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In this research my topic is “Research the effect of childhood poverty on the development of Canadian Children both with the developmental delay and without”. In this I had discussed points which shows how poverty in children affects the developmental of children and how it affects their health and opportunity. Children who live below poverty line generally have lower academic knowledge because they cannot able to attend school where they can get good attention and knowledge (Chartier M. J., Brownell, M. D., 2017). These children can ultimately contribute to low income and wages. The instructional deficits are more in children who live under poverty. Poverty is measured by the number of members in the family as a percentage of the federal poverty level. If the child is poor from its early age, then he would face many problems in his life in present and in the future (Chartier M. J., Brownell, M. D.,2017). Children living in poverty have poor academics and these also affects them when they become a mature person. If we compare the IQ of a child living in poverty with the child who is living in better houses, the IQ of child living in better houses is time more then the IQ of child living below poverty (Hackman, D.A., Gallop, R, 2015). Research regarding non-human creatures demonstrates that the surrounding environment, care from parents and pressure in childhood can affect the mind and body function of child. These styles of early experiences are related to the poverty (Hackman, D.A., Gallop, R, 2015). When we compared the children living not in poverty, we can say that children who lives in poverty enjoy less parental care. Their houses have more people and regularly provide much less cognitive stimulation.
We have taken into consideration various hypotheses, including the discovered structural variations inside the brains of kids growing in poverty which had been explained by differences in Premature health or Parental schooling (Hackman, D.A., Gallop, R, 2015). In this Study, participants which are chosen are limited to strict eligibility standards, along with family medical, prenatal, start, and perinatal histories. Using the built indices, we examined the influence of Socio-Economic Status (SES), specially developing up in or near poverty, on development within focal regions of the brain. Family’s financial resources have been used as an indicator of Socio-Economic Status. SES described the status of a family by using both binary and express income measures and we moreover taken into consideration the sensitivity of estimates to the choice of profits thresholds (Lawson, G. M., Hook, C. J., & Farah, M. J. (2018)). The questions which connects the deficits in gaining knowledge and academics with poverty is not fully answered. If we compared today’s data, we can say that youngsters who are from family who earns very low are mostly living below poverty. This shows that child from family having low income are more affected by poverty. (Hackman, D.A., Gallop, R, 2015).
By underlying the profit success gap, improvement and shape of mind is the mechanism is not very good to indicate SES. One thing which can connect the parental SES to child’s fulfilment widely operates through euro organic mechanism. (Hackman, D.A., Gallop, R, 2015). The results obtain from the study indicate that specific brain systems tied to tactics are critical for gaining knowledge and academic functioning (e.g., sustained interest, making plans, and cognitive flexibility) and are liable to the environmental situations of poverty, which include pressure, restrained stimulation, and vitamins. Hence, these instances are the reason for kids’ ability of instructional fulfillment to be reduced at younger age for a long time. Hence, if there is a development in those mind areas of any child who live in poverty then it appears to be sensitive to the child’s surroundings and nurturance and is good for the overall development of the child (Hackman, D.A., Gallop, R, 2015). From these observations, we can say that interventions which can improve child’s environment can connect the poverty in child.
The initial years of lifestyles are important for physical boom and broader cognitive, economic, and socioemotional improvement, but the way to get to these approaches remains unclear. Studies investigating the connection between bodily increase and infant development are continuing from a very long time (Lawson, G. M., Hook, C. J., & Farah, M. J. (2018)). Reviews of this literature so far have presented only qualitative ﬁndings. This recognition broadly speaks on cognitive outcomes and have normally discovered that confined linear growth is associated with reduced cognitive capability. This suggests that the contribution of unmeasured confounding above and beyond measures of socioeconomic status, popularity and age, that are covered in most of the analyses, may be small. Nevertheless, this cofounding additionally shows that integrating dietary, environmental, educational, and stimulation interventions can also produce large effects on toddler development (Hackman, D.A., Gallop, R, 2015). The interventions which combine both simulation and nutrition intervention are limited, hence it is hard to get the knowledge of every domain of child functioning. But these interventions can be used to find many ways to link child’s physical growth and socioemotional development.
