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Short Answer 1
For each of the names listed below, write a 1-paragraph response that describes the individual’s contribution to the early childhood field.
John Amos Comenius
John Amos Comenius is considered to be the father of Early Childhood Education. (Bredekamp, 2013) John believed that children learn through their senses along with first hand experiences. (Bredekamp, 2013) These beliefs led to John being a founder of Head Start like programs in Eastern Europe. (Bredekamp, 2013) John also created Orbis Pictus , which means “the world in pictures”, and this book became the world’s first picture book. (Bredekamp, 2013) Along with Orbis Pictus, Comenius wrote the first alphabet book that taught children to read in their own languages. (Bredekamp, 2013)
Johann Pestalozzi believed that all children, and even those who were in poverty, could benefit from receiving an education. (Bredekamp, 2013) Pestalozzi believed that learning happened in stages and that children must master one skill before they could move on to the next skill. (Bredekamp, 2013) Pestalozzi’s point of view, which he titled “the hand, the heart and the head’ focused on his belief around the whole child. (Bredekamp, 2013) This belief integrated a child’s physical, social, emotional, moral and intellectual development. (Bredekamp, 2013) In the 19th century, Pestalozzi created a learning theory that was influential that focused on object lessons, which was learning comes best from direct observation and sensory experiences. (Bredekamp, 2013)
Friedrich Frobel is considered to be the Father of Kindergarten to many in the early childhood field. (Bredekamp, 2013) His work led to a large-scale Kindergarten movement. (Bredekamp, 2013) Froebel believed that children learn by unfolding within. (Bredekamp, 2013) He also believed that children learn best or their own time and not until they are ready. (Bredekamp, 2013) In Froebels’ theory, Kindergarten mainly focuses on free play, singing and movement. (Bredekamp, 2013) Froebel developed what were called occupational gifts. (Bredekamp, 2013) These gifts were designed to help children’s eye hand coordination and their mental activity. (Bredekamp, 2013)
Maria Montesorri’s work had a lasting impression on the early childhood field. Maria believed that educating children in need is a less costly and more effective strategy than waiting until they become a problem in society, later in life. (Bredekamp, 2013) This belief was used to launch Head Start and it is still running today under that same premise. (Bredekamp, 2013) Montesorri believed that children develop naturally and when they are in an organized environment, through active sensory experiences. (Bredekamp, 2013) This belief led to the creation of child size furniture and open shelving for easy child access. (Bredekamp, 2013) Montesorri also created her own materials such as sensory materials like sand paper alphabet letters. (Bredekamp, 2013) There are still many Montesorri based schools in the United States today, most being private, and a few in public and charter schools. (Bredekamp, 2013
Susan Blow was a major voice in the Kindergarten movement. (Bredekamp, 2013) She fought extremely hard to keep Froebel’s vision of Kindergarten. (Bredekamp, 2013) In 1873, in St. Louis, Blow founded the first public school Kindergarten. (Bredekamp, 2013) Blow also formed the International Kindergarten Union (IKU) which gathered passionate Kindergarten workers throughout the country. (Bredekamp, 2013) Blow focused on teacher training, which had teachers working in the morning and attending lectures in the afternoon. (Bredekamp, 2013)
John Dewey founded the University of Chicago Lab School, which focused on a humane approach to education. (Bredekamp, 2013) Dewey believed that it was important to teach children to take initiative and use judgment, which he titled “My Pedagogic Creed.” (Bredekamp, 2013) Dewey believed that a school should be a community and that teachers are members of that community. (Bredekamp, 2013) Dewey developed integrated curriculum, which is currently a staple of early childhood education today, which addresses learning goals across multiple subject matters at the same time. (Bredekamp, 2013) Dewey focused on adding expressive constructive activities into classrooms such as sewing, cooking, and woodworking. (Bredekamp, 2013)
Patty Smith Hill
Smith Hill started her own Kindergarten and found creative uses for Froebel’s gifts as toys, and other materials like books and clay. (Bredekamp, 2013) Through this, Hill proved her belief that play is an effective way to learn. (Bredekamp, 2013) Additionally, Hill Smith created lumber like wooden blocks so children could build structures large enough to play in. (Bredekamp, 2013) Smith Hill also wrote poems and books about children interest to help them read. (Bredekamp, 2013) In 1926, she formed the National Committee On Nursery School which later became the National Association for the Education of Young Children to combat the lack of standard an curriculum in early childhood education. (Bredekamp, 2013) She also wanted to combat the amount of under-qualified people in leadership positions.
