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Motivation is a reflection of the reasons why people do things. All behavior has a specific purpose (often several). Motivation can be considered to compromise an individual's effort, persistence and the direction of that effort. It is the degree to which an individual wants and chooses to engage in certain specified behavior.
Notably in case study, Technocraft , there was an intrinsic motivation, employees were just motivated by salary, promotion, condition of work etc. It focuses primarily on motivation of the individual in the workplace. It explores the influence of organizational change, communication and conflict on personal motivation. Additionally, concepts such as intrinsic, extrinsic, rewards, personal needs and environmental stimulation are discussed.Thus, motivation had some affect in employees but they are negatively influenced in terms of different factors of an organization.
Construction and culture of the formal organization:
The construction or the structure of Technocraft contemplates management model with its functional relationships. The workers in this organization were closely prescribed or were in possession, or we can rather say "negative command". This is a mechanistic organization and recurring in nature.
According to Drennan 1992-93 culture is "how things are done around here. It is what typical of the organization, the habits prevailing attitudes, the grown up pattern of accepted and expected behavior". Like wise, in Technocraft, it matches to role culture because it has gained a combination of size, departmentalization and ordering of activities. Generally, Mr. George, the chairman of the company can be taken as an example that was harsh and gives orders. The culture of the organization needs to be given, importance as the opportunities to learn.
4.2 Management and leadership style:
Management is the process of getting things done effectively and efficiently through other people so as in their company. Mr. George Newell, the company chairman managed or organized his employees in a different way. It can be matched with MCGregor's theory "X" because most of the employees did not enjoyed working for Technocraft and just motivated by money but the workers can be categorized or stereotyped in intrinsic motivation ready for challenging job, appreciation and recognition.
4.3.1 George Newell:
He is the chairman of the company. He views his workers in a negative way and he doesn't recognize his employees.
He is an exploitative- autocratic ruler. It matches with contingency style of leadership style rather than trait theory because he does not possess charismatic behavior, self-confidence etc. as we can see he brought Helen, management consultant to solve the problem. Employees were discouraged by his behavior because he promised to give reward for their heroic deeds and efforts but he felt proud by distributing the t- shirts to all the employees. He did not possess a degree of power, influence, responsibility and accountability which should be used in the pursuit of effective leadership performance. One of the George's problems in the company was high labor turnover and his opinion was that the women had prompted this. As we know, motivation influences in individuals to succeed but he judges performances on the activities of the organization.
Likewise, he reprimanded the employees who were late from the lunch, he could have warned them, may be he used this coercive power and this showed the low morale, seniority and distances. He also did the job rotation because he was not satisfied by the Maggie's efforts, (the wiring department supervisor).
4.3.2 Helen Mckiernan: (management consultant)
She was a management consultant and a very calm nature person. She was brought by the company's chairman to provide a solution of the problem. She mainly focused on the nature of the wiring job because the recruitment procedures were unduly lax. Helen kept in mind that the reason for the job satisfaction might be through informal situations and social side of the work. She analyzed the likes and dislikes of the workers and she found that the chairman was completely wrong about the labor turnover.
4.3.3 Elena and Veronica: (wirers)
Both of them were wirers in Technocraft. They had a problem due to inexperience and fear of making a mistake and the problem caused directly from their slow work rate and they need some experienced wirers to correct them. In my opinion, they are in need of on-the job training.
4.3.4 Maggie Francis: (supervisor)
Maggie Francis, the wiring department supervisor, who was given responsibility for bringing two women, i.e: Elen and Veronica, up to speed within a specific time. Maggie's leadership style fits or matches with her supervising role. She was more understanding in nature. As a theme throughout this book of organization behavior, by Ian Brooks, "organization change is particularly worthy of consideration in any discussion of leadership and it matches with consideration category of Blake and Mounton 1964, she was defensive and she was in a job rotation by the company chairman in place of Robert because she was too soft to the employees.
4.3.5. Robert Houlden :( Line Manager)
On the basis of Blake and Mounton 1964, managerial grid, in this study there was a concern for production, autocratic and task oriented. He was appointed by chairman to 'sort out' the shirkers in the hope of raising productivity in upcoming future.
George style of leadership was like autocratic towards the women. It is some what like coercive power. Although the staff possesses no confidence in their ability, they are in need of a positive motivation. New comers i.e.: Elen and Veronica were in a learning phase. There was no respect for Maggie's job as well as women's in the work place. The women were reprimanded by the chairman who could be done in a polite way as well.
