Manage Culture Diversity Within An Organisation Ryanair Commerce Essay


Main purpose of this assignment to show the importance of Ryan air airline management and leadership across culture. In this assignment I am going to show the theories of leadership and motivation and different leadership styles across different culture and different motivation technique across different culture, motivate across a different culture , the theories of leadership and motivation, different leadership styles across different culture , Manage culture diversity within an organisation, theories relating managing culture diversity, different needs and expectations culturally diverse guests, techniques for managing and building team with a culture diverse workforce of Ryanair

Please do not refer to first person (I)


Ryanair is the world's most wanted airline working near fifteen hundred flights per day from low cost directions across twenty eight countries, involving over 168 terminuses. It was set up in 1985 Ryanair has a team of more than 8,500 people and assumes to carry over 80 million travellers in the present economic time. Its head office is located at Dublin Airport with its primary operational bases at Dublin and London Stansted Airports. It is Europe's largest low cost airline and one of the most commercial, In spite of the hard business environment in which Ryan air worked in both 2011 and 2012, the airline has been characterized by rapid expansion, a result of the deregulationof the aviation industry in Europe in 1997 and the success of its low-cost business model. It was one of the first independent airlines in Ireland. In 2001, many believed that Ryan air was like the Wal-Mart and Southwest Airlines of Europe Barret, S. D. (2004)

Task 1

Chapter 1

Lead and motivate across a different culture

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All cultures have beliefs which are mutual for all people in that culture. Many beliefs have same values consequently there are some arguments that no need to learn 'Indian cultural beliefs and American cultural beliefs. Equally both countries hold morality as faith in their culture no need to check it people only need to understand how these values are bought out in toward life over activities, manners, beliefs .

In the modern age of enterprise culture, aggressive competition and strategic leadership for effectiveness in the market, Ryanair has structured its leadership and business classic to report the subjects of organizes an commercial method to the management of organisations'' for a transformational method established upon achievement. For Ryanair, these issues discovery expression in low-cost and generic factors. Basically these factors are answerable for Ryanair's success occurrence. In catching this transformational, change-oriented quantity of Ryanair. A distressing business ideal tests the strategies used by the present well-established organisations in the market. Its main attention is on price understanding of customers. , noticing these things that Michael O'Leary, the CEO of Ryanair has been at the centre of economy and low-cost revolt that has produced an detonation in the airline industry. Ryanair's leadership success is contingent on the economic condition in the United Kingdom in the stir of the de ruling strategy that allowed new entrants into the aircraft industry thereby opening the rule that completed air manageable partial preserve of the rich class, and the inflexible commercial spirit that O'Leary displays(Arredondo, P., 2011)

Motivation is a massive matter. The base of motivation may change in people. In the determination location, many have self-confidence in that the side by side of agreement at work is a durable negotiator. It is true that people alter throughout their life. A person who once was motivated by change may or not like it any shorter. Though, the person who beloveds lifelessness may essential to involvement alteration to obtain almost different in their lives, fairly new than what they been doing for many, several years.

1.1 Theories of leadership and motivation (Ryanair )

Interest in leadership improved for the period of the early twentieth century. Early leadership theories motivated on abilities notable between leaders and followers, whereas following theories considered at other variables such as situational features and proficiency levels. Although many diverse leadership theories have occurred, maximum can be confidential

1. Contingency Theories: Contingency theories of leadership focus on certain variables associated to the atmosphere that might determine which particular style of leadership is best appropriate for the condition. According to this theory, no leadership style is best in all states. Success is determined by a number of variables, including the leadership style, qualities of the followers and aspects of the situation. Contingency theory adopts no one accurate way to lead will fit all conditions. In this approach states that there is no perfect way to lead an establishment rather situations govern the way to lead at an assumed time. In addition, there is a serious correlation or affinity between situational and contingency theory of leadership. Both suggest that sets of structure to lead depend on the problem at hand. Contingency theory is a class of behavioural theory that claims that there is no best method to Ryanair or leads a government. Instead, the ideal progression of action is contingent on the internal and external factors or conditions. Thus, contingency approach to leadership pressures related factors as significant influence on leader success. Bass, B. M. (1985

