Development of Four Year Old | Observational Study

4502 words (18 pages) Essay

21st Nov 2017 Childcare Reference this

Tags:

Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a university student. This is not an example of the work produced by our Essay Writing Service. You can view samples of our professional work here.

Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UKEssays.com.

INTRODUCTION TO CHILD DEVELOPMENT

  • Felicia Heong Shin Nin
  • Yvonne Michelle a/p Stephen Das ( )
  • Ahmad Syazwan ( )

 

Cover page layout

Acknowledgements

This book is the result of research on 4 year old children development. The purpose of this book is to share the knowledge and experience collected in the period of time given. I was stimulated by the different milestones a child goes through while growing up and how to tell the difference between a child who is just taking his or her and one who has a true developmental delay. This book is intended for people to understand children’s behavior and guide them along the way.In preparation of this book, many have contributed many helpful comments and information both directly and indirectly, I would therefore like to say thank you to those who made it possible for me to study this subject more in-depth, theoretically as well as practically. There are also some individuals who I need to personally thank for their helpful assistance. A big thank you goes out to my lecturer, Miss Lee Wai Mun for her generous knowledge, research and experience, all of which have been of great importance in the writing process of this book.

Finally, none of the people I have mentioned are to be held account for the final version you have in your hands. All of the content in this book is entirely my responsibility. But I hope that the information in this book will enlightened you and help you understand more about the developments of a child.

Introduction

Children grow in unique ways. While children develop at their own pace, every child should do certain tasks by a certain age and it's impossible to tell exactly when a child will learn a given skill. There's more to tracking a child’s development than logging height and weight as the process ofdevelopingfrom a baby into a child requires the achievement of manymilestonesin language, physical, social, emotional development, etc. Hence, developmental milestones give parents a general idea of the changes to expect as the child gets older.

This book is about your four year old child. In the course of this year children are moving out of babyhood into childhood. They have rich imaginations, they may have strong fears, they love to play and they enjoy physical activity. They are beginning to be more comfortable spending some time away from their usual comfort zone. Sometimes they are timid about trying new things. Of course all four year olds are different and they may develop at different rates.

Indeed, sometimes it’s a case of two steps forward and one step back, with children appearing to forget the things they once knew. Although it is difficult to define ‘normal’ development, there are some milestonesthat children can be expected to achieve. However, if you are worried about your child's development, or if they can't do things that they used to do for more than a short time, it is important to see a pediatrician or child health nurse. If there is anything wrong, getting in early will help. Otherwise it is good to know that your child is developing normally in his or her own special way.

It is of utmost importance to remember that the milestones are approximate, not absolute. Each child develops at his or her own pace, and some stages may occur earlier or later this guidebook allows explanations of variations physical, cognitive, emotional, and social developmental milestones to be expected during the first year of life to gain insight into observing in children today and to preview what to look forward to in the years ahead.

Chapter One: Cognitive Milestone

Most children this age can speak clearly using more complex sentences and enjoy singing, rhyming, and making up words. They are energetic, silly, and, at times, rowdy and obnoxious. Children this age can also count ten or more objects and correctly name at least four colors and three shapes. They are able to recognize some letters and possibly write his or her name.

Cognitive development, or the process of growth in intellectual abilities such as thinking, reasoning and understanding, is a major component of early childhood. According to the World Health Organization, early childhood is the most important phase of development throughout the lifespan. So games for cognitive development during early childhood are an effective way to help kids grow intellectually. Categorizing is the type of games that encourage sorting, matching and classifying and are excellent for cognitive development.

Identifying colors is a necessary skill that people use every day—for choosing which clothes to wear, reading signs, following traffic signalsand describing the surrounding world. This activity provides an interactive, colorful way for your preschooler to practice color recognition. It introduces children to this bright new world of colors using ordinary household objects such as buttons to group these objects into different sections and learn to recognize colors using a homemade egg carton sorter.

Lesson Plan:

Date: 10th April 2015

Time: 10.40 a.m.-11.20 a.m.

Duration: 35 minutes

Years: 4 years old

Name of activity: Name it, Sort it

Materials: 3 Paper egg carton (half-dozen or full dozen), different brightly-colored buttons.

Theme: Color Day

Focus:

  • (BM 2.0) Kemahiran Bertutur
  • (PFK 1.0) Perkembangan Motor Halus
  • (ST 2.0) Kemahiran Saintifik

Standard Content:

  • (BM 2.1) Berinteraksi dengan mesra
  • (PFK 1.2) Melakukan kemahiran kordinasi mata tangan dalam perkembangan kemahiran motor halus.
  • (ST 2.3) Membanding dan mengelaskan objek.

