I choose Genting Berhad as the organization for the Strategic Management report. I worked in Awana Genting Highlands almost one year before I worked in government sector. Awana Genting Highlands is one of the six hotels under the Genting Berhad. Genting Berhad is a management company and investment holding of Genting Group. It was founded by the late Tan Sri Lim Goh Tong in 1965 when he want to make a 20 km access road across mountainous which was located about 2000-metres above level sea. Tan Sri Lim Kok Thay is now the Chairman and Chief Executive of Genting Berhad. Genting Berhad is a Malaysian company with interests in a variety of fields. The group comprises of more than 15,000 employees, 11,000 acres of resort land and 156,000 acres of choice plantation land throughout Malaysia. The company is principally an investment holding and management company with seven major business divisions, such as leisure & hospitality, plantations, property, power, paper, and oil & gas. The leisure & hospitality division is represented by numerous holiday brand names. This division operates in a variety of areas, and includes the operation of over 30 food and beverage outlets. They are variety of accommodation where there have six hotels, theme park and attraction, international shows, gaming experience, leisure cruising and meetings and conventions. Their vision is 'to be leading leisure, hospitality and entertainment corporation in the world', (Annual Report 2008). Oil palm cultivation is the main activity of the Plantation Division. The division is made up of 41,000 hectares of plantation land. The Genting Groups involvement in the property development sector enables it to realize its strategy of holding land-based assets for long-term capital appreciation and development potential. In 1971, the shares of Genting Berhad were listed on the main board of Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange (KLSE). In November 2007, Genting Berhad became one of the biggest listed companies in Malaysia with a market capitalization of RM29.2 billion (US$8.74 billion).
2.0 Group Corporate Structure
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The Board has their own responsibilities for the proper conduct in the business. The Board meeting is usually on a quarterly basis. They have formal schedule specifically reserved for its decisions like annual operating plan, major capital projects, overall strategic direction, financial performance and monitoring of the Group's operating. Formal Board Committees established by the Board with the Code namely the Audit Committee, Nomination Committee, Remuneration Committee that assist the Board in the discharge of its duties. In addition, The Board is responsible for the Group's system of internal control and risk management. This is important to review their integrity and adequacy. Moreover, it is for the purposes of safeguarding the Group's assets and shareholder's investment. According to Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995), 'leadership is distributed in the organization that supports the flow of knowledge from the middle to the top and down to the rest of the organization'. The Group also put in place a risk management process in order to help the Board recognizing and evaluating the managing risks. The Audit Committee has appropriate relationships with the external auditor. External auditors attended all Audit Committee meetings in order to audit their plan or report and comments on the audited financial statements. The Committee were responsible approved the internal audit for the Group and the company. They also need to authorize resources to identify any risks areas. They also need reviewed the internal and external plan for the Group and the company with the external editors. The Board reviewed the performance of the Committee every three years to determine whether they have carried out their duties. In terms of meeting, the Committees meet at least four times a year. The Secretary of the Committee prepared and sent all minutes of each meeting to the Committee members.
2.1 Lack of Understanding by the Board of Director with Regard to Internal Control
In dealing with the board's stewardship responsibilities, the board should fully understand both the principal risks the company faces and its system of internal control. The purpose of internal control is to manage and control risk. In order to properly manage risk, an appropriate risk assessment and evaluation framework and activities would be needed. Once risks have been identified, appropriate control systems to manage and control these risks should be maintained and regularly reviewed given the company's risk profile. The reason of internal control is to make better doing in control risk without eliminate it because it involves risk-taking business. The Board has responsible for the Group's system of internal control and risk management and for reviewing its adequacy and integrity. The Board of Directors should aware that the system is created to control rather than get rid of risks and therefore cannot provide an absolute assurance against material misstatement or loss. To assist the Board in maintaining a sound system of internal control for the purposes of safeguarding shareholders' investment and the Group's assets, the Group has in place, an adequately resourced internal audit department. The activities of this department which reports regularly to the Audit Committee provides the Board with much of the assurance it requires regarding the adequacy and integrity of the system of internal control. As proper risk management is a significant part for the system of internal control, the Group has also put in place a risk management process.