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4. Situational Theories: Situational theories recommend that leader's preference the best classification of attainment based upon situational variables. Different styles of leadership of Ryanair may be more appropriate for positive types of decision-making. That anxieties follower development, an extension, the point actuality strained is that there is a break from organizational model scientific management largely mistreated the impacts of the environmental factors as well as encouraged vertical management structure, a departure from flat management arrangement. Ryanair's contingency or situational leadership, the symbol is that it is based upon leader-match theory,

Theories of Motivation

Motivation is the different, internal method that strengthens, leads, and sustains behaviour. It is an individual strength that bases one to perform in a particular way .Most often, motivation is the term used to explain people's behaviour. Effective directors are said to be highly encouraged. A team leader who eludes work is said to be unmotivated

Equity Theory: Motivation theories can help directors understand how to motivate their staff. The equity theory of motivation is based on the fact that individuals are inspired first to achieve and then to preserve a sense of impartiality. Equity refers to the distribution of rewards in direct equality to the contribution of each employee to the organization (Ryan air). Everyone needs not to receive the same rewards, but the rewards should be in accordance with individual contributions. The idea of equity likes a development of an input-to-outcome ratio. Alavi, M (2000),

Expectancy Theory: Expectancy theory, industrialized by Captor opportunity is a very difficult prototypical of incentive that is based on an uncertain assumption. According to expectancy theory, motivation is dependent on how much want something and on how likely to become it. Ryan air airline sales subjects managers who are applicants for advancement to one sales reservations manager's job. Ryanair has had a very good sales year and always get good performance evaluations.D.R., 1997

Reinforcement Theory

Reinforcement theory states that behavior that is pleased it is likely to be repeated, although behavior that has been criticized is less likely to remain. Ryan air's is a non-additional airline but it has a high business the assistant general Secretary Ryan air has a very suppressive government and they have very high staff income Ryan air and as result the company is recruiting now agreement labor from activities as far away .Pilots were lately told that in order to development from older airplanes to original aircraft

1.2 Different leadership styles across different culture

Nowadays, people from different cultures and value systems are appointed by the business organizations across the world. Western leadership style is supplementary of a participative style somewhere the manager contains his team followers to a positive point in result making. But, in Asia the leadership style is a combination of autocratic and transactional leaderships. An effective leader who arrangements with another culture should recognize their work related social and cultural values to achieve business success. He should also have the ability to organize and main a workforce of diverse cultures. Mosakowski, E, (2000)

The leadership style O'Leary has started at Ryanair good deal form in a grouping of translation a movement from autocratic leadership to democratic one. Major styles of leadership democratic participative, autocratic repressive and laissez faire representative. O'Leary has expanded the leadership base at the top organisation unit from. It is significant to communication that O'Leary's leadership style has to experience this evolution from 1988 till present in order to recover the then injured, unknown airline, Ryanair, from dripping cash and this essential aggressiveness, confidence, style of leadership that concluded in low cost and non-additional method. O'Leary's leadership structure as at when he joint Ryanair in 1988 as Tony Ryan's particular enforcer to 1994 when he became the CEO of the airline and now has experienced distinction to ensemble different situations. Different leadership styles are desirable to manage with different situations the autocratic style marks logic when an association is in deep anxiety and needs to complete an express improvement that style would be counter productive when the association is in a growth situation Green, S. G. (2002

Ryanair's leadership style has developed the European air company industry has been unfavourably re-joined. Leadership change is primarily a function of leadership style. Also, it is doubtful from the analysis presented Ryanair's success story is blocked in its leadership style, which has observed a sort of evolution from autocratic to democratic. And the leadership theory that marks the possibility of this new organizational culture change is administered Therefore, even though O'Leary's leadership model has been successful, it is essentially contingent upon the deregulation strategy in place since its founding. In addition, in order to withstand this administrative success, Ryanair requirements to gain the opposition in the airline industry and alters itself for sustainability.