4.5 Motivation and shopfloor:
The management of conflict in organizations affects the motivation of individuals and groups. According to Schmidt (1974), following empirical research conducted among management executions in USA, revealed both positive and negative effects of conflict. Maggie's as a supervisor, the autocratic style of had adverse affect due to the sudden change in leadership.i.e.from wiring department supervisor to packing. Research indicates that conflict can stimulate creative thinking and can inspire people to confront long term problem and explore new approaches. It may also encourage reflection and help people clarify their views and heighten their interest in the task at hand and also test people's abilities.
However, negative effects of conflict can lead to dissatisfaction, demotivation and reduced performance. Schmidt (1974) found that certain people felt defeated by conflict and the consequences would be contactless and leads to suspicion.
What I can recommend is that the culture of the organization needs to be improved. Combining the two incident, there is a change in the level of output. The women were believed that they are matched with VH Vroom expectancy theory.
In the 1st incident, there was a change in job design to fasten up the speed of the employees. He could have said in a polite way to the workers after they returned from their lunch break. This can be a good style of autocratic leader, and some how matches with McGregor's "X" theory and coercive power as well.
Finally, in my point of view, the management should be more systematic so that the workers would perform their activities more efficiently and effectively.
5.1 Reconstructing the work force:
Reconstructing the shop floor is done for encouraging competition between workers. A group leader role could motivate the work force but Helen, management consultant investigated number of workers about the likes and dislikes of the company and the answers was "negative management". So , the managerial practice at technocraft convinced her that the shop floor labor turnover was not only incorrect but actually a part of the problem.
However, for better number of employees in the work place, the team should be encouraged and motivated.
5.2 Leadership Style:
As in the technocraft everyone's complain is towards 'management'. George needs to enhance the considerations of the worker and to think of his employees. I think he lacks the ability to influence a group towards achieving certain objectives. Leadership and responsibility of mangagement should be open and consultative style. It should be implemented on the workers so that they would be motivated by the help of different programme. According to continuum tunnerbaum and Schmidt leadership style there should not "tell and sells" but there "consults and joins" in a democratic way. In the company, it matches with autocratic style which sub-ordinates could not use their respective freedom.
5.3 motivating the work force:
George should bear in mind or adopt a consultative style which motivates its members, aiming the specific goals. The first two level of needs, salary and job security should be fulfilled by the management inorder to motivate the workforce. It would be the informal group which already exists. It also depends upon George's perception for the feedback and support. In his opinion, "unemployment are well below national average and many women are living with husbands who earned a decent living wage or salary. According to Maslow hierarchical needs, the lower level needs should take precedent, if they were not fulfilled.
However, a link between job satisfaction and absenteeism, staff turnover, and the incidence both physical and mental health problems (Schneider, 1984). Furthermore, the model is highly ethnocentric. Finally, applying their theory to the workplace is fraught with difficulties although this theory is intended to be managerial or organizational tool.
5.4 Job Design:
According to Herzberg, two factor theory, one of situation matches with the one theory among two:i.e; hygiene and motivators, which is hygiene factors. These methods should help in to participate in decision making.
Herzberg's vertical theory has two sides:
Dissatisfaction and 2. Extreme satisfaction with the environment, job and the work place. Like wise, the workers at Technocraft also faced the extreme dissatisfaction towards their job and relationship with supervisor was worse. Organization failed to provide adequate hygiene factors which as results, high level of conflict, absenteeism, labor turnover and low general morale was emerged.
There is a difference in the distribution of rewards and the people differ due to the perception. The first is to discover the activities of the shopfloor staff.
If there are specific objectives then Management must give response or feedback for the work done. During the productivity drive, George established a program called "employee- morale boosting" and the program succeeded. Thus, he promised to the employees that they would be rewarded for their efforts but the employees were distressed because there was no bonus payment except few t-shirts with the company logo. As a result, many of the employees resigned and this was the problem aroused in Technocraft which is "labor turnover".it also can be compared with goal setting theory of locke. He firstly concentrated on objectives and he doesn't give the rewards.
By the behavior of George what we can draw the outline is that he was in lack of morale, unsuitable in the post and the harsh leader.
In every change effort and programme someone loses or gains. Attention should be pursued for all gainers and losers as well. All change processes and program requires whole -hearted organization, commitment, support with adequate level of resource and time. They key issue for organization to adopt attitudes of flexibility, dynamism, responsiveness and positiveness and the drive is to maximize output and change in resource. So, I have compared this company Technocraft in many different theories.
Likewise, in Technocraft, power is ultimately in the hand of single person. Chairman appreciates and consults with the problem of the company. A well planned theme that has been drawn up is loyalty and dedication by the employees and the autocracy by the top level of management.
Above all, the role of managers and supervisors must change from the operation of systems and procedures to the development of expertise skills, knowledge and qualities in their people.