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The unborn child influences the family and the environment which he or she will be born. In the later stage of pregnancy, the mother may have to decrease work's hours or give up in order to take rest more and even changing her diet and habits.
After birth, the child unbelievably influences his or her parents' behavior , change of sleeping and eating pattern with changed pattern of social interaction are common, specially for new parents.
Reciprocally, the baby's eating and sleeping pattern are influenced by his or her family and both affect and affected by the immediate environment in which he or she lives. Any developmental delay or ignore in early stage of childhood, may influences into behavior or mental development irretrievably, therefore problems should be recognized in early stage of life.
Where children have a disability or special needs, it is important that these are identified at an early age stage and that identification leads to effective intervention and support for families and their children.
Young children – special needs
Infant and toddler have been adopted because it emphasizes the importance of relationship and interaction in the development of very young children. Governments and parents should facilitate the perception of infant and toddlers as active agents, shaping their environment as they interact with others.
There is two way relationship and interaction between young children's behavior and personality and their home and environment.
It is important that governments have intensive consideration to children under four years of age that have disability or special needs. If she or he is experiencing significant developmental delays, in one or more of the areas of cognitive development, physical development, social or emotional development and adaptive development, he or she has a condition which has a high probability of resulting in developmental delay.
Sure Start is a government programme which aims to achieve better out comes for children, parents communities by:
- Increasing availability of child care for all children
- Improving health and emotional development for young children
- Supporting parents and community
Sure start covers children before birth up to fourteen years old and if they need special education or have disabilities will be extended up to age sixteen. Their services bring free , early education and better child care with great support where there is a greater need by children tax credit, children centers, and local programme.
These role should be move toward transforming the life chances of young children, particularly those with special needs and disability who lives in area of disadvantages.
Effort must be made to ensure the services are designed to give child care for all children in all sectors but with special attention to the particular needs or individual families and children so they feel should support more than others. It doesn't mean that all of effort should be served for special group and forget the other population. The aims should be based on reducing family poverty and improve life style, family education and prevention of antisocial behaviors.
- Working with parents and children
They have to provide up to date information to parents when they need it , and is based on discussion held with parents about their information needs. All of families should get access to proper services that will deliver better outcome for both children and parents.
- Services for everyone( but not the same service for every one) The needs of families is different based on location, condition of families, religion, their ability and education, ethnic and economical condition. For instance; condition of children have Mental or Emotional problem is different from other children who have physical disability.
- Flexible at point of delivery
The services should be provide an interest to access by arrangement of appropriate opening hours, suitable location and easy access to public transportation. The role of the carer must be extend beyond the day to day care of the child to providing support to other family members or significant other in child life. Where possible the government must provide health and family support services through a single point of contact.
- Starting very early (at the first antenatal visit)
The child care and parents support should be begin from the first antenatal visit but I believe that have to support parents before pregnancy and give useful information and consultation about future pregnancy and complete evaluation about genetic problems, because this process will be more effective and economical than treatment and support after birth. The majority of serious childhood diseases is preventive by maternity support and early diagnosis and appropriate treatment procedures, Vaccination, proper diet and life style. This means not only advice on health in pregnancy but also support of parent for returning to work or starting to work.
- Respectful and transparent
The services should be free in order to access everybody to proper services without any limitation. The most of families who need help and advice can't afford to pay child care, education, health and treatment in private services.
- Community driven and professionally coordinated
We should invite all professionals with an interest in care and family support or medical care to take part in this programme and search any problem and evaluate families and children needs through consultation and speak face to face with parents and children.
- Outcome driven
Sometimes a lot of bureaucracy makes delay in services and health care, because of that parent and children may be not given appropriate services on suitable time and location when they need. Inappropriate effort and delay lead to irreversible damage in families and children.
Human relation ship and interactions are the critical factors in young children's development. Storing attachments that are characterized by reciprocal activity enhance the young children's responsiveness to his or her environment and influence the children's motivation to explore, elaborate and manipulate.