1.3 Different motivations across different culture

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Motivation has kept people in emergencies accepted during times. It has been the basis of improved principles of living, achievement, prosperity, and approval. Most leaders concluded olden days have used irregular systems of motivation. The same is accurate of successful managers. The role of motivation in the work environment has great value. Many readings have developed from one place to another various motivational techniques for leading employees towards desired goals. The success or failure of motivation time-outs not on the system itself but on management's capability to like the wants of people with appropriate rewards Objects are needs, which force people to move towards goals. Many theories of motivation have been established with the thoughtful of how workers' performances can be strengthened confidently and how they can improve and focused to accomplish favourite ideas. Motivation training in diverse culture needs ID of the positive and negative culture based-factors. Grant, R.M. 2002,

Contemporary concepts of culture

Several organization examiners contributed to the opinion that perceives culture as- a mutual similar way of existence, calculating and doing which are ideas, shared by members of a cultural group. Culture involves of designs, clear and unspoken of and for behaviour acquired and conducted by signs, establishing the unique successes of human groups, including their expressions in object's; the important basic of culture involves of customs practices that only come into existence in relation to, and in contrast with, other cultural groups. Differences in cultural principles need additional skill when trying to motivate changes in Behaviour. Managers of Ryanair want to correctly understand the condition and strategy an approach that turns a person's morals and needs.

The theory of motivation recommends that people are motivated to do belongings as of external honors.

Humanistic Theory of Motivation: Humanistic theories of motivation are founded on the knowledge that people also have strong Perceptive clarifications to perform various actions. Once the minor level requests have been seen, the main motivator converts the requirement for the desire to fulfill one's specific possible

Adapting to Environments

Ryan air managers are said to be highly motivated. A team leader who circumvents work is said to be unenthusiastic. Many workers from the United Kingdom have port their occupations with Ryan air and as result the company is employing now contract labor from agencies. Pilots were newly told that in order to progress from older planes to newer aircraft, they would have to compensation for their own retraining. Politis, J. D. (2004

1.4 leadership strategies for an organization that operates across different culture

Organizations are motivated by expert leadership to display them over unsurpassed modifications. Some of the best and most appreciated managements are weakening to adapt to change, implement their strategic plans successfully or prepare for a more indeterminate future. Many top directors complain the lack of leadership worktable strength in their companies and sensation what will happen every leader is conscious of the value of a precise business strategy. Without proper leadership, even the best and courageous strategies die on the plant, their probable never understood. The skill of an association to attain its areas does not be dependent completely on the strong point of will of an only great leader, even upon the efficiency of the organization's restraint of knowledge. A good leadership strategy takes all of these factors into explanation Politis, J. D. (2004

Strategic Leadership is a development, which certifications organisation to be active rather than reactive in shaping its own future. A concentrating organizational lead affords and launches unworkable leadership to Ryanair. A good organisational leader progresses a positive scheme to strategic management, where the management rather than just identifying and answering to alteration. The change in business environment unfair the strategy of Ryanair. New markets or introducing a new service and it also created sources of innovation like a change in market structure,

Tie Leadership Development to Business Strategy.

Leadership development should originate and end with the business's strategy and objectives in mind. The respondents well-known that the establishment of an cohesive strategy and system for all managerial development was the leading significance of their learning and development establishments These results imitation an previous study as well Many corporate learning and development establishments The best businesses for leaders consistently execute on the strategies that make for good leadership development. They make enterprise wide standards, practices, and metrics for leadership;Martins, L.L. (1996)

Organizational culture is the collective behavior of humans who are part of a society and the meanings that the people to their actions. Culture includes the organization values, visions, averages, working language attach, systems, symbols, principles. It is also the arrangement of such supportive behaviors and expectations that are taught to new executive members as a way of observing, and even thinking and sensation. Organizational culture moves the way people and collections interact with each other, with clients, and with sponsors

