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Human Resource Management
The human resource management is a business function that the management of the staff in its broader meaning. For companies, human capital becomes strength, to be leveraged for growth. This essay aims to look at the management of human resources to examine how national context acts to influence human resource management, both culturally and institutionally. This essay also aims to look at the ways that multinational organisations deal with cultural differences. The human resource management is responsible for obtaining and coordinating with people of organizations.
The term human resources (HR) originated in the area of economics and social sciences, where it was used to identify one of the three factors of production, also known as work (the other two being land and capital). As such, for many years was regarded as a resource: bit predictable and differentiable. The modern concept of human resources emerged in the 1920s in reaction to the approach of “efficiency” of Taylor (Harzing, and Ruysseveldt, 2003). Psychologists and employment experts initiated the movement of human resources; he began to see the workers in terms of their psychology and fitness organization, rather than as interchangeable parts. This movement grew throughout the twentieth century, every day putting more emphasis on how leadership, cohesion, and loyalty played a role in the success of the organization (Nahapiet, & Ghoshal, 1998).
As the business world was aware that an employee was much rather than "work", and that could bring more than that to the company and society, created the concept of "human capital", which encompasses the complexity of this resource. When used in the singular, "human resources", generally refers to persons employed in a company or organization. It stands for "personal". When speaking in the plural, "human resources" usually refers to the area of management that deals with managing the company staff. This includes hiring, developing, training and firing, among other functions. Towards the late twentieth and early twenty-first, the knowledge and skills of "human resources" have taken a huge relevance, becoming more and more important compared to other assets tangible. Hence the area of Human Resources has become an area vital to the success of organizations (Harzing, and Ruysseveldt, 2003).
Its long-term objectives is to of seek profitability and competitiveness of the company over time. As the company grows and becomes more complex, the Human resource management becomes more important if the purpose is the same. In the small business, it rarely has a formal structure and / or HR specialist. As this grows and begins to have a separate function to coordinate HR management (Harzing, and Ruysseveldt, 2003). The long-term success of a company depends largely on having the right people in each of the posts, so people have to make a quantitative and qualitative planning. It is important to note the time between recognition of the need and the incorporation of the person found for such performance. It is also necessary to help reducing turnover staff and keep workers informed of their career opportunities within the company.
Human Resource is Perhaps the Greatest Asset of Organisations
Those who know of accounting are very clear that the human resource is the staffs of organisations, for this is an expense, but it really is the best asset people can have in organisations. The company is not only capital and fixed assets. To manage this capital and operate these assets, the company requires staff, and to the extent that this is the most appropriate, the most competent, the efficiency of the company will be higher. Successful companies, competitive, strive to recruit the best staff, best able to perform each of the tasks required; otherwise the company will have no chance to survive the competition (Harzing, and Ruysseveldt, 2003).
Although accounting and financial personnel are considered an expense should be treated as a valuable asset. The company must implement personnel policies as if they were employees pose the most important thing. Only those companies that have great leaders, great managers and great operators, are protruding and overcome the difficulties, reason enough for the company to locate its employees in their place (Moffett, McAdam, & Parkinson, 2003). In UK, unfortunately there are many companies that see their employees an asset to be managed and maintained like any other asset, they are just as necessary but irrelevant, as an expense around, and also see it as something that simply replace but works instead of “performing maintenance”. The staff is as an asset to be given better, best be treated, so their performance will be more productive and better. That's why personnel policies must be tailored to the needs of the company from the beginning of the recruitment proceed until the employee leaves the company (Harzing, and Ruysseveldt, 2003). A competent employee, well treated and managed, is a very productive asset for the company.
Influence of National Context on Human Resource Management
The organizational culture is "the set of shared ideas, implicit and taken within a group, which determines the way in which the group perceives, assesses and responds to the external environment". Develop and maintain a culture of adaptation has a great influence on the human resource management. The company has successful company leaders stress the importance of key stakeholders (customers, shareholders and employees) and leadership for the success of the company (Harzing, and Ruysseveldt, 2003). The early leaders of the company creates and put implement a vision and a strategy that fit the economic sector was born a strong culture that emphasizes the need to be at the service of customers. The incoming management team is committed to preserving the core adaptive organizational culture of company, demonstrating greater dedication to the founding principles of that culture which any strategy or business practice.