This systematic evaluation and quantitative meta-analysis afford numerous vital blessings over past qualitative work. But we had been restricted via several elements that need to be addressed in future studies (Lawson, G. M., Hook, C. J., & Farah, M. J. (2018)). Also, the studies that had cone in the past does not have a solid proof that links child’s physical growth and socioemotional development. Therefore, we are unable to determine a causal way among underlying elements that lead to constrained linear increase and infant cognitive and motor development. Secondly, we also do not have any comparable evidence socioemotional area. Hence, due to this we do not get results about the nature of relationships between boom and social and emotional development at extraordinary ages during adolescence (Lawson, G. M., Hook, C. J., & Farah, M. J. (2018)). The signiﬁcantly smaller wide variety of studies inspecting socioemotional development compared with cognitive and motor domains illustrates that we need to understand in detail about this area and need to measure the complexity of social and emotional skills which was received by the children throughout the years globally in all cultures (Lawson, G. M., Hook, C. J., & Farah, M. J. (2018)).
Parents and family members of children having disabilities faces many demanding and challenging situations that differ from the parents and family members whose children are not disabled. When a child having one or more disabilities born in a family they suffered from various kind of emotions like shock, anger, grief, etc. These emotions are similar that we felt by hearing a very bad news like an accident of any family member or a sudden death of one of our cherished ones (Chartier M. J., Brownell, M. D.,2017). Parents suffering from such emotional reactions needs some time to become normal and between this it may happen that they don’t like their children, or they do not give enough care to their children. That time is very difficult for both parents and for children. Disabilities that can be present at the birth of a child are intellectual and developmental disabilities. These disabilities negatively affect the child physical, emotional and intellectual development. Before the age of eighteen years, intellectual disabilities can be seen in any child (Chartier M. J., Brownell, M. D.,2017). This disabily affects child learning and problem- solving skill. It also affects the child functioning, adaptive behaviour. The developmental disabilities is a disability that can be forever in the child and can be related to the child’s health, intellectual or can affect both the areas. The developmental disabilities can also be noted as developmental delay. IDEA notes that to define developmental delay, states are required. It is usually referred to the speed that is very low as compared to the normal rate in areas like physical, cognitive, communication, social and economic development (Chartier M. J., Brownell, M. D.,2017).
Family systems applications comply with a systems technique in that they generally focus on awareness on parent’ internal variables, together with stress, depression, or coping, based on the belief that adjustments in the one of the variables will affect the satisfactory of parenting (Chartier M. J., Brownell, M. D.,2017). A large literature documents namely the effectiveness of programs designed to coach mother and father in imposing techniques that promote the skills (e.g., developmental, language, social, play) of their youngsters with disabilities. A child having clinical image of global developmental delay isn’t always destined to be mentally retarded. Because of situations which include cerebral palsy, certain neuromuscular issues, and different situations together with early environmental deprivation, infants and youngsters might also have international developmental delay, yet they do not score in the mentally retarded variety when they are old enough to measure cognitive degree.
Poverty is also related to health of the child. In Canada, poverty of children is a very important concern and needs to look after seriously (American Academy of Pediatrics. (2016)). This is because if child is healthy and fit from his/her birth then he will be fit in the future and which helps him to lead a better life. The earnings of family play an important role when we talk about poverty. Children of family with good income can enjoy the lavish life and can have a great opportunity which is not possible for the children whose family earnings is very low (American Academy of Pediatrics. (2016)). Hence, when children become sick due to low income, they are not able to give proper treatment to the children hence, their diseases cannot be cured perfectly. The health of children is not only affected when they are young but also it affects when they get older (American Academy of Pediatrics. (2016)). Hence, it is an important responsibility of health sector to give proper treatment to affected children by working parallelly with other organizations effectively, so that poverty does not affects the health of any children.
Early stage of childhood is very important stage in any child’s life, because in this stage there is development in child’s mind and biological organs which makes a very good impact on his personality in future and in his/her health. Child’s education outcomes, employment and his/her health and fitness depends on child’s birth weight and various bodily and intellectual health situations when a child is born. (Currie & Rossin-Slater, 2015). Development of a child in healthy environment depends upon nurturing, supportive, and stimulating environments as children need both enrichment and safety from excessive pressure. In order to keep child healthy, parents must play an important role to look after and to care their child and we must keep supporting such adults. (Shonkoff, 2016).