Ryanair and Marketing Strategy

Marketing strategy is very important in order to maintain modest advantage. It is important in order to maintain good relationship with the customers. This is mainly important in the service industry, as well as the hospitality and tourism sector. This is because of the fact that the entire industry is characterized by intensive competition, because of the growing number of competitors in the global market. In addition, the services actuality offered as well as the products being created are hard to differentiate, because the products and services to be offered towards the customers are practically the same

Peterson, S. J. (2009) Ryanair were recognized by the Ryan family with an investment segment of a staff of 25. The company launched its first direction in July with daily flights which operate daily from Waterford in the southeast of Ireland to London Gatwick Ryanair is the world's much-loved airline and works more than 1500 flights daily from 44 sources and more than 1100 low fare routes crossways more than 25 countries, which connect to over 160 terminuses.

As a result, it is dynamic for company in this production the emergence of the Internet in the mid-1990s as well as the growth of Intranets and Extranets required airlines to progress their strategy on industrial innovations in order to increase their attractiveness. In addition, they progressively reinvented themselves to main technology suppliers for a wide range of tourism organisations including airlines, travel agencies and Internet travel portals.

Cross-cultural understanding influences business relationships, and many training providers offer courses that outline the various basics of the cultural exchange and appropriate ways of doing business with abroad societies. Whilst this is highly applicable, it is valuable to specifically analyse the impact of cultural values on business performs in the tourism industry.

Task 2

Chapter 2

Manage culture diversity within an organisation

Diversity is much wider topic today Diversity is strangeness or those human capacities that are diverse from outside the sets, to which we belong, yet present in other individuals and groups. It's important to appreciate how these magnitudes affect presentation, inspiration, success, and interactions with others. Organized organizations and observes that have presented barriers to some dimensions of diversity should be examined, challenged, and removed.Diversity also incorporates a wide variety of other differences, including work experience, parental status, educational background, and managing diversity means more than simply observing legal and policy requirements. Managing diversity is defined as planning and executing administrative systems and performs to manage people so that the potential advantages of diversity are maximized Thomas, R.R., 1996

Managing Diversity. Managing diversity means identifying people's alterations and make out these differences as valuable it improves good organization like Ryanair practices by stopping perception and promoting inclusiveness. Companies should completely redesign the working culture that make possible the scheming of a wide collection of posts that leads to give definition of how work gets done and how diverse markets are approached. All workforces should be held responsible for their performances and human resources results. Companies must create a post bureaucratic organization based upon trust and admiration in which diverse employees are valued and integrated into all aspects of the work. Diversity increases inspiration and innovation and advantages. Diversity helps administrations for inflowing the global arena. Diverse groups mark it possible to improve elasticity and fast reply to change.

The cultural impact on management is exposed by humble ethics, attitudes, and beliefs of the people. Culture can mark skill allocation, managerial attitudes, managerial ideology and even government-business relationships. Hall, T. (2005

Managing Cultural Diversity: To manage successfully in a global diverse environment, that essential to identify the differences and learn to use them to improvement, reasonably simply allowing differences to cause difficulties somewhat directors should be skilled how to respect the differences at work and how to work with them to maximize the contribution of each employee,

It is a global and diverse company, which works individuals of all confidences. To reproduce the protracted collection of principles followed by their employees they provide prayer facilities across the business and publish religious festivals information sheet on intranet site with the aim of raising awareness on the different cultures across the company.

Some religions or beliefs have specific food needs. Ryanair provide a variety of dietary selections to confirm key rations are provided for and foods are considered. In addition, the Ryanair Uniform Committee has adapted the new uniform to ensure that it sustains the company image whilst allowing flexibility to meet key religious needs. Peterson, S. J. (2009)

The Employment Equality (Age) Regulations have had a great impression through the Ryanair airline. Prior to the regulation, Ryanair ran attention assemblies to estimate worker's views on the changes. There was an extensive choice of answers, maximum persons sensed that the age regulation was an optimistic period and that flexibility was the key to working for longer.

