Management A Universal Phenomenon Commerce Essay

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Management is a universal phenomenon it is very famous and mostly used term every where. All organisation either they are political cultural or social involved in management. Because its only a management which directs actions into success. According to Harold Koontz

''Management is an art of getting things done through and with the people in formally organized group. It is an art of creating such a environment in which people can perform and co operate towards achieving the goals.''

according to FW Taylor

'' Management is an art of of knowledge what to do when to do and see that it is done in best and cheap way.''

Management is such a purposive activity which leads the whole groups effort into success and pre defined goals attainment. Its a process of working with others as a team and effectively achieve the goals of organisation with the help of limited resources. These goals may vary from one organization to another organization.

Management also involve creating an internal environment it is a management which put many factors of production. That's why its the responsibility of management to create such a situation which are conducive to maximum effort so that members of management can perform their task that is fitting the square pegs in square holes and round pegs in round hole.

Success factors:

for any organisation certain factors will be critical to the success of that organisation in the sense that if objectives associated with the factors are not achieved the organisation will fail perhaps catastrophically so.

Following an example of generic critical success factors.

New Product Development

Good Distribution and

Effective advertising

Following are the types of critical success factors.

Industry critical success factors resulting from specific industry characteristics.

Strategy critical success factors resulting from the chosen competitive strategy of the business.

Environmental critical success factors resulting from technological or economic

Temporal critical success factor resulting from internal organizational needs.

Each of these success factors should be measurable and linked to achieving the goal of organization. You have no need to exact measure to manage. Basic measure also should include the critical success level like numbers of transition per month or in case where specific measurements are more difficult main goal should be specified.

Critical Success factors:

an element of organisational activity which is key element to its future success. Critical success factors can be change from time to time. And may include item such as product quality employee behaviour manufacturing flexibility and brand awareness.

Any of the aspects of a business which are identified as a vital of successful targets to be reached and maintained. Critical success factors are normally identified in such areas as production process, employee and organisation skills functions techniques and technologies.

Employee Motivation

employee motivation is one of the main success factor. Because employee play an important role in the success of whole organisation. With out employee manager or organisation cant achieve their goals. Employees are backbone of any organisation. Some time its very hard to get goals and employees need some motivation for getting that goals that's why employees motivation is very important factor. Its enhance their commitment level with the organisation and make them more strong and boast their moral. Only those organisation can be successful in the businesses who motivates their employees. Its a key of getting good result and to achieve its targets.

As its saying that you can horse to water but you cant force it to drink it will drink only it is thirsty.

Similarly employees will do what they want to do. Weather it is to excel on the workplace or in the ivory tower they must want motivation or driven to do it. Either by themselves or through others.

Managers can motivate its work force by different ways like

Job Enrichment

It gives opportunity to employees to maximise utilization of their skills by assigning them assignments. By the job enrichment you can expand the tasks set that employee has to perform. You provide more interesting work that enhance the variety and challenge to work force daily routine. By this it leads to the work force more control on their work.

By this factors you can design the job that can be helpful in motivation

Skill variety

Identification of task

significance of task



There is also availability of option in job enrichment like

Rotate Jobs

It gives option to the work force to get the different sort of skills and show their performance in different sort of woks. This is the easiest way to get this by the help of rotation of job.

Combine Tasks

By working in a team its gives more challenging and complex work assignment. This can significantly enhance the identification of task because work force can see job from beginning to end, this can be cause of maximum utilization of skills which can make workers or employees more meaningful,

others factors also include

Identify project focused work force

Develop autonomous work team

Participative Management

Redistribute Power

Increase Feedback

Pygmolian Motivation

by this management can set a high standard of expectations can relise their workforce that this is what we want from you and you are calibre of this

Motivation is a necessary skill which must be learnt. This is very essential for the success of business.

Those organisation adopting the policy of continuously motivation of its employees can easily get

their goals so its shows that motivation of work force is also a success factor of business.

Risk Management:

Risk management is an other important factor for the success of business organisation. Those businesses who undertake risk and forecast for unseen future problems.

Its an integral part of managing business. Companies face different types of risk. Some may be external in nature which are not under the direct of the management. Like political environment the changes in exchange rates or fluctuation in interest. Some may be internal threat as well like in nature which the management can control to great extent for instance risk is linked with the non compliance in financial reporting or non compliance with the laws of labour.