Caroline Pratt designed wooden unit blocks made of natural hardwood and different 3 dimensional shapes. (Bredekamp, 2013) Each block is a fraction or multiple of a standard unit. (Bredekamp, 2013) To promote pretend play while playing with block, Pratt created wooden people to represent families and community workers. (Bredekamp, 2013) In addition, Pratt also created large hallow wooden blocks to help promote growth motor development. . (Bredekamp, 2013) Pratt used these hand made blocks, toys, crayons, and paper to observe children’s play. (Bredekamp, 2013) Through this, she realized that first hand experiences, self-direction, field tips, and pretend play are beneficial to a child’s growth and development. Bredekamp, 2013)
Lucy Sprague Mitchell
Lucy Sprague Mitchell believed that in experiencing the here and now, it provided the launching pad for learning and will broaden children’s horizons. (Bredekamp, 2013) She believed that curriculum should be based on a child’s individual development and needs and that learning occurs best through interactions with people and the environment. (Bredekamp, 2013) These beleifs are influential in social studies curriculums we use today. (Bredekamp, 2013) in 1937, Mitchell also created writer’s workshops for authors of children’s books called Bank Street. (Bredekamp, 2013) The purpose was to offer scholarships to ensure racial and economic diversity. (Bredekamp, 2013) Mitchell also developed writer’s laboratory to help authors understand a child’s development and interest. (Bredekamp, 2013) Finally, she founded the Bureau of Educational Experience to teach teachers and conduct research. (Bredekamp, 2013)
Margaret McMillan and Rachel McMillan had a goal to offer alternatives to poor living conditions in London. (Bredekamp, 2013) To do this, they set up health clinics, a nursery school for children under the age of 5, as well as trainings for teachers. (Bredekamp, 2013) Next, they developed Day Nurseries for working families. (Bredekamp, 2013) These nurseries helped provide childcare to families of the working class. (Bredekamp, 2013) These nurseries are the forerunner for what we know childcare centers to be today. (Bredekamp, 2013)
Source: Bredekamp, S. (2013). Effective practices in early childhood education: Building a foundation (2nd ed., pp. 35–69). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
For each of the significant events or research named below, write a 1-paragraph response that describes its impact on the early childhood field.
The Kindergarten Movement
The Kindergarten movement helped to provide a formal education for children under the age of seven. (Bredekamp, 2013) This education founded by Susan Blow focused on and promoted the idea of free play, singing and movement as a path to learning for these students. (Bredekamp, 2013) The Kindergarten Movement linked Froebel’s philosophy and public schools. (Bredekamp, 2013) During this movement teacher training was crucial. This training consisted of teachers working with children during the morning and listening to lectures in the afternoon, a combination of theory and practicum, which is still a method we use in teacher education. (Bredekamp, 2013) This movement gives us the modern day Kindergarten that we think of today.