Ryanair is working closely with the construction of Terminal 5 to confirm all phases of disability are protected. As a company they are dedicated to confirming that controlled employees can attain their full conceivable. Practical alterations are completed for employees if they are disabled to become disabled whilst working for Ryanair. They work in partnership with the Employers' Setting on Disability. They also work with the Disability Rights Commission to support their disability strategy.

Flexible working has become significant part of the technique they (Ryanair) work and represents part of a current change of attitude. Ryanair has introduced a number of elastic working enterprises that have progressive women who tend to undertake responsibility for most dependent care. One objective is to increase the focus on work-life balance to encourage women to return near work after maternity leave. It is a priority of our race equality strategy to listen to their ethnic minority employees. Ryanair encourage sharing ideas on how they can work on issues such as career progression, training and development, internal and external recruitment, harassment and bullying. Milliken, F.J.1996

2.1 Theories relating managing culture diversity

Workforce diversity is a difficult work to achieve in an establishment. The organization of workforce diversity as a device to raise administrative success cannot be highlighted, especially with modern alterations wide crossways the world Workforce diversity is a main anxiety for maximise of the trades. Workforce diversity, incapacity, old age, human resource management, equal opportunity. The increased flexibility and contact of people from assorted circumstances as a result of better-quality economic and political systems and the acknowledgment of human rights has put most organizations under burden to hold diversity at the work place. The idea of diversity management of Ryanair increased kindness with globalisation and the requirement for more families to banquet globally to influence customers across the world. D.R., (1997)

Managing diversity make a modest benefit to Ryanair. Possible benefits of this diversity contain well choices, more achievement in advertising to external and national cultural sectional groups, and an improved passage of economic chance culturally diverse groups comparative to similar groups are new active both in the contact method and work presentation these assistances arise after a diverse group has been together for old-fashioned.

Ryanair succeed at diversity if the creativity to make, achieve and price the diverse workforce has the full sustenance of the highest management The organization must connect and worries for diversity to human resource management choices around staffing, group, project, sequence planning, presentation administration, and Managers must know their company's culture principal and then contrivance diversity plans allowing to that culture

Diversity of Ryanair in administrations has its assistances but there are some disadvantages of workforce diversity. Some people feel helpless by working with people of a different age, sex, or culture. There is a rise in the cost of training. This increase originates from prices related with meetings, programs and addresses specified to encourage diversity in the company

Theories of cultural values

Mainly in the workplace, minions expect to be referred. In cultures with a high control distance, dissimilarity is more broadly recognised and power, which is thought by a marginal, is known by the needy majority of people.

In a more manly culture leaders are expected to be critical and forceful and struggle is committed by aggressive Uncertainty deterrence rises to the vital for instructions and principles. Weak uncertainty avoidance comprises incentive by attainment and inspiration of inventive ideas and performance. Strong uncertainty escaping specifies a need for rules and some battle to state-of-the-art designs and behaviour. Motivation by safety is likely to be established in civilizations indicating strong uncertainty avoidance. Milliken, F.J.1996

2.2 Different needs and expectations culturally diverse guests

Elastic working has becomean important part of the way Ryanair work and signifies part of an on-going change of attitude. There are clear benefits for passengers and for their business and they will continue to support flexible occupied solutions that are appropriate and meet our needs."

They support a wide variety of elastic working possibilities that are aimed to meet different types of work. These solutions assist the employee to balance home and work life whilst contributing to the on-going changes wished by the organisation to assist cost reduction.Free and incapacity facilities governments essential to reflect the variety of their clients' values, beliefs and cultural expectations.

Religious practice

Communal and debility facilities workers need to be watchful to the conceivable changes in sacred formal and the influence of a being's religious practice on their politics and value system. Central faith of Ryan air may admiration other beliefs as cults somewhat than official religions however people of any belief have a right to respect.Turner, J., 1985


Ryan air needs to contemplate different cultural views of disability and look after of family members with incapacity, positioning the person before the disability, and facilities for people with a disability. Focus on the person, not the disability. Work performs may need to be modified to permit for dissimilar national views and conventions main contact and corporal exchange with the opposite gender.