Learning Standard:

  • (BM 2.1.1) Berbual dengan sebutan perkataan yang betul.
  • (PFK 1.2.5) Menggunakan jari untuk menguntai objek bersaiz besar dengan menggunakan tali besar.
  • (ST 2.3.1) Membanding dan mengumpulkan objek-objek mengikut satu ciri:

A.)Warna

B.)Bentuk

Procedure:

Steps/ Time

Content

Activity

Remarks/ Materials

Set Induction

(5 minutes)

Color song

  1. Teacher would ask the children to sit on the floor in a circle.
  2. Teacher sings the color song and asks the children to sing and clap along.

Red, yellow, green and blue, green and blue, ,

Red, yellow, green and blue,

Purple, orange, brown and black,

Red, yellow, green and blue, green and blue.”

-Tune of song is of, “Head, Shoulders, Knees and Toes”.

Step 1

(5 minutes)

Group name

  1. Teacher divides children into 3 groups, each group consisting of 5 children.
  2. Children are asks to name their group and come up front of the class to introduce their friends.
 

Step 2

(5 minutes)

Name the colors

  1. Teacher shows the painted egg carton to the children.
  2. Teacher distributes the egg carton to each group.
  3. Then, each group is to stand up and name all the colors painted on the egg carton.

-Egg carton.

Step 3

(10 minutes)

Buttons

  1. Teacher gives out same amount of different color buttons to each group.
  2. Each child is then instructed to sort the buttons into the colors painted on the egg carton.
  3. Each child take turns to sort the buttons into the egg carton.

-Buttons, egg carton.

-The buttons distributed are the same colors painted on the egg carton.

Step 4

(5 minutes)

Sort and name it

  1. Teacher will asks the child to say the name the color of the buttons out loud as they sort it into the egg carton.
  2. Teacher will then pick one child from each group to come in front of the class and name the colors as they sort the buttons.

-Buttons.

Step 5

(5 minutes)

Magic color box

  1. Children will be ask to sit into a big circle.
  2. Teacher will give the children a box.
  3. Inside the box is crayons of different colors.
  4. Children will sing the magic song,

Pass, pass, pass the color,

This is the game we play!

When the little song is through,

The color name we’ll say.”

  1. The children will pass the box around singing the color song until the color stops.
  2. Once the song ends, the child that holds the box will put their hand into the box and take a crayon out.
  3. The child will tell the color of the crayon.
  4. Repeat the game until every child has at least play once.

-Box filled with different colors of crayons.

-Tune of song is of “Row, Row, Row Your Boat

Reflection:

  • Children like the games and songs of the activity.
  • Children paid attention to instructions.
  • Children tend to throw buttons too hard in the egg carton or throw at their friends.
  • In the future, use much bigger objects than buttons, such as sponges or straws.

Chapter 2: Physical Milestone

Chapter 3: Social/Emotional Milestone

Chapter 4: Language Milestone

Four year olds are now talking in simple sentences and there is so much going on inside their head that often it seems as though the words can’t come out fast enough to describe it all. They often stutter and stumble when trying to express themselves. It can be exhausting to listen and explain things to your child but exciting to be able to share in their rich imaginings.

They love to be read to and may want the same book over and over again. Four year olds get across what they want to say in most situations. Some four year olds speak very clearly, while others still use some ‘baby talk’. Some may stumble over some words but this will probably clear up by itself within the year. The average four year old can understand 1000 or more words. Four year olds can usually understand ‘place’ words such as – under, on, beside, back, over.

Four year olds ask questions beginning with ‘What’, ‘Who’, ‘Where’ and ‘Why’? They can talk about what happened yesterday and about tomorrow. You can build on what your four year old says to you. Don’t correct their unsuccessful efforts at words but respond positively with the correct word in your reply. Try to be patient. Ask them questions. Some children become such enthusiastic talkers that their constant ‘what’ can become irritating for parents. Most will respond to your request for you to have some quiet time from their questions – at least for a few minutes!

Lesson Plan:

Date:

Time: 10.40 a.m.-11.20 a.m.

Duration: 40 minutes

Years: 4 years old

Name of activity: Shake and Name

Materials: Laminated plastic, 3 plastic bottles, clean water, edible food coloring, waterproof marker, colorful beads and buttons.

Theme: Words

Focus:

  • (BI 3.0) Reading Skills
  • (ST 2.0) Kemahiran Saintifik
  • (BI 4.0) Writing Skills

Standard Content:

  • (BI 3.2) Read simple words with understanding.
  • (BI 3.3) Read phrases with understanding.
  • (ST 2.1) Membuat pemerhatian ke atas objek dan fenomena alam di persekitaran.
  • (BI 4.1) Pre-writing skills.

