Organisational Theory And Management In Practice Commerce Essay


An organization is a structured social system consisting of groups of individuals working together to meet some agreed-on objectives. Organizational theory (OT) is the study of organizations for the benefit of identifying common themes for the purpose of solving problems, maximizing efficiency and productivity, and meeting he needs of stakeholders.  Consistently OT can be conceptualized as studying three major subtopics: individual processes, group processes and organizational process. Since organizations consider the field of public health from free clinic to refugee crisis support teams to research institutions, an understanding of organizations and how they work, helps public health professionals to be more effective participants in and leaders of organizations.   

The first evaluate will try to accomplish the huge task of summarizing major concepts in organizational theory.  The three broad concepts that will be explored include: individual processes, including motivation theory, personality theory, and role theory; group processes including working in groups/communication, leadership, and power and influence; and organizational processes, as it relates to organizational structure, and organizational culture. 

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In the process a basically introduction to select organizational models will also be presented. Organizational Issues: How well do the different units of care delivery fit with one another?  For example if the laboratory was contracted out to a lab several miles away, the hospital may be limited by the time it takes for medicine to be collected, transported, analyzed and transported back.  This process may also be on a schedule, (on the hour or half hour) which then adds the wait time for transportation.  An in-house lab staff might be considered, although cost of overhead and staffing would have to be considered for its cost.  What also is the climate in the organization, are works overall satisfied, dedicated, feel empowered to deliver excellent care?  Has the organization build and supported a culture of excellence?

The second evaluate will carry on, Where is decision-making centralized, and what would be the benefits and disadvantages of diversifying sources of power?  In light of the patient population needs, what types of problems are most commonly seen?  Uniform vs. diversity pressures help to guide modes of action.  If a lot of non-acute conditions are presented to the hospital we might want to consider the utilization of an Urgent care model ancillary to maintaining the ER for acute condition. We will assume that acute issues, and staff related issues are not the problem, since resolving them would be self-explanatory.  We will consider only adjustments in organizational structure and design for the sake of relevance to the topic of OT.  For example, Queens Hospital consider a new model of care delivery, in which the Emergency Department diversifies to a decentralized model of management and adds new modes for care delivery.  The new process would look something like this: When a patient enters the hospital they are seen immediately by a Triage nurse.  The nurse has the option, after registration is complete, to one of three routes:  the nurse can channel a patient through the traditional method, to be seen by Emergency room physicians according to priority.  The nurse can also decide to transfer non-acute patients to urgent care center (an initiative of this hospital or a close center), or to initiate pre-approved protocols for common illnesses, (such as asthma) prior to visitation from the physician. 

Utilizing this model has a few advantages.  By developing the structural complexity, patients can take service initiated and completed at a faster rate.  That is not only provide the hospital to see more patients, but it will improve consumers satisfaction.  Also job roles and responsibilities may increase the motivation of staff by maximizing their control of patient care.  Nurses can more effictively utilizie their professional skills and doctors can focus on patients with conditions or complications that require their skill and training.


Organizational Theory by Kathryn Barzilai

Management and Organisational Behaviour Plus MyLab Access Code by Laurie J. Mullins (Paperback - 27 Apr 2010)

3.2 Analyse the relationship between management structure and culture and its effect on business performance

Managers are people who guide an organization towards achievement of the business objectives (thetimes100, 2010). Management impacts the culture of the organization. Culture is an intangible set of practises that take their origins from socio, political, religious-norms and values of the society. It's the responsibility of management to develop a coherent culture that allows the members of organization to develop their individual and collective abilities. Thus having the right management structure that would assist in this regard is quite crucial.

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In the modern business environment when the rules for running the business have been formalized management is responsible for the overall running of the organization. The modern business employees the M-form (Multi-divisional form) or U-Form (Unitary form) of management structure depending on the type of firm. The structure of the firm is closely linked to its success (Abe, 1997).By classifying management into these two categories management of modern organizations have been able to focus on developing a structure that would best meet the needs of the organization. Management plays a key role in inducing the kind of organizational culture that could lead to organizational success. Management if effectively utilizes its potential it can induce a culture that would translate into motivated staff that feel associated with the core values of their organizations. It was the vision of the management of South West Airlines that transformed it into one of the most successful Low cost airlines of the world. Each member of the organization was valued by the company and their opinions were given important.