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
In practice, businesses face risks from many sources in their dynamic environments and virtually all areas of the business are exposed to risk. In particular, the objectives of the business are at risk, and control systems are established and maintained to assist the achievement of objectives. Even though it is impossible to provide complete assurance through any control system, the control systems must be designed and applied to manage the likelihood and consequences of risk to acceptable levels. That is the cost of control should be related to the significance of risk. To manage internal control and assessing its integrity and adequacy, the company should in corporate its governess and normal management in order to meet regulatory requirements. In addition, the code details that a sound system of internal control is necessary in order to keep company's assets and shareholder's investment safe. Generally, internal control is created to provide reasonable assurance based on the achievement of the company's objectives. Internal control is based upon certain fundamental concepts where it is not forms or policy manuals but is affected by people. It is not an end in itself process but it is a means to an end.
2.2 Internal Audit Function and Risk Management Process
The Group should have an adequate resourced internal audit department to assist the Board in maintaining a system of internal control. The internal audit department reports to the Committee and is independent of the activities they audit. The primary role of the department is to undertake regular and systematic review of the systems of internal control so as to provide sufficient assurance that the Group has sound systems of internal control and that established policies and procedures are adhered to and continue to be effective and satisfactory. As proper risk management is a significant part for a system of internal control, the Group has also to put in place a risk management process to help the Board in identifying, evaluating and managing risks.
2.3 The Board Director's Responsibilities
In relation to internal control, the Board of Directors have to acknowledges their responsibility under the Bursa Malaysia Listing Requirements as identify principal risks and ensure implementation of appropriate control measures to manage the risks. They are also need to review the adequacy and integrity of the internal control system and management information systems and systems for compliance with applicable laws, regulations, rules, directives and guidelines. It should be noted that an internal control system is created to control risks rather than eliminate them. It should be an ongoing risk management process established to identify, evaluate, and manage significant risks to effectively mitigate the risks that may impede the achievement of Genting Group of companies business and corporate objectives. The Board has to make sure management of risks and measures are taken to mitigate any weaknesses in the control environment.
3.0 Business Operations and Performance
In terms of Genting Group's strategy, they intend to continue growing its core leisure and hospitality businesses by concentrating on its competitive advantages, enhancing its customer facilities and improving its current offerings in these businesses. The Genting Group also plans to identify growth segments within the area of leisure and hospitality, particularly in the gaming, hotel and cruise sectors and make appropriate investments in Malaysia, and, if appropriate, overseas to expand these businesses. According to Richard Nelson (1991), 'the resource-based view of the firm has explained firm differences by means of the cost of imitating or acquiring resources so firms that seek to acquire resources that give other firms a competitive advantage are prevented from doing so because these resources are too costly or impossible to acquire in the factor market'. Maximize returns from existing business activities by optimizing operational efficiencies The Genting Group believes that it has on average one of the highest levels of operational efficiency in its existing industrial and plantation businesses among its competitors in Malaysia. Through the continuing application of new technology and production techniques, investment in information technology and other technologies across its businesses, the Genting Group intends to further increase business automation and enhances its operational efficiencies.
The top management must either see opportunities not seen by other top teams or must be able to exploit opportunities by virtue of preemptive and consistent capability-building that other companies can't', (Hamel G., Prahalad 1994). Expand the Genting Group's revenue base through strategic acquisitions and investment opportunities in Malaysia and elsewhere, in particular in the areas of power generation and supply as well as plantations. A successful cost leadership strategy usually permeates the entire firm, as evidenced by high efficiency, low overhead, limited perks, intolerance of waste, intensive screening of budget requests, wide spans of control, regards link to cost containment and broad employee participation is cost control efforts', (Fred R. David 2005). The Genting Group believes that its strong balance sheet and stable cash flow and revenue streams from its leisure, hospitality, gaming and entertainment business enable it to expand its revenue base by growing its other business activities. The Genting Group will seek to continue building on its prudent acquisition strategy to date by viewing potential acquisitions of power generation and supply projects that display potential upside returns on investment. The Genting Group will also consider expanding its plantations business if appropriate opportunities arise. They optimize their capital structure by achieving a more balanced use of financing. The Genting Group intends to maintain a balanced financial structure by optimizing the use of debt and equity financing and utilizing a mix of internally generated funds and external financing to fund the Genting Group's planned expansion and working capital expenditures.