Standard Learning:

  • ( BI 3.2.2) Read simple words.
  • (ST 2.1.4) Memerhati dan bercerita secara verbal tentang pemerhatian yang telah dibuat.
  • (BI 3.3.1) Read simple phrases with guidance (e.g. sit down, red ball).
  • (BI 4.1.1) Engage in activities requiring eye-hand coordination.

Procedure:

Steps/ Time

Content

Activity

Remarks/ Materials

Set Induction

(5 minutes)

     

Step 1

(10 minutes)

     

Step 2

(5 minutes)

     

Step 3

(5 minutes)

     

Step 4

(5 minutes)

     

Step 5

(5 minutes)

     

Conclusion

(5 minutes)

     

Reflection:

Chapter 5: Math and Science Milestone

Four-year-olds have an increased capacity for learning math concepts. They use logical reasoning to solve everyday problems, and can effectively use language to compare and describe objects and shapes. They can count to "ten," recognize written numerals "0" to "9," and add and subtract using numbers up to "four." Four-year-olds know some variations of a circle, square, triangle and rectangle. They know days of the week, months, and the seasons, but still cannot tell time.

Children are naturally curious about the world and want to find out as much as they can. They want to know what makes the wind blow, how trees grow, why fish have fins, and where turtles go in the winter. But they don’t want adults to give them the answers. They want to be the discoverers, the experimenters, and the theory builders. They don’t want science to be something that is imparted to them; they want it to be something that they do. They want to be scientists; not just consumers of science. They want to ask their own questions, collect their own data, and arrive at new and wonderful ideas. These “wants” should shape the foundation of an early childhood science curriculum.

If you’ve ever dripped food coloring into oil before, you’ll remember the beautiful, jewel-like drops of color floating separate in the oil. This is because oil and water truly don’t mix. If you shake them up, they emulsify, but eventually separate back into oil and water. This activity is to teach children about science but at the same time involves math. The ingredients are using edible ingredients, this makes them a safe science activity for children to make on their own!

Lesson Plan:

Date:

Time: 10.40 a.m.-11.20 a.m.

Duration: 40 minutes

Years: 4 years old

Name of activity: Shake and Count

Materials: Two plastic bottle, cooking oil, clean water, food coloring, oil-based coloring, a bamboo skewer, waterproof marker, Beads, Buttons, laminated plastic.

Theme: Science and Math

Focus:

  • (ST 2.0) Kemahiran Saintifik
  • (ST 7.0) Konsep Nombor
  • (ST 4.0) Menyiasat Alam Bahan

Standard Content:

  • (ST 2.1) Membuat pemerhatian ke atas objek dan fenomena alam di persekitaran.
  • (ST 7.1) Memahami nombor 1-10.
  • (ST 4.1) Meneroka sifat umum bahan.

Learning Standard:

  • (ST 2.1.4) Memerhati dan bercerita secara verbal tentang pemerhatian yang telah dibuat.
  • (ST 7.1.1) Menyebut nama nombor 1 hingga 10 (rote counting).
  • (ST 7.1.2) Memadankan angka 1 hingga 10 dengan nama nombor secara lisan. (Contoh 2-dua)
  • (ST 4.1.1) Memerhati dan mengumpulkan objek kepada yang tenggelam dan timbul.

Procedure:

Steps/ Time

Content

Activity

Remarks/ Materials

Set Induction

(5 minutes)

Counting beans

  1. Teacher divides children to three groups. Each group containing 5 children.
  2. Teacher takes out three bags filled with beans.
  3. The bags are then distributed to the children.
  4. In front of the classroom is a
 

Step 1

(10 minutes)

     

Step 2

(5 minutes)

     

Step 3

(5 minutes)

     

Step 4

(5 minutes)

     

Step 5

(5 minutes)

     

Conclusion

(5 minutes)

     

Reflection:

Chapter 6: Music Milestone

Four-year-olds can identify changes in pitch, tempo, loudness and musical duration. They can sing songs of their own creation as well as memorized ones. Their art begins to be more realistic, and may incorporate letters. Four-year-olds love to dance, and are able to move rhythmically and smoothly. Their dramatic play is highly imaginative and now has the structure of specific scenarios, like going to the grocery store or rescuing a cat stuck in a tree.

By now, 4 year olds can understand basic principles of tone, tempo, genre, pitch, etc. (e.g., can describe which songs are fast and slow or high and low). They can sing complex songs and play an instrument alone as well as with group (e.g., learns newly introduced songs by memory in a day or two). 4 year olds also can use music to reflect thoughts and feelings (e.g., starts buzzing like a bee while looking through a storybook on insects). If taught, children will regard music as a part of daily life (e.g., gets out mat for nap upon hearing soft music being played, puts away toys when clean-up song is sung).

