1. Activities on Social Skills.
A: Book: Llama Llama time to Share by: Anna Dewdney.
I would have the children sit at the carpet and I would do a read aloud to the whole class. The story is about a loveable llama who needs a little encouragement regarding sharing. After the book is finished, I would have the class go back to their desk and start coloring the handout worksheet. The worksheet is called Llama Llama time to share. Then the next step is to help the students cut out on the dotted lines, then give them instruction on the sequencing order. I would model this on the smart board, each step by step. The second handout is the letter tracing which is the word SHARE. When reading the book to the class, I would talk about each item in the book and whether that item was shared in the book. After the little Llama's arm was ripped, ask the students why do they think llama llama did not want to share with little llama?
B. Book: May I please have a Cookie?
This book references manners and conduct. I would read the book to the class. Ask the students who is the main character of the book and ask them about the settings. Identify 3 to 5 words in the book and talk about them and what the meaning is. The activity is to make a paper plate cookie for sharing with everyone or they can practice staying please and thank you with the cookie. I will have the brown tissue paper cut up in little square and the brown card stock precut also for the chocolate chips. Model how to put together the cookie and how to glue the tissue paper down first than add the chocolate chips. When the craft is finished then have snack time, I would have chocolate chips cookies as the snack, to tie in the theme.
C. Book: A New Friend for Sparkle by Amy Young
Read the book about Sparkle who is not the perfect unicorn, but they grow to love Sparkle. Talk about not everyone and everything is perfect and to accept what it is. I would have the coloring sheet at their desk, and they can color it. But with the focus of staying in the lines. Also, I would have connect the dots worksheets for the children who are early finisher.
2. DAP-Developmentally Appropriate Practice.
This means utilizing your knowledge and skills about how children learn and also who they will and can adapt to your teaching strategies. The teaching strategies need to fit the age, ability, interest and experiences of each individual child in the class. In the year 2009 a position statement which is a statement examining a specific issue pertinent to the organizations stance on the issue was written regarding three challenges that need to be addressed in early childhood education. These are the following three items.
1. Reducing the learning gaps between certain groups of children and increasing the achievement of all children.
2. Creating a better-connected education for preschool and elementary children.
3. “Recognizing teacher knowledge and decision making as vital to educational effectiveness.” (Copple & Brederamp, 2009).
As a teacher there are three fundamental questions that need to be addressed when you are planning and carrying out activities.
- Is the activity age appropriate, when planning think about what age range the children are. It is important to develop activities, routines and expectations that accommodate and complement these types of characteristics. For instance,
for the cookie paper plate activity. I precut all the tissue paper up, because I know it would be hard for a young child to cut tissue paper. You need to know what the child’s abilities are before preparing for a project or activity.
- DAP is individually appropriate. When children first start school and throughout their schooling they will learn at different levels. Each child will have their own strong points, interest needs and abilities. Once again teachers need to take in account each child’s knowledge and experience. For instance with the Sparkles activity I had added an extra worksheet that this is for the advanced students that always finish early. This will give the students something to do while the other students finish. Studies have shown that “Effective instruction nudges learners towards the next level; it scaffolds initial attempts at new skills and reinforces performances until mastery is achieved.” (Bruner, 1973).
C. DAP is socially and culturally appropriate. It is important to think about the child’s community and culture where they came from. Children will learn rules about values, attitudes and appropriate behavior early in their life. Culture can influence how you as a teacher interpret behaviors exhibited by children. Keep in mind that practices that are appropriate in one culture may not be appropriate in another culture. When working with children, it is important to focus on the whole child, addressing all of the domains of the child’s development. For example, their emotional, cognitive, language, social and physical needs. Actives should address more than one discipline; they can be combined by reading and science. “Perception and reception stems from children’s sight, hearing, sensing, imagination, thinking and intuition abilities beginning from early years. Because children have idiosyncratic hearing and thinking ways.” (Cerie, 2016).
B. Principles of Child Development and Learning.
The nine principles of child development and learning are the following:
1. Children develop holistically. When children learn domains are related to the child’s development and these are aesthetics, affective, cognitive, language, physical and social. These domains will not function without the other. This is when a teacher can give a task and all of the domains can be used. For instance, with the first project, the worksheet that the sequence of steps, the students were using cognitive development and social development. They were also using their fine motor skills in regard to cutting and coloring of the worksheet.
DAP- this principle can match up with a DAP principle, because it gives the children the opportunity for hands on learning.
2. Orderly Sequence.
This is when children will use their knowledge and skills to build from. For example getting in line order from their desk and the expectations of what type of behavior they should show in the hallway.
DAP-This would fall under the socially appropriate category. The students will understand what is expected of them. Building on their social skills.
3. Children learn at different rates.
Children will reach their developmental milestones at different times than other children their own age. It is important to choose activity’s that everyone and every level can do.
DAP-This falls under the individual appropriate. That some children are stronger at different subject areas and abilities.
4. Children learn best when they feel safe and secure.
It is very important as a teacher to develop a bond with each child that is in your classroom. You want them to feel safe and secure, with you and the other children. Also the teacher needs to be patient with the children. For example, if the child is struggling with a subject, the teacher will need to take the time to help them accomplish or mater that task. The teacher will create an environment that the children want to come to everyday.
DAP-It is important that adults also develop a warm and caring relationship with the children in the class, it is also important that the teacher will address any learning needs of the child.
5. Children are Active Learners.
It is so important that children have plenty of hands on experiences with different activities in the classroom. Giving them the freedom to investigate and explore the different areas in the classroom. This gives children the opportunity to directly interact with one another and learn the sharing skills that were taught to them by reading the Llama book.
DAP-This will also help with children who have learning issues, they may be special needs children, or they may speak a different language at home. By doing hands on activities it gives the children a different opportunity to learn.
6. Children Learn through Physical Experience, Social Interaction.
Children gain knowledge through items. Like being able to taste or smell something.
As children talk to each other this is another form of learning, they basically feed off of one another.
DAP-This will go along with the age appropriate practice. Because the children are with their peers and they are learning from one another.
7. Children learn through the Challenge of and mastery of concepts and skills.
When a child is learning something new, it is important to use prompting and plenty of prairie. Children need to have stimulation and support to master new tasks. Some children will just become frustrated and give up.
DAP-Give the children numerous opportunities to learn by doing hand on activities with them.
8. Learning profiles can change individual learning profiles and styles can be different. Some children can excel in one department and another may have trouble.
DAP-This would work with individually appropriate, because some children have strong points in certain subject were as some children lack in those areas.
9. Children learn through play.
Play is a great way for children to gather and learn new information and new skills. Play is a great way for the children to explore new objects and find out how to use them. Play also strengthens the child’s social relationships.
DAP- Through play children can learn about each other attitudes and their behavior. Some children can get upset over play toys, play can also strengthen their social skills.
B.Paper Plate Cookie
- Copple, C., & Bredekamp, S. (2009). Developmentally appropriate practice in early childhood programs serving children from birth through age 8. Washington, D.C.: National Association for the Education of Young Children.
- Bruner, Jerome. (1973). Beyond the information given: Studies in the psychology of knowing. New York: W. W. Norton
- Çer, E. (2016). Preparing Books for Children from Birth through Age Six: A New Childrens Reality Approach. Universal Journal of Educational Research,4(5), 1024-1036. doi:10.13189/ujer.2016.040512
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