Human Resources Development (HRD)


This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.


Executive summary

HRD is about developing the skills and understanding needed for planning and designing training and development, through the understanding of how people learn and the suitability of different training methods and initiatives. M&S developed a promotional campaign that emphases on values of innovation by providing good customer services to look after customers.

Table of Content


Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….3-3

Task 1: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..3-6

Task 2: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..7-11

Task 3: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..11-14

Task 4: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..15-22

Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………22-22

Reference …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….23-25


The achievement of sustained and equitable development remains the greatest challenge facing the human race. Although, the developments of the last three decades also indicate that while remarkable progress has been made in a number of directions, the fruits of development have not benefited the world's growing number of poor people. However, this report will emphasis more in detail from task one to task four; including conclusion and reference.


Different kinds of learning styles exist, which are as follows-

  • Auditory.
  • Visual.
  • Kinaesthetic.

In the case of M&S; each of these learning styles is different and has its own character attached to its management levels as considered below:

Auditory learners are good at listening to learning material and this has a higher impact on all learning styles. Sound understanding may be selective in nature, with some sounds being easier to follow than others.

The visual learners generally listen to learning material and a lot depends on graphics, picture and also types of presentation. Charts and also graphs may be seen as easier forms of learning and it is easier for them to follow that.

Kinaesthetic learners have their learning based on experience. This is one of the best techniques which use hands on learning experience. Also, it may be seen that stationary learning may not be possible in their case, and they tend to move around (Baker et al., 2005).


Learning curve is a method used in the learning process and also helps in augmenting experience. The learning can be explained on the y-axis part and experience can be done as a part of x-axis. Its main function is optimization of all learning processes in a company.

  • Marks and Spencer can use it in controlling all learning processes and making them more suited to all needs of an organization.
  • Incremental learning can be controlled by using this method, and also helps in making decisions.
  • The data and all other components may be optimized by using this method, and also helps in choosing the parameters and models.

Transfer of learning is one of the major methods used in this process; while some of the necessary factors in this part are as follows-

  • There is a transfer of knowledge which helps in increase of diffusion among different groups.
  • Culture based on knowledge is developed in an organization, which also plays a part in acceleration of knowledge.
  • Productivity in the organization becomes better and also increases at a more rampant rate, making it easier for processes to take place.
  • The POS (Perceived Organizational Support) increases to a large extent by using this mechanism (Cropanzano et al., 2001).


The learning styles as well as theories can be of different kinds, and can be used in modulation of different kinds of learning systems. David A. Kolb's is based on methods that are related to experiential learning. So, two methods of learning can be followed in this case, which are as follows-

  • Concrete Experience
  • Abstract Conceptualization

If transforming experience is seen, the example is as follows-

  • Reflective Observation.
  • Active Experimentation.

All of these styles of learning have to be put in its place, for making it more holistic in nature and also its use. Matching learning styles can be developed for required people.

David Kolb’s Experiential Learning Model (ELM)

Concrete Experience

Active Experimentation

Reflective Observation

Abstract Conceptualization

The elements of this model are as follows-

  • Concerts.
  • Things to do.
  • Discovery method.
  • Sets of objectives as well as schedules.
  • Adaptable


  • Analogies
  • Specific problems
  • Tests hypothesis
  • Best answer
  • Working alone
  • Problem solving

VARK model

Another method that is used for categorization is called as VARK model. Some of the main elements of this are-

  1. visual learners;
  1. auditory learners;
  2. reading-writing preference learners;
  3. Kinaesthetic learnersortactile learners.

So, each of these techniques may be used in accordance to needs and also other accompanying process parameters (Cropanzano et al., 2001).


The training needs of the staff at different levels would vary depending on quantum of jobs being made available. The training need of the staff has to be calibrated to organizational needs and ensure that adequate degree of knowledge transfer takes place. Succession has to be managed among different members, which also designs and decides the success or failure of organizations. Development of staff has to take place in congruence with levels of hierarchy. Some of them are as follows-

  • The A level of managers that have 24 months of training.
  • The university level ones, who have a training period of 12 months from time of joining.
  • People having experience in retail industry have to train for 3 months. Marks and Spencer has to allow this kind of training to take place and make it available to all individuals

Competency mapping is another area that is intrinsic to management, which is related to business and technical needs. Identification of gaps can be done by using this method and helps in fulfilling organizational needs. So, some of the aspects in this regard are leadership, business training and also other needs (Baker et al., 2005).


Marks and Spencers generally follow an in-house method of training program. Also, it maintains a higher level of homogenous nature in all of its training aspects. Some of the advantages and also disadvantages as seen in the method are as follows-


Costs are saved in the training program. The cost savings come from varies avenues ranging from the facilities being used to other places. External influences during the process of training are lesser, making it easier for training to function. Costs of travelling are saved during this method. Fuel prices are rising at a rapid rate, and using these methods de complicates training.