Increasingly it is recognized that the maintenance of primary attachment relationship depends on the availability and involvement of another adult or third person who active supports and encourage these relationships.
How much time are the parents able to spend with their children during childhood? What stop parents from spending more time with their children? Certainly, childhood would have been different if the parents had stayed home and looked after their children. It is obvious that the most influential setting for almost all of children is the family environment and school.
Parents who are under constant pressure from their employer to do overtime, may not have the time and emotional energy to encourage their children's school work successfully or have a effective emotional support. They should be achieve more flexible work hours, which enable them to spend more time with their children.
The parents must be prepared to enjoy and to show children how to enjoy -relationships.
The role that parents play in to life of a child has a tremendous impact on their experience. Parents have a key role in the education, emotional development and behaviors. Parent's support is the single most important factor in children's success at her or his life especially in education because; the majority of child's week is spent in home. The child's ability to learn is influenced not only by the competence of the teacher but also by the quality of the relationship between the school and the home.
- Children have a right to continuing loving relationship with both parents and need to be protected from the harm of losing contact with one parent who has a unique contribution to make their children development.
- Parents can become involve in their children's learning at home by helping them and encouraging them to attend in learning programme.
- Parents can take part in school trips and help the children gain as much information from the trip as possible.
- They should provide for their children a quiet place in which to work free distractions such as television, satellite, games.
- They have to provide all the equipment and resources necessary for doing homework effectively.
- Parents must give responsibility to child for doing something according her or his ability that help to improve children's confidence.
- They should encourage their children to work independently but it would be helpful if they are available to help them with any difficulties.
The supporting parents was designed to raise awareness and provide information about their children's needs such as educational problems, Mental or physical disabilities, emotional and etc.
The parents are the fort line of learning programme , therefore, they should be supported in order to support their children by providing information and advice for those whose children have mental or physical problems.
The parents should improve their awareness about mental and physical disabilities, medical and social problem from fort line health services such as GPs, teachers and others professionals.
Every body can help to empower and support parents by listening to them and sharing information sensitively and honestly, using understandable language and giving explanation to build parents' confidence, respecting and acknowledging cultural difference and providing the facility in order to access to services.
The main supporting bodies are:
- Government support parents
- Family support parents
- Parents support parents
The final aim of all effort and support is; providing safe and effective care for the education of childhood, protection from harm, gaining life chance benefits and arising out of disability or health condition in order to leaving care when the children enter adulthood.
1. Government support
The Government support is a wide spectrum of support that subdivided in many fields that I will argue about economical, education, treatment and support team.
- Economical and Work support
Poverty- is associated with lone parenthood because of low benefits, lack of child care, education and low pay amongst woman. Similarly, problems of drug abuse and rising crime are generated by complex factors, including poverty and lack of opportunity in community and support. These problems can impose a great pressure on families and their children.
In one hand generally, the relationship between growth of income of the poor and overall economic growth is one to one. That finding suggests that policies which are good for growth will be good for the poor. On the other hand, it is possible that growth from different sources has differential impact on the poor and distance between poor and rich would be greater than before which can effect on families inspect and relationship.
Maternity leave and paternity leave- Maternity leave is the time a mother takes off from work at the birth or adoption of a child.
Mothers are entitled to take time off for antenatal care. This may be medical appointments or relaxation and parent craft classes made on the advice of registered medical practitioner or midwife.
Father who qualified for paternity leave can take time off to be with their new child and offer support to the mother when the child arrives. They can choose whether to take one or two consecutive week's paternity leave.
Proposed new regulations relating to maternity and paternity leave are sure to cause problems for some smaller businesses. Whereas larger organisations can usually provide cover internally when a mother or father is on leave, it is often much more difficult for the smaller firm, which often has no such cover internally.
Flexible working and return to work- flexible working means a negotiation between the employer and the individual about their needs to determine the pattern that helps them both.