So its better to undertake the risk management because if unfortunately organisation has to face any problem in future there would be some substitute option for any problem. By this business organisation can avoid to suffer from heavy loss in future and this can company or organisation can get advantage on its those competitors those do not adopt this. So this is very important factor in today business environment.

Risk management is a proactive process its not a reactive process. We can explain it with the example of Shell Oil which has a lot of offices in the New Orleans region but deal with Katrina and Hurricane weather well do to the risk management that it has in place.

Risk can be transferred but it can not be eliminated, business organisation can contract with those companies who are willing to take risk like buying an insurance policy risk can be transferred.

Or it can be reduced by taking some extra steps for control.

Committed and Focused Leadership:

leadership and power is linked with each other very closely. Its nature that people tend to follow those who are in power. And because of others follow the person who posses the power he be become leader.

Leaders have power because the are experienced in their field or they are the members of the admin.

And leadership is very important for the success of any business organisation. Because leaders leads the work force and work force lead to organisation's success. Good leader is who deal from the front .And deal with the problems very smartly. Leaders give directions and road map to its work force who utilize their skills and play an active role in the achievement of the goals. So those organisations who have good leaders they are getting their targets easily. As much leaders are committed as they are going very well in business and management. Work force or individual can not lead organisation to success until unless they have committed leader in them. Its the only leader who take the organisation on peak with the help of its or leader who can cause in the failure of the organisation. So leaders role is very important role in organisation.

Leader must engage all team in work and keep motivated to its team because with the help of motivation. He should collaborate and keep work force on process.

The attribution theory in leadership show that people characterize that a leader who has such traits as intelligence he possess the outgoing personality he should also have strong communication skills. So a leader who possess these skills he would be an asset of the organisation and can play his role in the achievement of the organisational goals.

Now organisations are looking for the transformational leadership qualities in leaders. They want such a leader who has the strong vision. And obviously a true leader is only that one who shows a good behaviour at the right time. And effective management now a days must develop trusting relation ship with those they are looking for that they are going to lead in future.

Main Obstacle to effective organisation :

There are different obstacles in today's management which effect the performance and create hurdles in the achievement of the organisation. So before this organisation must has to identify what are those obstacle and then they can find out solution to it. So its very important to find out the obstacle in the organisation.

Powers and Politics

Power refer to a capacity that some one has influence the behaviour of some one so that he can act in accordance with the wishes of the leader.

Power may be exist but its possible might not be used. So it is capacity and potential that some one have but don't utilize.

There are different basis of power like

Formal power

coercive power

Reward power

Legitimate Power

Personal Power

Expert power

Referent Power.

These can effect organisation performance if its miss used.

Organisational Politics

There has been shortage in the definition of organisational politics. Its about some one use of power to effect the decision making in any organisation or it can be used on the behaviour of members those are self serving organisationally non sanctioned. We can define by others word some one try to influence in decision which is not required as a part of any ones formal role in the organisation but its influence.

Legitimate Political behaviour.

Its normal routine day politics like complaining to the supervisors by passing the chain of command developing the coalition, not following the organisation policies contacts out of the organisation.

Illegitimate Political Behaviour.

Its about the violation of implied rule of the game. Its about some one pursue such extreme activities as its described some individual play hard ball.

The main part of political action based on legitimate variety. The main reason of pragmatic.

Reality of Politics.

Organisation is made of individual and group with different sort of values targets goals and interest as well. Resources in the organisation are limited which often lead potential conflicts into real conflicts. If resources are were abundant then all the different then all the department with in the organisation can be satisfied but in reality its limited so no one interest provided for. And also true are not gains by any individual or group are often perceived as being as the expense of others with in the organisation .

Conflict management:

conflict is a natural occurrence all groups and organisation because it is inevitable the human relation school advocated acceptance of conflict. It cant be eliminated from the organisation even some time its good for the organisational group work. Because due to conflict there is a lot of point raised in discussion and people knowledge increase regarding the issues and different angels comes out for the single issue. But some time it can cause to slow down the process of organisation and can also stuck the work. Its occur some time due to misunderstanding and perceptions.

Different of opinion in same organization