Source:Bredekamp, S. (2013). Effective practices in early childhood education: Building a foundation (2nd ed., pp. 35–69). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
The Inclusion Movement
The inclusion movement provided access to education for all children, including those with disabilities. Bredekamp, 2013) This movement allowed these students to participate in as fully as they were capable of. (Bredekamp, 2013) It also allows them to receive the supports they need, as well as the supports their teachers need. (Bredekamp, 2013) These supports ensure that these students progress towards their learning goals. (Bredekamp, 2013) This movement allows early childhood programs to provide children with disabilities the supports they need to succeed. (Bredekamp, 2013)
Source:Bredekamp, S. (2013). Effective practices in early childhood education: Building a foundation (2nd ed., pp. 35–69). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
The Progressive Education Movement
The Progressive Movement was a major effort to reform schooling at all levels to make it more democratic. (Bredekamp, 2013) This major effort reformed schooling to make it more responsive to students needs. (Bredekamp, 2013) This movement had many principles of developmentally appropriate practices taken from it, that we still use in early childhood education today. (Bredekamp, 2013) Also during this movement integrated curriculum was introduced which is a staple of early childhood education, which addresses learning goals across multiple subjects at the same time. (Bredekamp, 2013)
Source:Bredekamp, S. (2013). Effective practices in early childhood education: Building a foundation (2nd ed., pp. 35–69). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson
Founding of National Association for Nursery Education (NANE)/National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC)
In 1926, Patty Smith Hill formed the National Committee on Nursery Schools, which became the National Association for Nursery Education (NANE). The committee included Lois Meek Stoltz, Arnold Gesell, and Abigail Eliot. (Bredekamp, 2013) In the 1960s, NANE changed its name to NAEYC, the National Association for the Education of Young Children. (Bredekamp, 2013) NAEYC has a great impact on the early childhood field. They have developed standards that we use today to set a high quality standard on our early childhood centers. (Bredekamp, 2013) Programs that meet these standards are recognized for providing a safe and healthy environment for children, and having teachers that are well trained, have access to excellent teaching materials, and work with a curriculum that is appropriately challenging and developmentally sound for young children. (Smartstart-fc.org, 2019
The Bureau of Education Experiments
The Bureau of Education Experiments was founded by Lucy Sprague Mitchell in 1916.(Bredekamp, 2013) She created it to teach teachers and conduct research. It’s goals were to focus on child development rather than learning specific curriculum, take a whole-child approach to learning and development, observe how children’s development is stimulated by experiences and activities, focus on scientific measurement of stages of development and establishing norms. (Bredekamp, 2013) This has a great impact on early childhood education because it gives us the values we believe in today and it is how most programs are modeled.
Source:Bredekamp, S. (2013). Effective practices in early childhood education: Building a foundation (2nd ed., pp. 35–69). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Works Progress Administration Nurseries
Works Progress Administration Nurseries or WPA’s were Federal emergency relief nursery schools, funded by the Works Progress Administration (WPA) during the Great Depression, designed to support the economy by providing jobs for those who worked on the site and child care services to families seeking work.(Bredekamp, 2013) WPA’s had positive and negative effects on the early childhood field. (Bredekamp, 2013) Positively they provided childcare for working families in poverty, but negatively, because they were so popular and had a high need for teachers, they hired teachers with minimal training.(Bredekamp, 2013)
The Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act
The Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment act provides federal funding to states in support of prevention, assessment, investigation, prosecution and treatment activities for child abuse and provided grants to public agencies and non-profit organizations. (Childwelfare.gov, 2019) This act impacts the early childhood field because it identifies the Federal role in supporting research, evaluation, technical assistance, and data collection activities; establishes the Office on Child Abuse and Neglect; and establishes a national clearinghouse of information relating to child abuse and neglect. (Childwelfare.gov, 2019) This act gives early childhood programs funding for children of abuse in their programs. (Childwelfare.gov, 2019)
Source: Childwelfare.gov. (2019). [online] Available at: https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubPDFs/about.pdf [Accessed 17 Jul. 2019].
The Economic Opportunity Act and the Founding of Head Start
The Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 provided for the establishment of the Head Start program, a total program designed to prepare children for success in public schools. It included medical, dental, social service, nutritional, and psychological care. (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2019) This impacted the early childhood field in a major way. Head Start provided quality education for children ages 3-5 from low income areas. Not only does it give children from a low socio economic background the chance at a quality education like their affluent peers, it also helps families by providing medical, dental, nutritional and psychological care. (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2019) Head start is a new lifeline for families living in poverty to be able to provide their children with the early childhood education they deserve.
Source: Encyclopedia Britannica. (2019). Education – Expansion of American education. [online] Available at: https://www.britannica.com/topic/education/Expansion-of-American-education#ref303320 [Accessed 17 Jul. 2019].