Flexible working arrangement can help parents combine work and bringing up their children. Some parents want to work part time, some one interest in working from home or perhaps on particular days of the week. Flexible working can also help employers meet the increasing demand from their customers for out of hour's services. Many business offer flexible working, but this is depending on individual manager and company policy. Government should provide priority for people that enable to work flexibility and return to work or start new compatible work after maternity leave.
- Education and child care
Any number of activities will help young children learn, from singing nursing and playing number games, to reading or talking with them and everything to encourage their curiosity and love of learning.
They have to develop evidence of the best practice to help early education and child care. Indeed, providers and their stuff work well with parents and professionals to whom they entrust their children. They have to provide safe and effective care for the education of children whom should be protected from emotional, physical, sexual abuse and other significant harm.
Special needs and disabilities in childhood can put extra strain on families and may create additional needs such as additional cost of supporting a child with special needs or disability, provide suitable and affordable child care and education meanwhile we should not miss providing suitable housing, housing adaptation and accessing local community facilities such as transport child care and leisure services.
Education and Child care option include: Day nurseries-that provide care for children from birth to four or five and beyond, often integrated with early education and other services.
Pre-schools and play groups, provide play time and often early education to under five years old and can prevent from emotional and significant harm.
Toddler groups- group of parents that meet locally with their children on regular basis, usually included children who are under five years old.
Children clubs is define as out of school, offer children aged four to twelve a safe and stimulating environment which children can play and learn effectively outside school time (learn and fun).
Treatment and care procedure- The fort line of health and social care is treatment intervention with specialized professionals and medical stuff (Doctors, nurses, psychologist, etc). First intervention in support programme is treatment of physical disabilities of parents and children with specialized team. Further more, intensive care and attention in pre-maternity and maternity period is essential. Increasingly, the professionals find themselves working not only with individual children but also with parents and sibling. Parents who have physical or sensory impairments, long term illness, learning difficulties, mental health problem or combination of them can not afford to spend effective time with their children and take part in teaching programme. Emotional disturbance and educational difficulties often can be fully understood and effectively addressed within a family.
Family support parents
Family support is a term covering enormous number and diversity of needs. Families caring for children with special needs or disability have the same range of feeling and hope for their children as all other families whose children are well. Some parents are very private who do not feel comfortable sharing their deepest feeling with strangers. It is important to be able to talk to some one that is the best one of family members.
Traditional family support systems are sufficient and very helpful and comfortable. These families are fortunate because they help effectively and make a warm relation ship with together. Traditional families have a good relationship with parents , siblings and grandparents or other near relative family that they truly understand other member. Family support not only can reduce family poverty, crime and antisocial behavior and prevent deterioration but also can improve educational attainment, civic responsibility and quality and accessibility of suitable services.
Parents support parents
The parents are the best source of supporting for parents. They access a wealth of information from past and present experiences and have an understanding of the difficulties and problems than can occur when raising a child with special needs.
They have a good sympathy with each others and they truly rely to the information and experiences of other parents. Through all that has happened to all of them, they have become educated and have learned things that never imagined learning.
Effective early intervention and support can produce improvement in children's health, social and cognitive development. It strengthens the ability of family to provided effective support for their children and improves out comes for the whole family.
- All programme should base on providing safe and effective care for the education, protecting from physical emotional and sexual abuse.
- The government has to improve economical condition and provide trained, qualified and appropriate medical stuff and social workers.
- The support plan has to lead to leaving care by young people when they enter adulthood and wouldn't isolate and participate socially and live independent.
- The children with specific medical or social needs should arise out of disability or health condition and be able to live in family or other appropriate setting in the community.
- The children in need should gain life chance benefits from educational opportunity, entertainment programme, health and social care.
- The parents community should be improved in order to support effectively and share their information and experiences.
- The family structure must empower to provide warm and comfortable environment for support members of family.
- An important part of support is the establishment of effective channels for communication, a willingness to find a compromise and the development of trust between family members and Government or child care stuff.
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