Mintzberg suggested a topology of five different configurations of management structure whose various combinations could be used to manage an organization. These five components include The operation core , the strategic apex , the middle line , the techno structure and support staff ( Bedrouni,2009 ).Depending on the what component plays the key part in the operations of the organization there could be wide variety of coordination mechanism that could run the organization. When the strategic apex holds the key, management part that it is able to carry out direct supervision of over the staff and is a lot more control of the organization.

As mentioned earlier every organization has got its own type of culture that is created as a result of several factors. A culture builds over a number of each and it is not easy to identify. According to Harrison culture can be categorized into four different types .These four types include Power, Role, Task/achievement and Person/Support Cultures (Harrison, 1986).

In an organization power culture originates from a single source. This kind of culture stems in a situation where there are less procedures involved and members of the organization put a lot of faith in a single person that lies at the centre of the web (Naouman,2001 ).In the modern organizations where members are given great deal of importance individual culture could be most appropriate to describe them. In this type of culture a lot of focus is given to the individuals so that their interests are better served. The problem with this type of culture is that such individuals cannot be managed easily as organization is too concerned about appeasing them. In the role culture the focus is on the roles and the culture is associated with posts rather than individuals who are on them. Finally the task achievement culture encourages much more disciplined management style where achievement of the objectives is of paramount importance.

For successful business operations execution it is important that organization that are running their operations overseas are fully aware of the type of cultures that exist in the other countries. E.g. in China people in the top management position are generally older people who are generally respected due to their age. A new manager coming from USA needs to be aware of the cultural norms of China otherwise he mind up end of upsetting senior Chinese officials and it would create an air of mistrust in the organization.

Therefore success of business is closely linked with the induction of a culture that enhances the potential of the company employees and makes them feel responsible towards their company. An organization depending on its industry type needs to understand that what management style would be best suiting it. Due to non-tangible of culture it is paid less attention to by the senior managers and later it could give rise to lots of un-foreseen complication resulting in failure of organizations.


Abe,E.,(1997)The Development of Modern Business in Japan The Business History Review , Vol.71.,No.2,pg299-308

Harrison , R. ( 1986 ) Understanding your organizations culture Harrison & Associates Inc., C.A. Berkley rintegration of mergers and acquisitions Research Conference on the changing roles of management accounting as a control system

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The times 100(2010) Management structure and organisation [Online][Accessed on 15th November 2010]url:

3.3 Write about different motivational theories and their application and performance within the workplace

There are a number of different opinions as to what motivates workers. The most iconic held theories are discussed below and have been developed over the last hundred years or so. Unfortunately these theories do not all reach the same conclusions.

Motivation is the stimulus that can either be conscious or unconscious which acts as an incentive for achievement of goal ( Borkowski, 2010). The drive to achieve a goal is based on psychological or social factors. The building block for motivation includes expectation, behaviour, goals and some form of feedback ( Srivastava, 2005 ).What it means is that an individual may have a number of desires and expectation that could be driven by a person needs to gain higher position in an organization or to gain some kind of financial benefit . There are various number of motivational theories. Based on what has been stated in the literature motivational theories have been classified into two types by Borkowski (2010). These two groupings are based on content and process.

Content theories or the need theories identify various factors that motivate people. It's the individual desire to satisfy inner needs that motivates them. It tries to look at the behaviour from the perspective of individual working in an organization. It is helpful for managers who want to understand the behaviour of their employees.

The process theory looks at the behaviour itself that is generated by the individual. It sees that how behaviour is energized, directed, sustained and how it can be stopped (Borkowski, 2010). Motivational theories have gained significant importance as the co-relation between employee attitude towards his work and its impact on the quality of work has been analyzed. Motivation is not just about giving speeches but it is about ensuring higher level of staff satisfaction in the job role that they are in. There are a number of motivation theories that are in the literature. Two important motivational theories considered are as follows.

Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Theory

It is one of the most popular theories that are stated about motivation. According to this theory human needs are put in a hierarchical form ( Koontz & Weihrich,2006 ). These needs are ascending from the lowest to the highest. According to Maslow when one set of needs is satisfied at a certain level it no more becomes a motivational factor and person moves on to the next level. The various levels starting from bottom up as suggested in the figure are physiological needs, Security or safety needs, acceptance needs, Esteem needs and Need for self actualization. This theory helps the organization in better understanding the needs of its employees. The organization are made aware that if they want to satisfy the needs of their employees they have to provide an environment where their individual needs are satisfied on various levels. The categorization of needs into different levels helped in better understanding of how motivation works in the organization.

