Management is a set of activities that include planning and decision making, organization, direction and control, led to an organizations resources human, financial, physical and information in order to achieving organizational objectives efficiently and effectively
Classical management school
The classical school is the oldest formal school managing thought. Its roots predate the twentieth century. Classical School of thought generally concerns ways to control work and organizations to more efficiently. Three areas of study that can be grouped under the classical school are the scientific management the administrative management, and bureaucratic management.
The classical school (management) has tried to define the essence of management in the form of universality of the fundamental functions. These, it was hoped, would be the basis of a set of cognitive skills relevant to be acquired by all aspiring managers through formal education.
Address of the classical school thought is based on a belief that employees are only the physical and financial, and social needs and the need for work satisfaction, either do not exist or are not important. Therefore, this school advocates a high specialization of labor, centralized decision making and profit maximization. See also the behavior of the school management, contingency management, school governance quantitative and school management systems.
Henri fayol theory
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henri Fayol (1841-1925) is generally considered the school founder of classical music management - not because it was the first to investigate managerial behavior, but because it was the first to systematize. Fayol believed that practicing of sound management falls into certain patterns which can be identified and analyzed. From this basic idea, has developed a project manager for a coherent doctrine, one that retains much of its force today.
With his faith in the scientific method, Fayol was like Taylor, his contemporary. While Taylor was
basically concerned with the functions of organization, however Fayol was interested in the total
focused on organizing and managing, which in his opinion had been the most neglected of the operations of the company. Exhibit 2-1 lists the 14 principles of management Fayol "more often had to apply." Before Fayol, it was generally believed that "managers are born, not made." Fayol stressed, however, the management was a skill like any other - that can be taught once the basic principles are understood.
Fayol's Principles of management theory
Division of labor: dividing labor in specialized tasks and allocation of responsibilities to specified persons.
â€¢ Authority:-delegate authority with responsibility.
â€¢ Discipline:-make clear expectations punish rape.
â€¢ Control unit: each employee be assigned to only one supervisor.
â€¢ Unit address: - employees efforts should focus on achievement of organizational objectives.
â€¢ Subordination of individual interest to general interest: the general interest should prevail.
â€¢ Centralization:-identify the relative importance of the functions superiors and subordinates.
â€¢ Compensation: - systematically reward efforts to support the organizational management.
â€¢ Scalar Chain:-maintain communications within the chain of command.
â€¢ Order: order jobs and material support for the management of the organization.
â€¢ Equity - fair discipline and order improving employee engagement.
â€¢ Stability and retention of staff: - promote employee loyalty and longevity.
â€¢ Initiative: - encourage employee who act on his own in support of the leadership of the organization.
â€¢ Esprit de corps:-to promote unity and interest management.
Frederick Taylor introduced a second approach management The scientific approach
advocated the application of scientific methods to analyze and determine which work to complete production tasks efficiently. Taylor presented four principles of scientific management:
Management should develop a precise scientific approach for each element of an individual's work to replace the general guidelines
Scientific management to select, train, teach and develop each worker to the person entitled to the right job
Management should cooperate with workers to ensure that the work plans and the principles of the party
Management should ensure a fair division of labor and responsibility between managers and workers
Factory productivity and efficiency
Introduced scientific analysis for the workplace
Piecework system equates rewards and worker performance
Increased cooperation between management and workers
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
Simplistic assumptions motivational
Workers viewed as parts of a machine
Potential for labor exploitation
Excludes senior management tasks
Ignored relationship between the organization and its Management
Frank Gilbreth and Lillian Gilbreth were the successors of taylor studied how the work environment influences the performance of the employees. They made a strong contribution in time and motion study. They showed that by following arrangements can organizations effectively solve their problems.
Divide each job action into its components.
Finding better ways to make the action.
Reorganizing Each job action to be more efficient
Administrative management theory
The researchers tried to discover how to create an organization structure that leads to high efficiency and bureaucracy effectiveness.Theory was developed by Max Weber as a succession of such investigations. Bureaucracy is basically a formal system of organization and administration designed to effectiveness.There were in theory ensure efficiency and different principles
An explicit and comprehensive administrative management emerged in 1916, whenHenri Fayol he published a book summarizing his experiences of management. He identifiedfive functions and 14 principles of management. The five functions are very similar to the functions management and thefour are as under
1.Planning, 2.Organizing, 3.Commanding, 4.Coordination, 5.Controlling
Management seen as a profession that can be trained and developed
He emphasized the general aspects of the policies of senior management
It offers universal management prescriptions
The term "bureaucracy" was created from the French word for the desk at the office or in the office, and the Greek ÎºÏÎ¬Ï„Î¿Ï‚ kratoswhich means rule or political power.
Bureaucracy is basically a formal system of organization and administration designed to ensure the efficiency and effectiveness.
Weberian bureaucracy has its origins in the works of Max Weber (1864-1920), a German sociologist, political economist, academic and administrative staff who contributed the study of bureaucracy and the speech and the literature during the 1800 and 1900 years. Weber's ideal bureaucracy is characterized by hierarchical organization, outlined lines of authority in a fixed area of activity, actions taken on the basis of recorded and written rules, bureaucratic officials need expert training, rules are applied by neutral officials, career advancement depends on technical qualifications judged by the organization, not individuals.
Red structured and formal relationships between specialist positions in an organization
The rules and regulations of conduct standardized
Jobs has trained specialists who follow the rules
Hierarchy defines the relationship between jobs
Promotes the efficient performance of the routine activities of the organization
Eliminates the subjective judgment of the employees and managers
Emphasizes positions rather than the person
Difficult to dismantle once established
Rules may become end in themselves.