A higher amount of focus can be achieved on training programs making it more economical. Examples form working scenario can be taken, which also matches organizational culture.


  • Administration has to be extra, which has an impact on the resource allocation of a company.
  • Delegates have a high amount of pressure, and cannot be taken off from classrooms on need.
  • The session may not be taken with the requisite levels of seriousness.
  • The training material being used may become obsolete.
  • Opportunities for networking may be quite less, and this may not allow learning to happen from one to another.
  • Best practices may not be set up for ensuring that markets are made better, this also means that companies do not get a chance to improve (Cropanzano et al., 2001).



Marks and Spencers needs to have a system for the training program, and the following steps may be followed-

  • TNA (Training Needs Analysis) has to be done as the first step. It helps in identification of needs that come as a part of the training process. Format and procedure needs to be followed during training, so that competency is maintained. So, work management mechanism has to be put in place.
  • Design of training process is the next step that has to be followed, so that all deliverables are maintained for function to take place.
  • Development is the next step, so that all designs are converted into material for training. This may include the lesson plans, and all other activities.
  • The very next stage is putting the plan into practice, so effectiveness of all the raining needs is ensured by this step and mechanism.
  • The next step of this process is ensuring that evaluation takes place. So, the outcomes being set at the beginning of any process has to be put in place, and it also ensures that process of training is followed in right earnest.
  • The last part of this process is feedback from total process. This ensures that all process parameters are maintained and adequate responsibilities are put in perspective. If any changes are required in any of the parts, this may be done so as to ensure that all major points are achieved, as outlined in the beginning(Cropanzano et al., 2001).




The training evaluation can be done in a number of ways, which can be mentioned as following-


  • All skills can be performed in an easy way.
  • The language type can be non-verbal in nature and used for provision of information.


  • Opinions can be voiced by using this opportunity.
  • Verbal kind of response as well as non-verbal responses can be seen and modulated.

Performance appraisal

  • Discussion of performance can be done in an easy way.
  • A new broad based discussion can be done on areas of improvement.


  • There is a scope for identification of strength as well as weaknesses.
  • Performance of all individuals is reflected.

Cost benefit analysis

  • Program costs are identified.

Viability of financial analysis can be done


  • Time can be saved.
  • Nature of usage is economical.

These are the areas of training that are based on participants, area of the training used, specifications of trainer and other generic parameters(Cropanzano et al., 2001).


Analysis of any of the training events can be done in a number of ways. They differ according to some points, also if the raining is technical, differences may crop up. Some major points are –

  • This is dependent on content of training program as well as activities involved in it.
  • The feedback given by the participants and also trainer in terms of effectiveness.
  • The change in knowledge of all participants based on involvement.
  • The resultant changes that take place in a workshop, due to the nature of resources being used.

TNA (Training Needs Analysis) is the starting point for all training needs and it serves as an initial point for training to take place. The basic premise and needs for raining is established before the start of it, and it plays an important part in raining process (Cropanzano et al., 2001).


Methods of evaluation that are used can be eventually checked, one example of this process is called as peer review. Employees are used in this process for evaluation. But, none of these may be used for giving any kind of promotions, discipline or provision of bonuses. Productivity and satisfaction of workers can also rise because of this. But, it has to have a certain level of acceptance attached to it, in the case of either the creation or doing the evaluation.


This is one of the other methods that is used in evaluation, and can be also used as an honest means of analysis. Here, the manager has to guide the process. Setting of goals is another method used for objective setting. Also, parameters can be created for evaluation of judging the process (Cropanzano et al., 2001).



Learning is an area in which the government has to play a large role, so that market competency is maintained fully. So, this also means that employee engagement has to be increased. Training is an areas where government can play a major role, so it also makes learning much better. Learning can be used as means for reducing unemployment, and also maintains the economy in a high state. So, either there can be skilled or competitive labour. So, challenges are faced by policy makers for setting various roles, various kinds of labour and also government. So, main points for assistance are as follows-

  • Assistance for training needs and process.
  • Facilitation of training.
  • Infrastructure allotment to all major players

UK government has to ensure that all of these needs are addressed by ensuring confidence of stakeholders. So, areas of action are as follows-

  • Offering of tax breaks to employers for investing in skills related to welfare of all sections.
  • Greater access has to be provided for all learning avenues.
  • Funding has to be made easier by reducing the red tape that surrounds it.
  • Development of skills among all young people.
  • Labour market has to be tapped and controlled for ensuring that all changes are monitored. Learning processes need to be accelerated (Pearce, 2000).


