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- Miriana Hili
I’m going to explain briefly about the skills associated with communication those are eye contact, gestures, body language and active listening. In my weekly observations in the child care centers I use those skills. I use the eye contact while I’m talking with the children so they could know that I’m talking to them, eye contact is also needed to show that you are listening what they are saying and to see what are their feelings. I use gesture to express myself more and they could understand what I’m saying even the children when they want something they begin to point at the object to show me which one they want. When I’m in placement I could know what children feeling are by their body language when they want that someone pick them up they show you by opening their arms. Active listening is when children are talking to me so I listen to so that I could respond them is not always possible to understand them because they haven’t developed their speech well.
The components of speech are: phonology, phonology is the sound used in a language. Some languages have more sounds then others for example English have around fourth four sounds. The sound of the language is how one pronounce the word even speech sound could be written in different ways. The phonology process in babies begin before they are born, this begins from the 26th week of pregnancy at that stage they begin to recognize their mothers speech. Semantics, semantics is the meaning of the language how do you understand the word. Newborn babies learn the meaning of the words by associating sounds with objects or sound. For example the parent says “where are your gloves?” and touches the child gloves, so he could associate the sound with the object. Semantics tries to know how it is constructed and as well interpreted; the meaning is how you listen the language and how they speak it. Syntax is about grammar of language. The grammar is the way that the words are putted together; syntax is the structure of a sentence. The sentences are formed by noun phrase, verb phrase and noun phrase the sentence is like this Mary pushed the pushchair. Syntax is the way words are arranged together and the relationship between them. Receptive language, this term is to describe the ability to listen and to understand what is being communicated. Even if the children are not able to say a word but they may show that they understand something. Children develop receptive language in the first saying of language development. Receptive language is defined as the comprehension of language through listening and understands what is being communicated. It is also the ability of comprehend concepts, vocabulary, directions and questions. Expressive language is the output of the language it how one expresses his/her wants and need and evens their feelings. This is about how children communicate by using sounds and after some time using words. A baby’s expressive language take form of babbling and cooing this happens at the first year, at the second year they begin to use word because the linguistic development start to occurs. One can express himself not even with the language but even with the gestures and facial expressions.
How communication and language acquisition on social and emotional development can be effected. Children who have a strong attachment with their parents can develop language more easily. They develop the language more easily because there a strong link between language and attachment. Babies who are cuddled and held by their parents and other care the start to” read” their body language understand it even in others. Children who have a strong attachment are more motivated to babble and communicate with their parents they will gain some positive response. Between social development and language there is a strong link between them. A child who reads other person’s body language and can communicate it is more accepted more by others and even engages in playful situation. The language acquisition also changes how they play together as the language helps children to interact and to be less impulsive and more thoughtful.
According the table of pre linguistic and linguistic Sara language and communication acquisition is at a high level because she is a talkative and she even likes to talk with older persons and older children. She is at the stage of language explosion this means that in her age she has increased in the children’s vocabulary and in sentences. Children at this age they learn more rapidly and it becomes harder for parents to count them. The children use more complicated structures for example “no cats here”. Sara’s communication and language acquisition is very well developed in her social and emotional. She is very confident with others and she isn’t shy. According to browns mean length utterance she is at stage 2 and the length of saying words is 2.25 at her age she is now using ing, on, in for example “daddy going”.
According the table of pre linguistic and linguistic Alex language and communication acquisition is at a low level because he is a very calm and reserved person. He is not able to express his needs or thoughts. He is three years old and he started to produce some word and even phrases but his speech is hard to understand. According the table Alex should have a large increase in the vocabulary and increased in using sentences but the thing that he is shy and reserved and he don’t like to communicate with other it affects his speech. Even though he don’t have friend it affect the speech because if you don’t have someone to talk to you speech is not going to be increased and understandable. Alex communication and language acquisition had effected his emotional and social development because he is very reserved and other children don’t play with him. Emotionally he is very frustrated because he is not able to express himself so he didn’t know what he wants to do. Social he doesn’t have many friends because when a boy comes to play with he don’t begin to play or he would begin to cry so for this he don’t have friends. According to the mean length utterance Alex is at stage 3 and he is supposed to say some irregular past tenses and possessives for example “me fall down” and “mummy’s hat”, his mean length utterance is 3.5. Alex for his age he should pronouns more words and form more sentences.
Early detection and referral has an important role in children’s development. When one is working with children need to recognizing that the child’s pattern of language is a typical. Early referrals often result in better lasting outcome for children and the effects of language delay can be reduced. Children who have learning difficulties need to be referred early because they would need to be supported by a system such as Makaton. Without this supporting system children would not be able to links between the words and there meaning. It is important to early detection so that the child could be referred immediately so he/she could have the help they need. Although most of the referrals will be to a speech and language teams, but some children need to be referred for an audiology test this is done by a GP.
Language acquisition is divided in many different theories those theorist are skinner, Chomsky and Bruner. Skinner talks about the behavior, skinner believes that the language is acquired according to the behavior. The language is acquired by reinforcement; children learn words by associating sounds with objects. Children also learn by actions and events, they words and syntax by imitating other adults. Adults reinforce children when they learn words and syntax and say it in a correct way. Chomsky talks about the innate theory, innate are the sense of language and a device that allows babies and children to acquire language. The theory that could influence practice is to support language growth of children who have a supplementary home language. Bruner talks about the social interactions theory, he suggested that children learn through play and exploration. Bruner said when children play with adults such as active role in questioning they will learn more. The theory influence practice by help children learn concepts and to develop their logic and reasoning.
Skinner talks about language acquisition; Language is the cognition that makes us truly human. Skinner talks about behaviorism that is the central of the language. He says that the language is acquired by reinforcements so when they begin to say words the parents rewarded them. In the child care setting there are many different characters some of them know already some words and they have a wide vocabulary some of them don’t know that much so when they learn something and say new words we praise them.
Chomsky says that children are born with a possession of an innate ability that comprehends language structures. Chomsky asserts that children initially possess, and then afterward develop, an innate understanding of grammar, irrespective of where they are raised. Language according to Chomsky is intended to convey an infinite range of message, ideas and emotions. In the child care setting children are all able to express them self but there are children who are only 1 year 2 months and don’t even know how to speech but they will develop their speech by listening.
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