Ignores the importance of people and interpersonal relationship.
What is human relation?
human relationship - a relation between people human relationship - relationship between people ('relationship' is often used in 'relation' would serve, as in `the relationship between inflation and unemployment ', but the preferred use of' relationship 'is for human kindship or states), "the relationship between mothers and their children"
Principles of Human Relations Approach
The basic principles of human relations approach are :-
The human beings not only interested in financial gain. They also they need recognition and appreciation.
Employees are human beings. Therefore, it should be treated as human beings and not machines. Managers should try and understand the feelings and emotions of employees.
An organization working not only through official relations, but also through informal contacts. Therefore, managers should foster informal relationships in the organization, along with formal relations.
Workers need a high level of job security and satisfaction at work. Therefore, management should provide employment security and job satisfaction of workers.
Workers want a good communication among managers. Therefore, managers must to effectively communicate without feelings of ego and of superiority complex.
In any organization, the members do not like conflicts and misunderstandings. Therefore, managers should try to stop conflicts and misunderstandings among members of the organization.
Qantative or mangement science approach
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Quantitative Management Operations Management Management Information Systems and Management Science in the theory of Total Quality Management Management Quantitative emphasis is on how arithmetic can be manipulated for achieve best practises in inventory and financial management of capital has a set control. Operations of techniques which can be used to improve quality management production efficiency Total art is focused on the manner in which the assembly can manage information systems achieve excellence. Management managers provide adequate events of information and external about internal one Theory This organization environment making. Organizational effective decisions is the group of operating conditions and forces externally of the organization, but affect a manager capacity to acquire and utilize resources. This would clearly emphasizes the importance of studying theory ambiente.Is to half of open systems and contingency theory developed in 1960 proves the importance of considering the middle View This ambiente. system is a system where external resources are acquire and they become services then goods and sent back to customers for the purchase. as an open system. Organizations that use a closed system are prone to entropy, of tendency of a system to lose its ability to monitor and thus to break and describes Theory It collapse.Contigency no better how to organize therefore characteristics the ability in an organization to obtain resources.Types environment affect of structures Above discusses the differences between the structures. In conclusion, a Mechanistic structure managers can obtain inputs to a lower cost of preference in a stable and inorganic environmental managers can react more quickly in a fast changing contribution environment.These constructing your own base of modern management theories
Systems theory is the disciplinary study of systems in general, with the goal of clarifying the principles which can be applied to all types of systems at all levels of nesting in all fields of research.The term not have an well established, precise meaning, but systems theory reasonably be regarded as as a specialization of systems thinking, generalization of systems science, a systems approach. The term comes from general systems theory Bertalanffy (GST) and used in later efforts in other fields, such as the theory of action of Talcott Parsons and the social systems theory of Niklas Luhmann.
In this the word systems is used to refer specifically at self-regulating systems, ie, self-correction through feedback. Self-regulatory systems found in nature, including physiological systems of the body, in local and global ecosystems, and climate and human learning processes
PART B:- DIVERSITY OF MANAGEMENT THEORY
planning is most fundamental. All other functions arising from the planning. However, planning does not always get the attention it merits, and when it does, lot of managers find that the process of planning is not as easy as they thought it would be - or even the best laid plans can go wrong.
In short, planning is gearing up for tomorrow, today. The activity that allows managers determine they want and how they will achieve.
planning does not only provide direction and unity , but also gives answer to these six basic question:-
What needs to be achieved?
When is the last date to finish?
Where will this be done?
Who will be the incharge of it?
How will it be done?
What all is required to complete this goal?
Importance of planning
It reduces the risk of unstabability,wastage of time
It helps in decision making
It enhances standards for controlling
It enhances innovative ideas
People working together in groups to achieve or accomplish some goal which must have roles to play, like manger organizing a party or 1000 people. The role implies that what people do has a definite purpose or objective; the manager know where what staff will fit to accomplish the task or to achieve the goal.
For example: one or two where given the job to collect fire wood, some the arrangement of tables n chairs, some to set the ambience, and other the job of cooking.
The organizing is the part of managing which involves establishing an intentional structural of roles for people to fill in a organization. It is the intentional sense of makin sure that all the tasks that are necessary to be done are assigned and assigned to those who will give their best
Importance of organizing
This process consist of following six steps :
Establishing given projects.
Supporting objectives, plans
Identifying, analysing, and classifying the activites that will help in accomplish the goal.
Using the man power that you have at your best to achieve the task.
Remain connected to the other staff working in different sections to know the progress.
Assigning one head of each department.
Leading is to influence people so that each one contributes to achieve the goal. All managers agree their problem starts from people their desire's and attitude as well as their behaviour as individuals.
Some of the features that regularly appear in leaders are ambition, energy, desire, drive, confidence and intelligence. Although some features are useful, these attributes do not offer guarantees a person in possession of them is an efficient leader. Underlying the trait approach is the assumption that some people are natural leaders and are endowed with certain characteristics that have no other individuals. This research compared successful and unsuccessful leaders to see how they differ in their physical characteristics, personality and ability.
Drive. Leaders are ambitious and take initiative.
Motivation. Leaders want to lead and are willing to take charge.
Honesty and integrity. Leaders are truthful and do what they say they will do.
Self-confidence. Leaders are assertive and decisive and enjoy taking risks. They admit mistakes and foster trust and commitment to a vision. Leaders are emotionally stable rather than recklessly adventurous.
Cognitive ability. Leaders are intelligent, perceptive, and conceptually skilled, but are not necessarily geniuses. They show analytical ability, good judgment, and the capacity to think strategically.
Business knowledge. Leaders tend to have technical expertise in their businesses.