Hart and Risley’s Meaningful Differences in the Everyday Experience of Young American Children
This book discusses a longitudinal study of the circumstances of early language learning and the central role of home and family in the emergence of language and word learning. (Hart and Risely, 1995) Vocabularies of 42 children were studied from about 1 years old to 3 years old as well as the interactions of these children with their families. (Hart and Risely, 1995) The study concluded that the most important factors to language acquisition are the economic advantages of children’s homes and the frequency of language experiences. (Hart and Risely, 1995) This study was impactful on early childhood education because it outlines an agenda for intervention that would begin in the home and very early in a young child’s life, with a focus on the social influences on language and its acquisition within the cultural context of the family.(Hart and Risely, 1995) The study helps identify an early intervention plan and best practice for children of early intervention age.
Source: Hart, B. and Risely, T. (n.d.). Meaningful differences in the everyday experience of young American children.
Perry/High Scope Preschool Project
The goal of the Perry Preschool Project is to improve disadvantaged children’s capacity for future success in school and in life. (Youth.gov, 2019) The intervention seeks to break the link between childhood poverty and school failure by promoting young children’s intellectual, social, and physical development. (Youth.gov, 2019) By increasing academic success, the Perry Preschool Project is designed to improve employment opportunities and earning potential and to decrease crime, teen pregnancy, and welfare dependency later in life. (Youth.gov, 2019) This projects impacts the early childhood field because it can help children in poverty by providing them a better start in life and helping them break the cycle of poverty. (Youth.gov, 2019) Children of poor families are at a greater risk for special education or remedial classes and they frequently do not perform at grade level. (Youth.gov, 2019) This may lead to disengagement from school and, for many students, dropping out of school and risks for delinquency. (Youth.gov, 2019) Without a solid educational foundation, as adults, these children are often unqualified for higher paying jobs and may be at increased risk for criminal behavior so The Perry Preschool Project intervenes early in a child’s life to affect their attitude and disposition toward school and learning. (Youth.gov, 2019)
Source: Youth.gov. (2019). Perry Preschool Project | Youth.gov. [online] Available at: https://youth.gov/content/perry-preschool-project [Accessed 17 Jul. 2019].
Short Answer 3
In a 4- to 6-paragraph response, identify at least three early childhood professional organizations. Describe the purpose of each organization and explain its significance to the early childhood field. Provide a citation for each organization.
The first early childhood professional organization that I will identify is the National Associate for the Education of Young Children, also commonly known as NAEYC. NAEYC is a professional membership organization that works to promote high-quality early learning experiences for all children from age birth to eight. NAEYC connects early childhood practice, policy, and research together. NAEYC provides dynamic early childhood profession and support to all who care for, educate, and work on behalf of young children.
The significance that NAEYC has on the early childhood field is large. NAEYC established an accreditation system that sets professional standards for high quality programs for young children. NAEYC has established ten standards of excellence for early childhood education that involve children, teachers, family and community partners, and program administration. Programs that meet these standards are recognized for providing a safe and healthy environment for children, and having teachers that are well trained, have access to excellent teaching materials, and work with a curriculum that is appropriately challenging and developmentally sound for young children. (Smartstart-fc.org, 2019)
Citation: Naeyc.org. (2019). NAEYC. [online] Available at: https://www.naeyc.org/ [Accessed 16 Jul. 2019]. Smartstart-fc.org. (2019). National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC). [online] Available at: https://smartstart-fc.org/naeyc/ [Accessed 16 Jul. 2019].