Competency movement has been a great impact on all aspects of private and public life. This has played a part in fostering linkages between the competencies that are organization based, core competencies and competencies related to jobs. Control of all executives, organizational effectiveness and all other related functions also play a part in it. Some of the major aspects of this method are as follows-

  • A differentiation can be made between the attributes ad behaviours that are different among top performers and others, which involve the low level performers.
  • Practical kinds of observations and the ones based on validation of all desired kinds of results.
  • A description of different kinds of skills, attitudes, behaviours and attitudes that can be linked to performance, career development and pay.
  • Results and models that help in research can be aligned.
  • Reliable model and their validation.
  • Competency can be used as model that is also used as driving approach and also helps in deriving strategic success in all organizations.
  • Approach is driven by competency as a major factor.
  • Comprehensive models must be used by all companies.
  • All the output has to be reliable and seen from a technical perspective. So, these are the impact areas of competency movement (Frese, 2001).


The UK government has to form an approach on the appropriate initiatives which are totally based on the premise of training as well as development. An approach to CR (Corporate responsibility) has been developed where all the activities are based on welfare of labour force. So, this is an important part in the development process of all initiatives. So, all initiatives are based on the fact that they are driven by principles, driven by stakeholders and also based on development. So, a large number of frameworks are used which are as follows-

  • UN Global Reporting Initiative
  • Global Compact
  • International Integrated Reporting Council draft framework
  • And, Consumer Good Forum Sustainability Activation Toolkit.

Also, there are frameworks for sustainability in business called as Community’s Corporate Responsibility Index and sector based plans called as British Retail Consortium’s ‘A Better Retailing Climate’ being put in place. Defra’s Environmental Reporting Guidelines is also generally published by the UK government and is useful in drafting of the governance code.

ISO 14000 environmental management series, EMAS, BSI Public Available Specifications, ISO50001 on energy management, ISO 26000 on sustainability, OHSAS8001 on health & safety, ‘Investors in People’ and NVQ accreditation in case of SA8000 compliance, which are used as certificates for sustainability. There is also presence of other certifications, which has an inclusion of mandatory label of energy as well as voluntary based schemes. So, these also cover the environmental impacts of different systems. So, voluntary schemes covering all areas of performance based on environment such as EU Eco-label, and organic etc), recyclability (UK on Pack Recycling Label scheme), nutrition values and also measure based on sustainability. So, these are examples of some of the initiatives by government which would help companies like Mark and Spencer (Frese, 2001).


Pearce, J.L., Henderson, G.R. 2000. Understanding acts of betrayal: Implications for industrial and organizational psychology. International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 15: 165-188.

Frese, M., Fay, D. 2001, Personal initiative: An active performance concept for work in the 21st century. Research in Organizational Behaviour, 23, 133-188.

Cropanzano, R., Rupp, D.E., Mohler, C.J., & Schminke, M. 2001. Three roads to organizational justice. Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, 20: 1-114. Resources Management, 20: 331-370.

Arshanapalli, Bala, T. Daniel Coggin, and William Nelson, 2001, Is fixed-weight asset allocation really better, Journal of Portfolio Management 27, 27- 38.

Artzner, Philippe, Freddy Delbaen, Jean-Marc Eber, and David Heath, 1999, Coherent Measures of Risk, Mathematical Finance 9, 203-228.

Baker, August J., Dennis E. Logue, and Jack S. Rader, 2005. Managing Pension and Retirement Plans: A Guide for Employers, Administrators, and Other Fiduciaries (Oxford University Press, New York).

Pinder, C., & Harlos, K. 2001 Employee silence: Quiescence and acquiescence: A review of the literature from a stakeholder perspective. Research in Personnel and Human

Page 1 of 14

Writing Services

Essay Writing

Find out how the very best essay writing service can help you accomplish more and achieve higher marks today.

Assignment Writing Service

From complicated assignments to tricky tasks, our experts can tackle virtually any question thrown at them.

Dissertation Writing Service

A dissertation (also known as a thesis or research project) is probably the most important piece of work for any student! From full dissertations to individual chapters, we’re on hand to support you.

Coursework Writing Service

Our expert qualified writers can help you get your coursework right first time, every time.

Dissertation Proposal Service

The first step to completing a dissertation is to create a proposal that talks about what you wish to do. Our experts can design suitable methodologies - perfect to help you get started with a dissertation.

Report Writing

Reports for any audience. Perfectly structured, professionally written, and tailored to suit your exact requirements.

Essay Skeleton Answer Service

If you’re just looking for some help to get started on an essay, our outline service provides you with a perfect essay plan.

Marking & Proofreading Service

Not sure if your work is hitting the mark? Struggling to get feedback from your lecturer? Our premium marking service was created just for you - get the feedback you deserve now.

Exam Revision

Exams can be one of the most stressful experiences you’ll ever have! Revision is key, and we’re here to help. With custom created revision notes and exam answers, you’ll never feel underprepared again.