Effects on behaviour outside the organization performs the tasks assigned based on their role in the organization remains and brings innovations and cooperate spontaneously. Affective Outcomes are generally satisfied and internally motivated to work is strongly affected by its work phases anticipatory socialization. Mentoring is defined as the establishment and maintenance of intensive and long-lasting relationships between one or more people who play the role of mentor and a disciple, often, but not necessarily, a young new hires organization (Harzing, and Ruysseveldt, 2003).
Global Management of Human Resource
When talking about the globalization of human resources, it is important to look at the current economy, and the social and economic changes of recent years. For a good competition, enterprises must adopt international perspectives in policies and practices of human resources. Arguably, with the emergence of free trade areas, the world is becoming smaller and smaller. The question to be asked is where does all the human resource management? Looking at external factors, the multinational firm faces the difficulty of acting in a different culture, with a language, value systems and different business environment (Harzing, and Ruysseveldt, 2003). It should address such questions as: The skills, attitudes and motivation of the countries where the activity is located, the policies of receiving states, and the labour laws on salaries, hiring, firing, organize and relations between management and workers, ethical, social responsibility, and interaction with public authorities, and the internal factors are specific to management style. These are effectively done at organisations like Tesco and Sainsbury (Moffett, McAdam, & Parkinson, 2003).
Globalisation and Cultural Differences
The issue of cultural difference occurs both in the social debate in the different work and social sciences, when one looks at what is given as a fact in contemporary democratic societies: cultural pluralism. If people agree broadly on what cultural pluralism refers - diversification, especially due to the waves of immigration in the 1970s, individual confessions and, on this basis, behaviours, food, clothing, but ... also the most ethnically diverse citizens of the same nationality - it seems more obscure and far more controversial to refer to the notion of difference. Without dwelling on the dimension paradoxical, even contradictory, it seems urgent to define properly what is - and is not - the cultural difference because it is from this concept precisely be determined as measures to cool the democratic principles based on the transformations of contemporary societies (Moffett, McAdam, & Parkinson, 2003).
People understand culture as coexistence, interaction, process. The big question that arises from globalization is not as much about how trade is organized, but with coexistence at national, local and now global. The political translation of this question would be how to organize relations between different societies and cultures they represent, in the context of the new conditions imposed by globalization? Globalization is not inevitable, but the result of a series of human decisions translated into several policies that exclude rather than culture or think of it as a "clash of civilizations" would have to address cultural factors in redefining relations between culture and politics (Harzing, and Ruysseveldt, 2003). To do this, it has been suggested that people consider how cultural identities can play a major role in the management of culture.
The relationship between culture and identity is one of the three cross-cutting themes that emerged with globalization: geopolitics, defined as the ratio of power or security and territory geo-economics, which is the relationship between power and economy and geo-cultural issues. Each of these three categories must be addressed separately (Moffett, McAdam, & Parkinson, 2003). First, the national administration to adapt national policies, but above all, generating new concepts and tools to address not only the consequences of globalization through national policies, but also to face the globalization process itself. This cannot be done effectively only through national policies, the existing international system or simple regulations.
What are the changes in culture from globalization? It is clear that this process is not absolute and that not everything is globalized. Globalization has gone through different stages in different parts of the world, but with cultural globalization that brought to light the different views that exist in the world and, therefore, changes that have structural effects. The interaction between different societies and cultures through the media are more common, because the media have become major actors of cultural globalization, resulting in two types of consequences (Moran, 2005).
The first is the industrialization of culture, which involves the application in the culture of the industrial logic, resulting in profit-seeking, resource concentration, vertical integration lawsuits cultural market access, etc. Today four or five giant corporations control virtually cultural products circulating around the world, generating culturally unstructured fields. From Harzing, and Ruysseveldt (2003) perception, the media are the real builders of models of life and values, which are mostly consumerist character.
