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Researcher will fulfill the aim and objectives of the topic by elaborating the topic in depth as the aim and objective of the topic research is to know about the ways in which the employee's motivation could be enhanced by implementing plenty of strategies. This research investigates the factors which effect motivation level of employees related to their behaviours particularly in work environment of corporate culture.
The researcher aim is to research and explore the significance of certain motivational factors either intrinsic or extrinsic in satisfying and motivating employees in an organization. At the end the researcher draw some strategies for management department that how these strategies can improve the satisfaction and motivation of workforce.
Following are the objectives of this research:
To explore the factors which can motivate and satisfy the employees of a private and public organization?
To explore the critically understanding about the employees motivation in the light of different theories.
To explain the factors which affect some employees more motivated than others to do their job roles efficiently.
To discuss the things which make some employees more or less satisfied in their work than others.
Each body has his or her likes and dislike, interests, passions, craves and desires. The main role of the successful manager is to learn how to identify motivates each employee, and how to influence those motives to simultaneously fulfill the goal of the organization, as well as the goals of each employee.
There are many theories at motivation given by the different authors that are elaborated below to catch the research topic in depth. The idea that all people have inner driving forces that motivates the people promptly to do certain activities. This is very old idea, in use long before the appearance of what we now call theories of motivation. There was the Hawthorne Studies (1939) which gave new thinking to the new school of management thinking, the human relations movement. The most ideas about it, are that the people have social needs that are as vital as the economic imperative. There are two groups of the theories known as process theory and content theory that are further extended.
Content theory assumes that people strives to satisfy of deep rooted needs. While they differ in terms of their assumptions about the relative importance of different needs, it is the craves to satisfy them that is said to energize behavior.
Maslow needs theory
Maslow work (1954) is based on the assumption that human needs are inexhaustible. As one set of the needs is satisfied the anther set of need come to open in its place which means that needs are arranged in a hierarchy as shown below in the form of pyramid of five levels.
Here physiological needs are most basic of all and arise from internal physical imbalance such as hunger, thirst, warmth and shelter.
Security needs are promoted by the strong and hard social nature, freedom from pain or destruction, emotional security and well being.
Affiliation needs are promoted by the strong security nature. As most of the people enjoy feeling of love, like relation and support from others.
Maslow theory has a number of highly important assumptions, two of which have significant implication for the motivation. He argues that different level of needs are universally addressed sequentially that mean the needs are one level will not normally play a vital part in motivation.
The idea that the hierarchy is universally applicable no account of cross culture difference.
It is patronizing and elitist in term of the values it expresses.
Maslow ideas have a mystic, metaphysical quality that is largely the result of armchair theorizing and often contradicted by the research evidence.
Alderfer ERG theory
In 1972, he also introduced the idea of hierarchical ordering but this has only three levels.
In his theory, different levels are viewed more as a continuum than as discrete categories. He does not measure a sequential progression up the hierarchy, but permits for more than one level to be open or active at same time. Although he suggested that satisfaction of needs at one level will lead to the someone seeking satisfaction at the level above.
Alderfer theory has got little empirical testing beyond that done by its author. He argues that the theory could be a more powerful but empirical elaboration of the effects of needs than Maslow ideas (Alderfer 1972).
Herzberg two factor theory
Motivators' link to the factors which are intrinsic in nature like appreciation for a job task done is highly motivating. While hygiene factors referred to extrinsic forces e.g. relationship with colleagues which don't actually relate to the employee's actual job. According to Mullins (1993) intrinsic or motivators factors are attach to work content and lack of intrinsic or motivators factors doesn't demonstrate extremely de-motivating or dissatisfying. For that reason, these elements are expressed as motivators or satisfier. The hygiene factors linked to the work conditions. These factors do not direct to the enlarged satisfaction or work participation though, if these factors are not found or absent then the effects will be de-motivation and dissatisfaction for example low wage rates. Because these factors are essential to the extent of no de-motivation or dissatisfaction these are called the hygiene or dissatisfiers factors (Leopold, 2002).
According to Rainey (1999) the hygiene or dissatisfiers are the factors which are not directly concerned in motivation of employees but it's interesting that these factors are important to give a sound base to beat the employee dissatisfaction and de-motivation. However, it's not essential that if we improve the hygiene or dissatisfiers factors that result in motivation.
Herzberg represented a theory in the light of employee's performances and attitudes which is called Herzberg's two factor theory. Herzberg recognized two categories of factors which influenced the work and motivation. First category of sets called hygiene factors and the other set of factors called motivators factors. Hygiene factors contain employment security, pay, organizational policy, status and interpersonal working relationships. Absence of hygiene factors cause dissatisfaction and de-motivation at work place. Motivator factors include success, development, nature of work it-self, respect, recognition and responsibility. Absence of motivator factors caused motivation and satisfaction (Leopold, 2002). Figure 1 is the pictorial form of these factors as followings.
There are some issues allocated by some researcher about Herzberg's theory that the finding gathered from a small number of samples can be generalized to the whole industry. For instance, the outcomes from the research on a small engineering unit could be applied to other professions or not. Other scholars are not happy with the Herzberg's methodology and procedure followed for conducting the research because that research methodology involved individual to consider the critical incidences from their past which make them either delighted or sad. Some other researcher are also not in his favor that Herzberg's theory was not give any clear justification that why some intrinsic and extrinsic factors motivate or satisfy the individual and why influence their work (Rousseau,1997).
Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation
Employee motivation at work can be split up into two kinds on the behalf of classic literature and practical research as one is extrinsic motivation and second is intrinsic motivation (Donovan, 2001). Extrinsic motivation is a form of motivation where employees fulfill its needs and desires through indirect means particularly through the financial compensation, In point of Thomas (2000) view. On the other side, intrinsic motivation come into action when employee's behavior is inclined towards the fulfillment of natural psychological desires and needs rather than to attain material incentives (Marks, 2001). In all form of organizations small, medium or even large both extrinsic and intrinsic types of motivation can motivate and satisfy employees to perform their job at work place. However, extrinsic and intrinsic motivations both have very diverse effects on the individual mind-sets, feelings to job performance, passion to complete work and level excellence for performance (Amabile, 1998). Hoar & Rebecca (2004) said that even though the extrinsic motivation can effect in opposition direction to the intrinsic motivation but it also have an emphasizing effect on the intrinsic motivation.
Top management to bottom line supervisors, all plays a vital role in formulating the factors which have an involvement on motivational forces (Synder et al, 1997). Administration should have the capabilities to deal efficiently with all kinds and forms of employee's motivation if they want to see their organization to progress and growth in future. Employees are extrinsically or intrinsically motivated as a part of their social setup, the form of job and the kind of incentive scheme they are gaining and so on. Gopal (2003) recommended that different people have different capabilities they have to select their career accordingly. Person who have desire for rapid growth and like to use power will most likely be motivated by the kind of jobs that have high ability, job identity, performance impact, independence and feedback. While the other people who are not good in growth and desire strength would not much affected by these feature of their work.