structure is more suitable for the large size organization rather than the small because in small size organization having different type of work done by individual. Also bureaucratic organization have hierarchy of authority, with each position have authority of higher one. All employees are selected and promoted on the base of their qualification and technical knowledge. As well as all data are recorded by the administrative so that data may be used in the future for making any decision.

Whereas, by showing weakness of bureaucratic organization John child (2005) [3] referred to the "paradox in hierarchical organization." he argues that most of the organization hierarchy creates problem by possessing the bureaucratic organization. According to my point of view in the 21st century, it is too expensive to adopt bureaucratic organizational structure. Bureaucratic structure was not able to use their innovative resource of its member. If any company adopts bureaucratic organization and it wills failure to achieved profit than there were results in company have large-scale redundancies. So, another alternative form of organizational development for Morrison ltd was matrix structure. Matrix structure is a combination of two traditional structure, project structure or functional structure. With the matrix structure we can achieve job specialization because all employees have their specific function in organization. Matrix structure helpful to organization like Morrison because this structure have not specific hierarchy but it arise according to need of organization

Examine the relationship between Motivational theories

Different leadership style and effectiveness of the leadership approach

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"Leadership is the process of motivating others to act in a particular way to satisfy the organizational goal." It is easy to leadership combines both people and circumstances. Managers always examined four leadership styles that are autocratic, democratic, paternalistic, laissez-faire, to identify the direction according to the situation is different and people. Thus, some people wonder if the managers who must adapt their leadership style the particular situation and people. In my mind, I agree in large part a good manager must adapt their leadership style to the situation and different men. [15]

As society evolves, the best management style begins to depend on several external factors, such as personalities of staff (Marcousé, 1999). Today, companies need different types of employees who work different personality, which run businesses more efficient. In my opinion, there is good reason, because it makes both manager and staff more efficient. Imaging is a manager who is generally democratic. If subordinates are well trained, the managers always discuss with them or even ask for their ideas as the decision-making. This manager wants to keep the democratic style; otherwise it will lose many valuable ideas for those motivated staff. If subordinates are lazy, the manager would simply tell the staff what to do to improve business efficiency. It is seen that the manager must change his autocratic style of democratic leadership in the event of staff not working hard enough. The manager changes in the paternalistic style of leadership to try to contribute to the trust of subordinates. If subordinates are laborious, the manager prefers to give them more freedom to make decisions. The manager must change democratic laissez faire, because employees who work hard will be more effective with enough word of freedom. Through these discussions above, I agree that managers must adapt their leadership style in particular people to manage their business more successful. [6]

Explain motivational theories and their application within workplace

"Motivation is the level of engagement people have in what they do. Motivation in the workplace is concerned about the commitment to top-shop, its objectives and targets. " [16]

There are different theories of motivation for employees. Firstly, FW Taylor has been associated with the scientific management; a theory is based on the work done. Responsible scientists assume that people are alike and their motivations are simple. Top Shop operate a card system clock, where each employee clocks in "once they are ready to work, to do so, they receive a card with their name on it, then their location in the meter clock and it is stamped with time and a hole is punched in it. Secondly, Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs suggests motivation for employees. The hierarchy is a pyramid that works upwards; it begins with the basic necessities and then moves away. Then a group of needs is satisfied, they dominate the behaviour of a person, Maslow emphasized reasons people have been constantly modified their situation has changed. This theory suggests that unmet needs can lead to dissatisfaction. Thirdly, Douglas McGregor theory suggests X and Theory Y employee motivation such as Douglas McGregor managers divided into two main types. Theory X managers estimated that ten people are lazy, dislike work and avoid, if possible, theory X managers are very directive in the authoritarian conduct. Theory Y managers believe that people seek and accept responsibility; they derive satisfaction from their work, theory Y managers working with subordinates and participatory management. Frederick Herzberg Two Factor Theory suggests where Herzberg conducted extensive research on motivation; he identified a series of motivators and hygiene factors. One of the factor lead towards extreme dissatisfaction with employment, environment and workplace where other factors lead to extreme satisfaction with employment, environment and workplace. [7]

Relationship between motivation theory and practice of management

Motivation theory and practice of management have a relationship in the respect that the two work together. If you do not have good management, for example, managers do not sit down and set realistic goals for workers, then they will be targets that cannot respond, and they are not motivated to objectives. Another example that goes with this is if when the manager had set the goals to which workers are found, it ensures that workers feel they have done something positive that would be self-esteem and encourage them to get the same praise again. [8]

Understanding of working with others, teamwork, groups and group dynamics

This assignment will attempt to point out the characteristics of intra group behavior that could impact the group performance and productivity.