The second early childhood professional organization that I will identify is the Council for Exceptional Children. The Council for Exceptional Children is a professional association of educators dedicated to advancing the success of children with exceptionalities. They accomplish their mission through advocacy, standards, and professional development. (Cec.sped.org, 2019) The Council for Exceptional Children provides support, continuing education and resources for teachers and families of students in special and gifted education programs. Additionally, the organization advocates for the exceptional needs population by promoting legislative initiatives to improve professional standards and best teaching practices. (Cec.sped.org, 2019)
Like NAEYC, The Council for Exceptional Children has a profound significance to the early childhood field. The council works on behalf of exceptional students worldwide. “Foundations for programs and initiatives stem from the Council’s plan to give a voice to exceptional needs students in educational and legislative arenas. To this end, the Council for Exceptional Children works collaboratively with lawmakers, families, post-secondary educational institutions, public schools and teacher training programs to shape the policies and practices that will benefit the education of exceptional needs students. (Cec.sped.org, 2019)“They work tirelessly at top levels of government to keep the interests of special needs students at the forefront of educational policy and legislation. (Cec.sped.org, 2019)
Citation: Cec.sped.org. (2019). Council for Exceptional Children. [online] Available at: https://www.cec.sped.org/ [Accessed 16 Jul. 2019].
The final professional organization that I will identify is the West Ed. West Ed is a nonpartisan, nonprofit research, development, and service agency working with education and other communities throughout the United States and abroad. West Ed aims to improve education and other important outcomes for children, youth and adults. (WestEd, 2019) Since its inception in 1966, WestEd* has been tackling real-world challenges, often in partnerships with others, to make a positive difference in the lives of millions of children and adults. (WestEd, 2019)
West Ed is significant in the early childhood field because WestEd staff are always in the field, and are always listening. (WestEd, 2019) They focus on the priorities of their clients and customers so that they can successfully leverage their expertise and resources, resulting in a deeper and more lasting impact. (WestEd, 2019) The depth, diversity, and history of their work, coupled with their on-the-ground experience and research-based knowledge, give WestEd staff unique expertise in helping all learners, infants to adults, succeed in school and career. (WestEd, 2019)
Citation: WestEd. (2019). About Us. [online] Available at: https://www.wested.org/about-us/ [Accessed 16 Jul. 2019]
Short Answer 4
In a 2- to 3-paragraph response, identify at least one organization that advocates for children and families. Describe the purpose of the organization and describe one current advocacy issue this organization is working on today. Provide a citation for the organization.
One organization that advocates for children and families is the Association for the Childhood Education International. Their mission is “ to promote innovative solutions to education challenges and inspire action that creates positive, sustainable futures for children and youth worldwide.” (Acei.org, 2019) CE International focuses mainly on the early years from birth to 11 years old; however, they also recognize that in order to work in a holistic way, they need to understand and consider the entire cycle of children’s learning and development. They believe that child development is, after all, a continuum of experiences that spans from birth through adolescence up until the transition to adulthood, with the early years being the critical foundation and launching point that influences the rest of a child’s life. (Acei.org, 2019)
The Association for the Childhood Education International works through their three primary programs: Center for Education Diplomacy and Leadership, Global Schools First and Innovation Exchange. The Center for Education, Diplomacy and Leadership’s purpose is to tackle complex issues affecting education and help groups with different priorities to work together. (Acei.org, 2019) They help with solving challenges related to inclusion, gender equality, and financing will need Education Diplomacy to move agendas forward through cooperation, coordination, and collaboration across sectors, stakeholders, and borders to overcome the challenges together. (Acei.org, 2019) The Global Schools First purpose is to provide a school assessment and recognition opportunity for primary schools committed to fostering critical competencies, skills and knowledge, that children need to be successful in today’s complex and increasingly interconnected world. (Acei.org, 2019) The purpose of the Innovation Exchange is to focus on new ideas and ways of thinking about children’s education to provide transformative solutions that meet the needs and challenges of our world. (Acei.org, 2019) Through their website and publications, they are connecting people and sharing innovative practices from around the globe. (Acei.org, 2019)
One current advocacy issue that CE International is working on today is ensuring universal quality education for all children. The Global Campaign for Education-US Chapter is the organization set up to fight this issue. The mission of the Global Campaign for Education-US is to promote education as a basic human right and mobilize to create political will in the United States and internationally to ensure universal quality education, which is at the core of all human development. (Global Campaign For Education United States Chapter, 2019)
Source: Acei.org. (2019). Childhood Education International. [online] Available at: https://acei.org/ [Accessed 16 Jul. 2019].