Lesson Plan:

Date:

Time: 10.40 a.m.-11.20 a.m.

Duration: 40 minutes

Years: 4 years old

Name of activity: Shake it

Materials: Three teaspoons uncooked rice, dried beans, two empty diet shake cans or soda cans, clear packing tap, pencil, scissors, markers or stickers.

Theme:

Focus:

Content Standard:

Standard Learning:

Procedure:

Steps/ Time

Content

Activity

Remarks/ Materials

Set Induction

(5 minutes)

     

Step 1

(10 minutes)

     

Step 2

(5 minutes)

     

Step 3

(5 minutes)

     

Step 4

(5 minutes)

     

Step 5

(5 minutes)

     

Conclusion

(5 minutes)

     

Reflection:

Put the rice in an empty diet shake can (soda cans don't last as long, but they will work for this project.) Remove the tab and seal the opening with clear packing tape.

If you like, make your own cool label for the can. To make the label, cut a piece of paper nine inches long and four and one-half inches wide. Decorate the label with markers or stickers.

Tape one side of the label to the can. Then make small rolls of tape and stick them between the label and the can. Wrap the label around the can so that the loose end overlaps the taped end, and tape down the loose end.

Put dried beans in the other can, and make a decorated label for that one, too. Try using the rice can for a lighter sound and the bean can for a louder sound. Start shaking!

Kids can turn office supplies into sound machines with the activity on the next page.

Chapter 7: Art and Creativity Milestone

By age 4, many children are learning to better control their hand and wrist movements. They are making forms and objects that are almost, but not quite, recognizable to adults. Circles, lines and crosses are always popular forms. Some 4 year olds may begin naming their drawings. In the middle of drawing, a child may look and say something like, "This is a truck," or, "This is Mommy." Naming artwork is a big step that shows the child has begun to think in terms of mental pictures. It doesn’t matter that the drawing has little or no resemblance to Mommy. What matters is that the child has discovered that drawing is more than just something physically fun to do.

Gradually, some of these forms have taken shape and adults can identify them as people, houses, cars or whatever the young artist intended to draw. Typical drawings at this age are pictures of people consisting of large heads that appear to have arms and legs growing out of them. There is usually little evidence of relative size in these drawings. Tiny legs sprout out of huge heads. A drawing of a butterfly may be twice as big as a dog.

Whatever is most important to the child at the time gets the biggest play on the page; what is not important may simply be left out. That’s why children may leave out fingers, necks or other body parts. It’s not that children don’t notice that people have fingers; it’s just that fingers are not important to them at the time they are drawing.

During this stage, children may find colors very exciting. Children are not concerned with realistic color representations. They just like to use color. One child may make everything on the page red. Another may use every color in the box on one drawing. Child care providers should not require children to use certain colors or try to read any deep psychological meanings into a child’s choice of colors.

Lesson Plan:

Date:

Time: 10.40 a.m.-11.20 a.m.

Duration: 40 minutes

Years: 4 years old

Name of activity: Hand Paint

Materials: Colorful paint, clean cloth, clean water, newspaper, paint brush

Theme: Art and Creativity

Focus:

  • (KTI 1.0) Seni Visual
  • (PFK 1.0) Perkembangan Motor Halus

Content Standard:

  • (KT 1.1) Menggunakan pengetahuan tentang bahan dan teknik dalam menghasilkan karya seni.
  • (KTI 1.2) Menzahirkan idea kreatif dalam penghasilan karya. (Ekspresi kreatif)
  • (KTI 1.3) Menunjukkan apresiasi seni.
  • (PFK 1.0) Melakukan kemahiran motor halus.

Standard Learning:

  • (KTI 1.1.1) Mengenal bahan yang diperlukan untuk menghasilkan sesuatu karya contohnya berus dengan bimbingan guru.
  • (KTI 1.2.4) Membuat corak dan rekaan yang mudah melalui pelbagai aktiviti.
  • (KTI 1.3.1) Menceritakan dan mempamerkan hasil kerja sendiri.
  • (PFK 1.1.3) Menggunakan tangan untuk meramas (mix).

Procedure:

Steps/ Time

Content

Activity

Remarks/ Materials

Set Induction

(5 minutes)

     

Step 1

(10 minutes)

     

Step 2

(5 minutes)

     

Step 3

(5 minutes)

     

Step 4

(5 minutes)

     

Step 5

(5 minutes)

     

Conclusion

(5 minutes)

     

Reflection:

Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:

Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.

Related Services

View all

DMCA / Removal Request

If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on the UKDiss.com website then please: