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A skill is the learned capacity to carry out pre-determined results often with the minimum outlay of time, energy, or both. In other words the abilities that one possesses. Skills can often be divided into domain-general and domain-specific skills. For example, in the domain of work, some general skills would include time management, teamwork and leadership, self motivation and others, whereas domain-specific skills would be useful only for a certain job. Skill usually requires certain environmental stimuli and situations to assess the level of skill being shown and used.
Top skills which organizations want from graduates are as follows:
Graduates should have valuable vocational skills,
They need to improve on other general employability skills,
They should have skills such as time optimization,
The courage to overcome fears or changing situations,
Good communication skills,
A desire to learn and adaptability,
Good emotional intelligence and cross-cultural communication skills are qualities that are required to work in the global environment,
Graduates should have a sense of accountability and should be proactive,
They must also be motivated and have an open mind,
Graduates should be creative and operational - able to think out of the box and be willing to work hard,
Organization looks for new hires that, besides being commercially aware, are also driven and energetic.
They should have a global mindset as well as leadership and team experience,
Graduates should work towards being an attractive catch for a company,
It is important for graduates to have a positive attitude to increase their appeal over the recruitment process.
Q2. What is the gap analysis and how do organizations map the job analysis to requirement of resources?
It determines the gap between where your organization wants to be in the future and where you are now. The gap analysis includes identifying the number of staff and the skills and abilities required in the future in comparison to the current situation. One should also look at all its organization's HR management practices to identify practices that could be improved or new practices needed to support the organization's capacity to move forward. Questions to be answered include:
What new jobs will we need?
What new skills will be required?
Do our present employees have the required skills?
Are employees currently in positions that use their strengths?
Do we have enough managers/supervisors?
Are current HR management practices adequate for future needs?
PROJECTED WORKFORCE GAP
PROJECTED INTERNAL SUPPLY
REQUIRED STAFFING LEVEL
CURRENT VACANCIES OR OVERAGE
CURRENT STAFFING LEVEL
PROJECTED WORKLOAD CHANGES
REQUIRED STAFFING LEVEL
CURRENT STAFFING LEVEL
PROJECTED INTERNAL SUPPLY
PROJECTED WORKFORCE GAP
POLCY/ NEW INITIATIVE
The Gap Analysis brings together the data generated by the Supply Analysis and the Demand Analysis. In this step we will:
Assess the differences between the current and future workforce requirements.
Look at these differences from both the competency perspective and the staffing perspective.
Build the foundation for the Gap-Closing Strategies step of the Workforce Planning process.
Gap Analysis: Staffing Assessment
The Gap Analysis: Staffing Assessment Template synthesizes the data you gathered during the Demand Analysis and Supply Analysis. The results from this analysis will identify the gaps and surpluses in staffing levels needed for the future.
On the demand side, the analysis begins with the current staffing level and adds or subtracts the number of positions identified.
On the supply side, the analysis also begins with the current staffing level, and deducts the projected attrition from the Attrition Projection Worksheet.
The results of the Staffing Assessment Template will reveal a gap or surplus:
A gap indicates a future shortage of employees having the competencies we require. By identifying the gap well in advance, we will be able to take appropriate steps to ensure that strategies are in place to prevent the projected gap from becoming a problem.
A surplus indicates that we will have excess staff in some categories. Again, advance planning will allow us to implement strategies that will minimize the adverse impact on employees who are no longer needed in the future
Gap Analysis: Competency Assessment
During the Competency Assessments in our Supply and Demand Analyses, our subject matter experts rated the importance of the competencies in both the current job and the job as it will be performed in the future. They also assessed the level of competency currently possessed by those in the targeted classification.
In the Gap Analysis phase, we will review these ratings to identify any gaps that may exist between the competencies possessed by the current workforce and our current and future needs.
Gaps exist for those competencies where the rating in the "Currently Required" column and/or the "Required in the Future" column is greater that the rating in the "Competency Possessed" column.
The important lesson to be learned from the Gap Analysis Competency Assessment is that simply having all of our jobs filled isn't enough. They have to be filled by employees who exhibit the necessary competencies. And in many cases, current employees do not fully meet all of the competency requirements. This is critically important information to have in designing our Gap-Closing Strategies.
Within the HRP process, matching the demand and supply of labor informs decision-makers about potential trends and changes in labor requirements, and also provides information about the best labor mix. Job analysis refines and complements this information to determine exactly what each job involves and who is required before specific staffing decisions can be made.
Broadly speaking, job analysis refers to the process of getting detailed information about jobs. Organizational conditions often change in response to new technology and machinery, as well as legislative and market requirements. Job analysis therefore becomes important in interpreting what the job currently involves. Having identified the objective of the job analysis, the HRM analyst must determine the type of information that needs to be collected, the source of the information, the method of data collection and how the data will be analyzed.
The type of information that is collected is usually associated with the development of a job description, or the list of tasks, duties and responsibilities of the job. Additionally, a job specification, or person specification, is derived that lists the knowledge, skills, abilities and other characteristics that an individual must have to successfully perform the job. The most common source of information is the person already in the job. There are limits to the usefulness of this source, however, when the views of the present incumbents differ from those of their supervisors. Employees may, for example, exaggerate their duties, especially if the process is associated with a review of remuneration, and it may become necessary to seek out additional information. When the job is a new position or when the incumbent has actually left the organization, further input is usually sought. Under these conditions, for example, it becomes necessary to bring in the views of supervisors or co-workers.
Common methods of data collection include observation, interviews, questionnaires, diaries and critical incident approaches. The choice of the method depends largely on the purpose of the analysis and the nature of the job, and a number of methods are often used together:
Observation is useful when the job involves standardized repetitive jobs and manual work: when jobs have actions, observation is a good way to track what needs to be done. More complex positions involving internal thought processing, such as the work of an accountant, are, however, difficult to measure through observation. Similarly, when a job involves irregular work, as, for example, with the role of a manager, observation becomes less useful.
Interviews are more appropriate in these situations and overall are one of the most commonly used job analysis data collection methods.
Diaries are also helpful when the responsibilities of a job do not form a regular pattern. If diaries are reliably maintained over an extended period, they are especially useful in tracking irregular and infrequent duties.
Finally, critical incident approaches are employed to provide specific explanations for effective and ineffective job performance. This approach is usually used to track what is required and what is to be avoided for the success or failure of the job. The process can be onerous as it requires fairly detailed descriptions of what the employee did during a particular incident and explanations of why the performance was effective or ineffective; for this reason, it is not commonly used across routine tasks.
In addition to these qualitative approaches, quantitative questionnaires such as the position analysis questionnaire provide useful data that can be used to compare information across a range of job. These quantitative surveys usually break jobs down into standardized dimensions that are rated; the information obtained can then be used to differentiate jobs with respect to levels of complexity, processing and responsibility.
Despite the usefulness and importance of job analysis, a number of writers have explained that the rational approach described above - which breaks each job down and produces specific job descriptions and specifications - may no longer be viable. As the rate of technology changes and work becomes more knowledge-based, task boundaries created by traditional job classifications are dissipating. Jobs have become more flexible, and their boundaries are vague and dynamic.
It have been argued that, along with the move away from traditional hierarchical structure and control towards flexible, team-based designs, employees have become more than simple components that fit a series of static job descriptions. A key idea is the development of emerging relationships that may create new networks between employees. These emerging networks do not, however, always have a comfortable fit with traditional structures.
The more fluid connections mean that what needs to be done and who does it becomes a product of what each person brings into the organization and how they connect with existing staff. Therefore, rather than work roles being planned and fixed, they become indefinite. It is more likely that jobs will develop around individuals rather than the reverse. Therefore, as well as impacting on job content, environmental pressures have led to re-evaluations of who is employed and how the employer-employee relationship is managed.
Managers deal such kinds of challenges in day-to-day company operations where they need to fulfill effectively and efficiently fulfill the organization's requirements related to human resource recruitment, selection, performance, satisfaction and cutting down and adding extra responsibilities and duties. And there is no scope where they can avert the risk of being wrong.
An effective and right process of analyzing a particular job is a great relief for them. It helps them maintain the right quality of employees, measure their performance on realistic standards, assess their training and development needs and increase their productivity. Let's discuss the job analysis process and find out how it serves the purpose.
Job Analysis Process
Identification of Job Analysis Purpose: Well any process is futile until its purpose is not identified and defined. Therefore, the first step in the process is to determine its need and desired output. Spending human efforts, energy as well as money is useless until HR managers don't know why data is to be collected and what is to be done with it.
Who Will Conduct Job Analysis: The second most important step in the process of job analysis is to decide who will conduct it. Some companies prefer getting it done by their own HR department while some hire job analysis consultants. Job analysis consultants may prove to be extremely helpful as they offer unbiased advice, guidelines and methods. They don't have any personal likes and dislikes when it comes to analyze a job.
How to Conduct the Process: Deciding the way in which job analysis process needs to be conducted is surely the next step. A planned approach about how to carry the whole process is required in order to investigate a specific job.
Strategic Decision Making: Now is the time to make strategic decision. It's about deciding the extent of employee involvement in the process, the level of details to be collected and recorded, sources from where data is to be collected, data collection methods, the processing of information and segregation of collected data.
Training of Job Analyst: Next is to train the job analyst about how to conduct the process and use the selected methods for collection and recoding of job data.
Preparation of Job Analysis Process: Communicating it within the organization is the next step. HR managers need to communicate the whole thing properly so that employees offer their full support to the job analyst. The stage also involves preparation of documents, questionnaires, interviews and feedback forms.
Data Collection: Next is to collect job-related data including educational qualifications of employees, skills and abilities required to perform the job, working conditions, job activities, reporting hierarchy, required human traits, job activities, duties and responsibilities involved and employee behaviour.
Documentation, Verification and Review: Proper documentation is done to verify the authenticity of collected data and then review it. This is the final information that is used to describe a specific job.
Developing Job Description and Job Specification: Now is the time to segregate the collected data in to useful information. Job Description describes the roles, activities, duties and responsibilities of the job while job specification is a statement of educational qualification, experience, personal traits and skills required to perform the job.
Thus, the process of job analysis helps in identifying the worth of specific job, utilizing the human talent in the best possible manner, eliminating unneeded jobs and setting realistic performance measurement standards.
Q3. How organizations plan to retain the talent pool as identified in the market?
This is not a new problem, but it seems to be ever more critical. The question of attracting the brightest and best is a key issue for successful companies. Today with large signing bonuses and very attractive salaries and benefits, the more perplexing question is how to best build the loyalty of the talented people. The more talent organizations retain, the more talent they'll attract.
Organizations should focus on designing a sustainable career package that supports a graduate's continuous professional and personal development. "It is important that an organization keeps track of each individual's changing needs and priorities. This will be down to the job of a coach or a mentor who should carry the long-term and important responsibility of coaching and mentoring the graduates. Being new to the organization, graduates require continuous feedback and coaching to help them to assimilate well and be successful in their role.
Companies are placing high emphasis on employer branding on tertiary education campuses by engaging students through campus activities. Besides workshops and recruitment talks, the organization also offers business games.
They also place emphasis on its employer branding to attract graduate talent. "It's about continuous on-going engagement, delivering consistent messages, following a segmented approach, and diversifying the media they use to communicate with the graduate community." Aside from conducting campus talks and attending career fairs, it has a digital media strategy using Twitter, YouTube, and Facebook to improve the awareness of company.
Organizations offer graduates a number of ways to develop their skills. Employees will be exposed to working on a global scale as well as experience different cultures. "They will also learn to manage a diverse work portfolio and serve global clients ranging from conglomerates to fast-growing enterprises. They also gain traveling opportunities for work depending on the project assigned to them."
Ernst & Young has a global development programme called EYU to equip graduates with technical competencies as well as leadership and other relevant soft skills. "The programme is a structured framework for everyone in the firm to obtain the right in-house training, on-the-job learning, and coaching and mentoring by seniors to accelerate their career development,"
Unilever offers new hires the Unilever Future Leaders Program (UFLP), which is a management trainee scheme. Gee says that the programme helps them learn about business quickly while they are supported with training, mentoring, and career development. This three-year scheme is way to help fast track a person's career into a management position. At the end of the programme, the successful trainee will be offered his or her first management position.
In addition, the organization provides talks and workshops to constantly better the skills of young hires through various development programmes such as 'how to' sessions and technical skills sessions that focus on understanding Unilever's brands. These are run both virtually and on campus.
By Building an attractive culture through open communication
One way to build an attractive company culture is through effective and open communication. Organizations make themselves a place that people want to join and stay. Continually identify ways to keep people in the loop. Even when there are setbacks, rumors of an acquisition, or anticipated changes in the environment, people want to know what's going on; The manager involve the staff in the planning and invites their inputs and suggestions so that they don't feel left out.
Top talent is attracted to and wants to work in open learning environments. Most enjoy being part of a creative team doing collaborative projects. Actively seek these opportunities.
Team building, a process to enhance the energy and cohesiveness of a group, is one means by which organizations accelerates better communication. It helps focus a group on committing to common objectives, striving for high quality results. Team building is not something that happens in a one or two day workshop. It is an evolving and integrated process. There must be a safe environment to have open, honest communication that is appropriate.
Team building is a classic way to foster motivation but may not always produce the expected results. The needs and style of any given group is considered. Some "team" activities designed to build trust may actually erode trust. For example, forcing too much intimacy in dialog about personal matters is inappropriate.
By Respecting the diversity of the talent pool
It is essential for today's leaders to know how to manage situationally by understanding and respecting the diversity. Everyone has a distinct communication style which dictates how he or she likes to work, deal with conflicts, handle stress, is motivated, and likes recognition.
To determine an individual's communication style, organizations use a reliable measurement, like the DISC Personal Profile or Myers Briggs Indicator. A good assessment, if handled skillfully, helps the manager to coach and work well with diversity.
One style, the influencer, likes to be asked questions about themselves and their experiences. They enjoy getting credit and looking good. They like to be included and feel part of a team.
Another style, the analyzer, likes to figure out how to get things done. They prefer structure, details, thoroughness and quality. They like to work with other high achievers that share these values.
The stable supporter is not a high risk-taker. They need ample time to make decisions. Organizations Minimize conflict for them and keep them plugged into the team. They greatly value committed relationships and lots of communication.
The controller wants to be in charge of change and just about everything else. They need details and facts and move very quickly. They are problem solvers and will give a high level of commitment for challenges and stretch goals.
By Recognizing talent in ways that build loyalty
Nothing motivates more than positive recognition for one's achievements and contributions. Generous recognition sets the tone in any environment. It reinforces the cultural values and even the purpose of the company. Take advantages of every meeting by recognizing successes. Many leaders spend more time correcting faults, mistakes, and problems than acknowledging other's positive actions and contributions.
Organizations ask their staff, colleagues, and boss how they like to be recognized. Often a personal short handwritten note can be very meaningful and e-mails aren't the same. Organizations adjust their means of recognition to individual styles and preferences.
A recent study of exit interviews found that the majority of talent leaving their companies felt unimportant, underutilized and not appreciated. This was especially true with those in their twenties and thirties. They said they didn't leave because of the money. They left because they didn't feel valued on a daily basis.
Studies show that people want more meaning in their work and a better quality of life. The managers of the organizations finds out what the people need to enhance the quality of their work environment.
They take time to coach and mentor the people pays off. Point out opportunities in their career growth like encouraging specific training. They are not afraid to ask them tough questions and guide them in finding the right path. They Help them identify ways to leverage their skills and accomplishments. Encourage or sponsor them for professional organizations. Give meaningful feedback on how they can get ahead and be of more value to the company.
Organizations catch the people doing something right. Then catch them again and again and again. The more good talent organizations retain, the more they will attract.