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Expand cross marketing initiatives within the Genting Group to increase sales to its existing customers and grow its customer base. When the firm is exposed to rapid technological change, the firm's routine, language and embedded forms of knowledge may adversely impact firm profits, (Poppo and Zenger 1998). The Genting Group is strongly focused on taking advantage of its diverse businesses by expanding its cross marketing initiatives and having greater integration within the Genting Group businesses. For instance, the cruise line and hotel businesses will be cross marketed to existing and new customer bases by the use of the Genting Group's World Card loyalty programme having a membership of approximately 825,000 throughout Asia as at 30 June 2003. In addition, the Genting Group's strategy is to build the branding of World Card throughout Asia. World Card subsidiaries and businesses have commenced in Singapore and Hong Kong from 2003 and other Asian countries are identified for implementation. The Genting Group will continue to grow from strength to strength as a leading Asian multinational corporation.
4.0 External Environment
Malaysia has trade freedom, labor freedom, monetary freedom and high level s of fiscal freedom. The top corporate tax rate and the top income tax rate are moderate and the tax revenue is low as a percentage of GDP. The government does not distort market prices with direct subsidies and inflation is also minor. The simple employment procedures with no minimum wage make the labor sector flexible and help businesses to stay competitive.
Genting Berhad needs technological facilities advancement at all level to run the activities of their Principal Subsidiaries Division such as Leisure & Hospitality Division, Plantation Division, Property Division, Power Division, Oil & Gas Division, Manufacturing Division and Investment Holding and Management Services. Due to increased competition and accelerated product development cycle, innovation and the management of technology are becoming crucial to corporate success of Genting Berhad. Research found that the most important driver of corporate value for both durable and non-durable companies to be innovative. What is less obvious is how a company can generate a significant return from investment in research and development as well as an overall sense of enthusiasm for innovative behaviour and risk taking. One way is to include innovation in the corporation's mission statement. Another way is by establishing policies that support the innovation process.
The organizational form that best coordinates and enables knowledge creation is an amalgamation of three layers working in parallel: the business system, the project system and the knowledge system', (Lyles and Schwenk 1992). The importance of technology and innovation must be emphasized by top management of Genting Berhad and reinforced by people throughout corporation. The top management and the board must be interested in this topic and followed by managers below than tend to echo their interest. Therefore, management has an obligation to not only encourage new product development but also develop a system to ensure that technology is being used most effectively, with the consumer in mind. The groups need to continually seen their external societal and task environments for new development in technology that may have some application to their potential products or services. For sure manager of each Principal Subsidiaries is responsible for suggesting and implementing a company's technological strategy light of its corporate objectives and policies. The managers of Genting Corporate Subsidiaries job involve build techniques of embodying in new processes and products, selecting alternative new technologies and organizing resources so that the new technologies can be implemented. Technology Department or Human Resource Management unit should be evaluated for technological competence in both development and the use of innovation technology, or to improve knowledge and implementation regarding on technology, or top management must attend course and seminar related to the technology subject.
It is related to allocation of power and provides constraining and protecting laws and regulations. Trend in the political and legal have a significant impact not only on the level of competition within an industry but also on which strategies might be successful such as strict enforcement periods, high level of taxation and constraining labor laws that directly affect corporate growth strategy. All these are set by the government that rules the country with its own purposes. However the stability of the government that rules a country is very important. Stable ruling government can set rules and regulations that will protect the local company in competing with foreign company that have an investment in that particular country. The laws is set to be follow by all individual and company that stay of have business in the country. In political and legal forces the laws that govern the corporations have an impact on decision making. So strategy makers should choose strategic alternative that minimize the general forces such as political and legal pressure and maximize the probability of gaining stakeholder support. One way is to propose a political strategy to influence its key stakeholders. Political strategy is a plan to bring stakeholders into agreement with a corporation's actions. Some of the most commonly used political strategies are constituency building, political action committee contribution, advocacy advertising, lobbying and coalition building.