Maslow theory though quite daring has been criticized as a simplistic division of individual needs. According to the critics such as Douglas T Hall and Khalil Nougaim ( Koontz & Weihrich,2006). The needs the priority of needs may vary at the top depending on the individual.


Maslow Model (Source: Koontz & Weihrich, 2006 )

Herzberg's Two Factor Theory

Herzberg's two factor theory is based on the actual research that was carried out by Herzberg. For establishing his theory he asked a number of employees to recall the instances when they felt motivated towards their work and the times when they felt frustrated. Based on what he observed Herzberg suggested that when certain factors are present in the work environment they lead to motivation of staff members and this absence causes dissatisfaction of employees towards their work (Davies, 2007). The satisfaction is closely related to the environment in which employees are working. Therefore management should provide the environment where employees feel satisfied with their work. This could include safe working condition, reasonable salary and benefits. The criticism of Herzberg theory is that motivational factor can be relevant. A single factor can be motivational for some and could cause job dissatisfaction for other people ( Borkowski,2010 ) e.g. for some a certain salary amount might be enough to motivate them where as some could see the same amount as far less and it could negatively impact their motivational level.

The finally, all that great motivation theories does not include same point. Therefore, there is no single theory that gives the answers to all of the raised questions about motivation. What motivation is and how it impacts a person behaviour varies from individual to individual


Borkowski, N.,(2010 ) Organizational Behavior in Health Care Jones & Bartlett Learning

Srivastava,S.,K.( 2005 ) Organizational Behaviour and Management Sarup & Sons

Koontz,H.,Weihrich,H.,(2006 ) Essentials Of Management Tata McGraw-Hill

Borkowski,N.,(2010 ) Organizational Behavior in Health Care Jones & Bartlett Learning

Davies,S.,J.( 2007 ) Security Supervision and Management: The Theory and Practice of Asset Protection Butterworth-Heinemann

3.4 Evaluate the impact of technology on a given organization

Communication technology has involved positive and negative effects on organizational communication, which is communication between people in the same organization. Organizations you belong to use organizational communication to establish communication patterns and systems.

Communication technology, like email and teleconferences, makes organizational communication easily accessible. Using these methods of electronic communication can help make distance a non-factor in organizational communication .Also it helps you better collect data around the workplace, allowing her to make more informed decisions, such as how much of a raise you deserve . Technology also creates a more connected workplace. Electronic communication, like online forums, gives you a place to complain about work. Managers can obtain constructive criticism from your complaints and make changes in order to improve the workplace.

In the past design and of computer system and products were not sensitive enough to use of ordinary users. They were complicated and could only be handled by the expert users. Punch cards were fed into system that required complex processing of data. With improvement in both computer hardware and software's tasks became simpler and hardware devices became easier to manipulate. The large frame computers that required expensive cooling systems , which occupied large office space were replaced by desktops that could now perform the same time with many times greater efficiency in a short span of time . The paradigm shift in the development of modern technology can be attributed to the development of microprocessor. Microprocessor is a small intelligent device that takes inputs processes those produces outputs with a speed that cannot be comprehended by an ordinary person.

Another consideration is that might be increased accessibility of organizational communication can complicate the boundaries between your work life and home life. Be wary of how you use communication technology. For example, it might not be a good idea to accept friend requests from managers on social networking websites in order to avoid crossing boundaries. Also impact of electronic communication on organizational communication depends on how management implements the technology in the workplace. For example, email becomes beneficial when used to schedule a company meeting.

On the other hand, hackers are increasing threats to the network security. they can breach into the technological systems to get information about the individuals that they are not supposed to get. The employees are expected to perform their task with higher level of accuracy. This causes increase in stress level in the work place as failure to complete the task in an accurate manner could threaten the job of an employee. Software's are creation of many months, years of individual hard work. With the increase in piracy an individual might not get rewarded for his efforts. Not everyone has got the right to access the information that is out there in organization system .Unauthorized access to the organizational resources could result hierarchical protocol getting violated and it could pose a challenge to the discipline of the organization.

Therefore technology has had a positive impact on the organizational infrastructure in many ways. Still it has caused certain challenges that have to be dealt with in the modern business environment.