Global Campaign For Education United States Chapter. (2019). About | Global Campaign For Education United States Chapter. [online] Available at: http://campaignforeducationusa.org/pages/about [Accessed 16 Jul. 2019].
Short Answer 5
Identify at least two peer-reviewed publications that inform early childhood practice and expand the professional knowledge base. In a 4- to 6-paragraph response, summarize the main focus of each publication, and explain how it informs early childhood practice and/or expands the professional knowledge base. Provide an APA citation for each publication.
The first peer-reviewed journal that informs early childhood practice and expands professional knowledge base is The Early Childhood Education Journal. This journal publishes articles on curriculum, childcare programs, administration, staff development, family-school relationships, equity issues, multicultural units, health nutrition, facilities, special needs, employer-sponsored care, and infant/toddler programs. The publication I chose from this journal is titled Preschool Teachers and Children’s Emergent Writing: Supporting Diverse Learners. The main focus of this publication is to discuss how using writer’s workshop and dictation within the context of storybook reading as strategies that preschool teachers can utilize to target emergent writing development. The publication goes on to discuss the framework for writer’s workshop, which includes a mini lesson, model writing, a sharing of ideas, independent writing and conferencing, and finally a share out of completed work at the end. The article then goes on to discuss how asking questions and transcribing dialogue during a read aloud can promote writing in the preschool setting. The article concludes by stating “Writers’ workshop and dictation are presented here as two strategies that teachers can utilize as a means to support children as they move through the writing process. Children’s written work will vary depending on age and skill level; therefore, it is important to recognize strengths in children’s writing and encourage them to transition to the next level.” (Dennis and Votteler, 2012)
Writing is a critical part of development for children in early childhood settings. This publication informs early childhood educators with strategies to implement and support writing in the classroom for diverse learners. This article gives two specific strategies on how to support all learners in the early childhood classroom with developing writing skills. As a Head Start teacher for ten years I ave often found writing development to be the hardest task to accomplish with my 3-5 year olds. This article has expanded my professional knowledge base by giving me a framework for writer’s workshop, and how to implement it in a preschool setting specifically. It has also given me examples of writing prompts and transcribing techniques for read a loud stories. This is a very usual article for an early childhood educator looking to learn more about developing the writing skills of their students.
Citation: Dennis, L. [email protected] ed., & Votteler, N. (2013). Preschool Teachers and Children’s Emergent Writing: Supporting Diverse Learners. Early Childhood Education Journal, 41(6), 439–446. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1007/s10643-012-0563-4
The second peer-reviewed publication that I chose was titled The Morning Message in Early Childhood Classrooms: Guidelines for Best Practices. The main focus of this publication is to present guidelines for the widely used common practice in early childhood settings known as morning message. Some of the guidelines include using morning message in a small or larger group, making sure it connects to print knowledge, teachers should ask questions about morning message to promote language development and the morning message can be generated by the teacher or the children. (Wasik and Hindman, 2011) The goal of the guidelines is to provide guidance for optimizing the use of the Morning Message in developing children’s knowledge about print and its relationship to speech. (Wasik and Hindman, 2011) The article goes on to discuss the important role of the Morning Message as it relates to oral language development, print awareness and writing. It also states that little research has explicitly examined the impact of this activity on children’s knowledge and acquisition of print, or drawn conclusions about how teachers could best use this activity. (Wasik and Hindman, 2011)
This article informs early childhood practice because morning message is a commonly used practice in the early childhood field. This is a hot topic in classrooms throughout my district and this article provides specific guidelines on how to incorporate the morning message effectively. Most teachers want to be very intentional with their teaching and make sure they are getting the most out of every activity they do or provide in their classroom and this publication allows them to do so with morning message by connecting written language with oral language. It expands my professional knowledge base by providing information that I can use in my classroom immediately.
Citation: Wasik, B. [email protected] ed., & Hindman, A. [email protected] ed. (2011). The Morning Message in Early Childhood Classrooms: Guidelines for Best Practices. Early Childhood Education Journal, 39(3), 183–189. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1007/s10643-011-0463-z
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