Culturally comprehensive practice

It is impractical to assume public and disability services workforces at Ryan air to differentiate the cultural in a fast increasing and extremely modest global market, and in contradiction of the background of the current challenging economic climate, the pursuit of quality has become an organisational imperative for leisure industry trades. Different acuities of quality, yet, make its realisation more problematic, not least since of the very nature of the persons within the market the staff within vacation industry businesses and guests. Lawson, R., 2002

The relationship between cultural realization and superiority

There is a correlation between the equal of national realization of the travel business and the following perception of product, service quality on the part of the tourist. Increased customer satisfaction is likely to follow as a result of improved staff cultural awareness and following development of ethnically appropriate products and services. It is significant for tourism businesses and purposes to take this into account in the provision of products and services.

Cross-cultural understanding influences business relationships, and many training providers offer courses that outline the various basics of the cultural exchange and appropriate ways of doing business with abroad societies. Whilst this is highly applicable, it is valuable to specifically analyse the impact of cultural values on business performs in the tourism industry. Wendy. (2004, March

Undoubtedly the tourism industry and culture are inextricably linked in that it is often the search for a cultural exchange that is an inherent part of the motivation for the tourist to travel. As already illustrated, to meet expectations there is a need for cultural awareness, both on the part of the individuals travelling and, equally importantly, tourism businesses.

Customer loyalty is often affected by the perception of the level of service provision. Another aspect of culture is body language and whilst subtle, it is easily possible to offend through inappropriate gestures that demonstrate a lack of respect and subsequently undermine the business relationship. The National Centre for Languages stresses the requirement for cultural skills in business, specifically the tourism industry, indicating that cultural and language skills are beneficial for, amongst others, hotel reception, tourist attraction and restaurant staff, in welcoming guests, dealing with enquiries, taking bookings and guiding visitors.

2.3 Techniques for managing and building team with a culture diverse workforce


Insignificant businesses depend on teamwork, objective as significant as their improved accompaniments. When a minor group of people starts employed to near common goals and making results that improve up to more than the amount of the portions, it becomes a team.

Positive team employed gets consequences in all areas, including auctions, IT, problem solving and handling new projects. People work more effectively and their inspiration and loyalty to business are also increased. Starting and conference the team, important sides, Positive side assemblies, solving problems.

Cultural Diversity in the Workplace,

Paglis, L. L. (2002) gradually various incomplete work to the globalization of profitable, nationwide competence is conceivably the most leading ability for effective work presentation in this century. Social competence is the ability to collaborate successfully with persons from different beliefs. This capability of Ryanair is needy on awareness of one's own cultural worldview, information of worldviews, compliant to cultural variations, and multicultural services.

Managing culture diverse workforce

Developed cultural capability consequences in capability to appreciate, connect with, and efficiently cooperate with people's crossways cultures, work with varying culture calendar

Communication:Providing evidence precisely and punctually is dangerous to effective effort and team presentation. This is chiefly significant when a scheme is concerned and wants fast remedial actions.

Team-building:Certain philosophies like the Joint Conditions are unusual, and person's deficiency to go it alone. Price association within .Effective cross-cultural team-building is vital to helping from the potential advantages of cultural diversity in the workplace (wandy 2004)

Cultural diversity in workplace

Lawson, R., (2002) this is the most thrilling feature of commercial in the modern world. The inconceivable amount of fresh ideas and new ways of doing business derive particularly from cultural diversity from workplace within these opportunities lie many challenges.


Ryanair's leadership style has established the European airline developed has been critically answered. It is well-meaning of note that for an organization to be modest mainly in the airline industry, it has to redesign its leadership style. In addition, leadership modification is largely a function of leadership style. It is uncertain from the analysis offered that Ryanair's success story miracle. Michael O'Leary, its current CEO. To endure this organizational culture change, Ryanair anchored its organizational model and leadership paradigm in low cost and no-frills approach, which saw the culture of expensive airline travel come tumbling down. It has also been argued that another facet of Ryanair's success story is lodged in its leadership style, which has witnessed a sort of transition - from autocratic to democratic (although Ryanair has b