Child poverty is not only a problem on political level and economical level, but it is a very important issue and needs to be taken care in a very serious manner. There are many consequences of poverty on child health. First and foremost is infant mortality (Daoud, A., Nosrati, E., 2017). It is a very basic outcome of poverty on childhood health. This not affects the levels of wealth but also its distribution. Children who born with lower weight have greater risk that they should die in 1st year of their born (Daoud, A., Nosrati, E., 2017). This is because they have greater chances to hospitalize again, get affected by any illness and because they do not have normal growth. They might also have problems like developmental and neurological. They also have common disease like Asthma because of their low weight and less utilization of health services. Overweight is also an important outcome related to health due to child poverty (Daoud, A., Nosrati, E., 2017). In Canada this problem among children and adults is increasing and needs to be take care of. Injuries also lead to sudden death of children. Because if a child living in family with low income hurts or get injured then he or she does not get proper treatment because they do not have enough funds to pay the bills of hospital (Daoud, A., Nosrati, E., 2017). Hence, they do not get enough treatment and that leads to their death. Poverty also affects the children in other ways like they cannot get grab good opportunities in life because they do not have enough knowledge to compete with the world. They do not get proper education, hence, they cannot able to read and write well and cannot able to speak or present themselves properly (Daoud, A., Nosrati, E., 2017). Poverty also affects the child’s mental and physical health and emotionally by giving them stress.
The maltreatment of children can have negative effects on child’s health and social life for short and long time. which may also include trouble in mental fitness, usage of drug and alcohol, unstable sexual behavior, weight problems, and crook behavior (National Academy of Sciences, (2018)). Socioeconomic popularity (SES) is used to know how effectively any family uses social and economic resources. This term may be estimated by measuring the earnings of family, the education of family and its family prestige. Sometimes researchers combine or use more such measures to estimate standard SES. However, some people have complained that addition of SES – which includes their own family income and education of their parents must be examined one at a time and not all of them at once (Leaf Group Ltd., (2018)). The researchers who These researchers who discovered this said that these resources have various levels of stability through various time period. Hence, it is good to use one of them at once and study the SES and EF relationship. To understand the relationship between SES and EF is very critical because of various reasons. The primary technology of human development involves knowledge the character to character differences in cognition and their association with developmental contexts (Currie & Rossin-Slater, 2015).
From the above discussion, we can say that child poverty is a very crucial problem and need to look after very seriously as children are the important resources and they play a very important role in designing the future of any country. Hence, for the development of any country it is very important to eradicate the poverty completely from it root. We must invest more in health sector so that we can look after and remove child poverty and helps in making the country developed.
- American Academy of Pediatrics. (2016) Poverty and Child Health. Retrieved from https://www.healthychildren.org/English/family-life/Community/Pages/Poverty-and-Child-Health.aspx
- Casillas, K. L., Fauchier, A., Derkash, B. T., & Garrido, E. F. (2016). Implementation of evidence-based home visiting programs aimed at reducing child maltreatment: A meta-analytic review. Child Abuse & Neglect, 53, 64–80.
- Chartier, M. J., Brownell, M. D., Isaac, M. R., Chateau, D., Nickel, N. C., Katz, A., … & Taylor, C. (2017). Is the Families First home visiting program effective in reducing child maltreatment and improving child development? Child maltreatment, 22(2), 121-131.
- Daoud, A., Nosrati, E., Reinsberg, B., Kentikelenis, A. E., Stubbs, T. H., & King, L. P. (2017). Impact of International Monetary Fund programs on child health. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 114(25), 6492-6497.
- Hackman, D.A., Gallop, R., Evans, G.W., & Farah, M.J. (2015). Socioeconomic status and executive function: Developmental trajectories and mediation. Developmental Science, 18, 686–702.
- Lawson, G. M., Hook, C. J., & Farah, M. J. (2018). A meta‐analysis of the relationship between socioeconomic status and executive function performance among children. Developmental science, 21(2), e12529.
- Leaf Group Ltd., (2018). Live Strong.com. Retrieved from: https://www.livestrong.com/article/232889-poverty-child-development/
- National Academy of Sciences, (2018). National Academic of Sciences. Retrieved from: https://www.nap.edu/read/21868/chapter/7
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