Nature of groups and group behavior within organization

Handy (1993) describes a group as 'any collection of people who perceive themselves to be a group', whilst Shaw (1981) after reviewing 80 definitions of a group, says 'a group is defined as two or more people who are interacting with one another in such a manner that each person influences and is influenced by each other person'. [17]

Groups are typically separated into two main categories - formal and informal. Formal groups are the units established by the management as part of an organisation structure. They are defined in terms of their purpose and roles, they are official in the sense that they have appropriate authority, and they are provided with financial and physical resources. The principal function of a formal group is to further the aims and objectives of the organisation as laid down in policies and mission statements.

These groups develop through personal efforts of individuals. It may not have a specific goal to do in a time interval, whereas the formal groups are totally different from informal groups. A body or authority is these groups to perform a specific job for a period of time. In these groups, members may be from different departments or different cultures, depending on the nature of the task. Both formal and informal groups have different behaviours within the group as members of the group have different ratios. But here the emphasis is on a task or working group. [9]

The factors that lead to effective teamwork and the influence that threaten success

Effective teamwork is more than having a group of talented people; it is more a collaboration for a higher return. As the business communication and the ability to cooperate are of great value to achieve the objectives of the company as there may be differences in team performance.

But why does the output of work teams vary so much between the teams, even if they did similar studies, budget, manpower and time? The reason is the quality of their work. It is the magnitude of the synergy that makes the difference in the output (Lawford 2003, p.24). Positive synergy means for example that group members know the needs of each other in certain situations, without a cat. Nonverbal communication plays a major rule in such groups and they are all on the same wavelength. Another very important factor that can enhance group synergy and, therefore, performance is group cohesion. Pillai & Williams (2003, p. 146) describe the group cohesion "as the extent to which group members are attracted and motivated to stay with a group." Top cohesive teams working together with pleasure and social needs are met as they like to see each other, share feelings and talk about private things. [10]

To summarize, it is reasonable that the productivity of a group depends on their ability to work together. Group norms, group cohesion and communication have an enormous impact on the team because it can be an obstacle for interactive discussions or means to take advantage of teamwork. To achieve cohesion and synergy of positive group for all team members must have a wide range of personal communication skills to ensure that communication does not fail. Most group members work together more as the output will be affected positively. Henry Ford is quoted as saying: "Coming together is a beginning. Staying together is progress. Working together is success. (Harrell 2003, p.198) [11]

Impact of technology on team functioning

Technology on team functioning has been a big impact; teams can now communicate with each other about something through computers. They can get their jobs done faster and easier, having a portable computer which is also known as a laptop is something most team members need. It is the best place to store your information or you could store your files in a USB flash drive, this device is really small and portable anywhere you go, it has a huge memory space. [18]

            Technology is found in its various forms in small and large businesses, the service sector, and state institutions, manufacturing companies, educational establishments, multi-national organizations and the local shop.

            In the old days, people would send mails to each other and eventually one of them will receive the mail after a number of days (depending on how far they will send it to), but now we have the internet, we could email each other anytime and we can type what we want to write faster and easier, when we send one of these emails to anyone, they receive the email in a matter of seconds.

            Also we have a messenger, it's a program where you could instantly talk and see each other (with the right device), and this has been very useful and is one of the biggest impacts in the world. No more traveling for a meeting and no more waiting for a reply through mail.


The analysis has highlighted the fact that the constructs of the structure, culture and relationship between them in the giant food retailing company Morrison as relevant in the UK context as they are in the Western context. The leadership provided in both organisations can be regarded as relative effective and will play an important role in shaping the organisation and the behaviour of its employees. Also different motivational theories are support to shaping the teamwork and group behaviour. However it seems that the political environment, ethnicity and group work affect the relationships in the organisation. However, the analysis has highlighted the fact that there is immense change in the structure and culture as explained in great detail by the literature. There is however change, but in a different manner for treating the employees in a different way according to their needs and wants. In understanding individual and group behavior helps management realize how people in different cultures and environment communicate and function to attain strategic set goals.