5.0 Internal Environment
5.1 Corporate Culture
Asia's top tourist destinations, is a now an inspiration for many budding entrepreneurs. The founder has blended the values of perseverance, hard work and integrity to create a management style distinctively his own. And over the years, these values have been instilled within the realms of the Genting management team and corporate culture. According to Mr. Eddie Chan, Sports & Recreation Manager of Awana Genting Highlands, "Winning this title reflexes a company's good corporate culture that believes in teamwork, healthy employees, company's commitment on employees' training and a progressive and dynamic company".
5.2 Corporate Resources
Genting International is the exclusive international marketing and sales coordinator of Genting Highlands Resort outside Malaysia. It has a network of international sales offices and sales agents in various countries including Hong Kong, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, India, China, Indonesia and the Middle East. During the year, new representative offices were set up in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam and in Shanghai, China and a branch office was established in the United Arab Emirates. The additional new offices have boosted promotional efforts and increased visitors to Genting Highlands Resort. Revenue from sales and marketing services amounted to S$18.9 million (2005: S$17.7 million).
It has been a record year of performance as all business divisions posted higher revenues. Group revenue increased by 27% to a new high of RM6.9 billion (2005: RM5.5 billion). The good revenue performance was mainly due to higher business volume generated by the Leisure and Hospitality Division, especially from Genting Highlands Resort. In addition, the Malaysian power plant posted higher revenues as no major maintenance works were undertaken in 2006, compared to the previous year in which all of its turbines underwent major inspection and maintenance. The Plantation Division benefited from higher crude palm oil prices and an increase in the output of fresh fruit bunches. Higher progress billings from properties sold also benefited the Property Division. Higher oil prices benefited the Oil & Gas Division while higher paper selling prices and volume sold benefited the Manufacturing Division. The Group's profit before tax reached a record high of RM2.7 billion (2005: RM2.4 billion).
5.2.3 Research & Development
Genting Berhad had developed computer programme by using 'Java' programming language. The programming standard have been defined from the standards used in the development of the Internet games, namely the Wu Shi and Fire Cracker games both made their debut in the Internet Tournament System (ITS). These standards exist principally to preserve the consistency of programming style in the 'Java' language. Besides, they are also needed to facilitate the ongoing maintenance of the system as well as in the development of the impending Intranet Gaming System (IGS) and other future system that will be employing the use the 'Java' programming language.
6.0 Conclusion and Recommendations
To run and administered the big company, the function of Board of Directors, Principal Executive Officers, Top Management Officers, other management committee and employees commitment are needed. Thus, commitment and co-operation from all level of the employees are important to ensure the successful of Genting Berhad. Genting Berhad is a big conglomerate with big investment and capital should control group investment with cautious by the top management level. 'A vision set by the leaders can be programmed into the many organizational members through accurate explanation and presentation. Programmed with the right direction, organizational members are expected to act accordingly', (Simon 1993). Frequently monitoring of the investment activities could avoid financial burden to the company. The company should find any strategic locations or places in Malaysia to develop as a tourist destination. The other location could give an alternative to the visitors either local or foreigner to enjoy their vacation with family or friend. The company revenue had increase from year to year. Based on the current company strategy, Genting Berhad's business activities will be expanding from time to time as well as the Genting Group's revenue will be increased. Loyalty and commitment from employees also contribute to the ongoing success of Genting Berhad. To keep up company stability and growth, the Genting Berhad's top management should consider the areas like expansion of business activities or down-sizing by the competitors, market trend, economic conditions, expectations of shareholders, technological changes, public expectations, criticism by outsiders and changes in market and consumers expectations.
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