The second consequence is that cultural issues have become strategic issues. In this sense, there is a huge danger in what people dare to call as a "cultural Darwinism" in which culture is not being able to position itself as a major player in the field of globalized media. There is a great risk that dominant cultures are incapable of understanding the world as it is and to address their differences. Each culture is subject to what people would call a globalized culture, totalizing and imperative, where the power comes from the ability to produce and generate symbols globalized media. This is a matter of great concern to all cultures, and should also be for the policy (Nahapiet, Gratton, & Rocha, 2005).
Therefore, organisations and people have three major problems. Let’s take the example of Tesco and its problems: the concentration and vertical integration of globalized media, trade flows disproportionate, and the ability to effectively address this problem. Organisations must act in the national and international level, although possibly national policies and international regulations are insufficient to address these issues, which are transnational-national, rather than international (McElroy, 2002). Another change created by globalization is the introduction of geo-cultural identities and new realities. People are used to always watch international affairs from the perspective of the States, but with globalization and the media interaction between societies, it is no longer controlled by them. Organisations enter a world of multiple identities and beliefs, in which the realities and cultural identities does not always correspond to national borders (Harzing, and Ruysseveldt, 2003).
Addressing Cultural Differences
Cultural differences need to be handled with great care in human resource management, as it has direct impact on all people. At a time when globalization is widespread, geographical boundaries become almost virtual. But another border persists, more subtle and more fundamental, sometimes ignored or neglected: that of cultural diversity (Brewster, and Harris, 2012). Taking it into account is essential because when poorly managed, the tensions and frustrations it creates can lead to intolerance, isolationism or the community, racism, or more generally called "ethnocentrism" in organisations and people. In the current world of time, it is tempting to consider intercultural relations not only in the form of conflict, like the famous "Clash of Civilizations" by Samuel Huntington. And it is often this perception is supported and encouraged by experienced difficult personal experiences in contact with a different culture (Pavelkova, 2006).
Here is another philosophy of inter-culturally that is proposed: to understand these differences as a source of wealth human, a new approach to the realities of the world. If they are sometimes an obstacle, it can be crossed as any other. If these differences provide some challenges, each culture also offers solutions which others do not have. It is said that in Africa, anything is possible, but nothing is certain (McElroy, 2002).
It generally understood by cultural practices all activities attendance of cultural facilities and personal practices as well as some forms of recreation. There is no official definition of the content of the expression, but it retains most often practices on which the Ministry of Culture survey on a regular basis, which has the advantage of taking into account the wider activities those that relate to the academic culture (Newell, Robertson, Scarbrough, & Swan, 2002). Investigations Department are both attending movie theatres, theatre, concerts and museums on the dance public assistance to a sporting event (but not a sport), the carnival, the listening to television and radio, Internet usage, reading and buying books, crossword puzzles, crafts, card games, garden maintenance ... The advantage of this definition is that it is not reduced to practice the intellectual sphere and implicitly refers to the definition given sociology of culture: "a complex whole which includes knowledge, beliefs, the art, morals, law, custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society (Briscoe, 2012)
The emergence of digital technology has changed the party choice of cultural practices. It can be seen in Tesco, Apple, Samsung etc. These new media technologies have fostered the emergence of mass culture, widespread through the mass media (radio, television, press, Internet ...). Some analyses make the assumption of a trend towards reducing the gap of cultural practices and the democratization of access to high culture (Pavelkova, 2006). This question requires nuance: there is no denying access to legitimate culture is facilitated by digital technologies, particularly in terms of economic cost. Moreover, there are differences in practices less pronounced in younger generations than among adults and seniors. But if the practice wealthier social strata have diversified beyond the traditional territories of the elitist culture (to the point that they can be described as omnivores), Internet use is still marked by the social and museum attendance is still rare among the working classes. 91% of executives use the internet daily against 47% of workers and 23% of retirees. 60% of managers are in the museum at least once a year against 22% of employees (Brewster, and Harris, 2012).
Humanity now, as formerly, is a machine to make the difference, divisions, the distinction of clans, residences, classes, countries, political factions, regions.These cleavages groups cling to their heritage inalienable and not "merchandisable" such as language, religion, moral values, sacred places, land, works of art, monuments, gastronomy.They perpetuate existing cultures transmitted by tradition, localized, socialized, verbalized, and meet-identifying function compasses individual and collective.These cultures live and evolve. Human resource management takes care of all the issues related to people.
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