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1.1 Aims of Report:This report describes the details of recruitment and selection process which can be used to achieve an organisation's strategic goals.
It also suggest which other heads of the department need to be involved in the recruitment and selection process, clarify of the reason why and how they could be involved.
- Key functions of recruitment and selection procedure to achieve strategic goals of the organisation.
- Suggestions about getting effective contribution from workforce.
1.3 Terms of References:
This assignment has been prepared by Mr. M Rahaman in order to analyse the recruitment and selection process and its effectiveness for achieving organisational objectives and recommendations for a strategic approach to dealing with the challenges. During preparing this assignment imagination of ABC(here ABC is used as example of a company) Company is taken to show the actual process .In order to make this assignment class notes, personal learning, tutors guidelines and other helpful stuffs are being used.
2. Recruitment and Selection Process:
People are the most important aspect of any business, and management should make every effort to get the right people in the right jobs at the right time. For a company to stay competitive in the market it must recruit and retain an effective team of employees. In this case strategic human resource have vital role to play, because when human resource co-operate with company strategic goals then, they can come up with excellent procedures to get excellent role players as employees.
There is distinction between recruitment and selection:-
- Recruitment involves the attraction of suitable candidates from both inside and outside of the organisation.
- Selection involves the choosing of suitable candidates by means of the recruitment process.
Recruitment and selection is no longer a straightforward process because the advantage of the flexible workforce has encouraged companies to re-engineering their working and recruitment practices. So, many variables have to be taken into consideration during recruitment and selection, including employment status (full-time, permanent part-time, temporary part-time, subcontractor, self-employed etc.), the external labour market, and even whether external recruitment is necessary or not. It is very important to insure that the process is undertaken fairly and equal opportunities is been implemented during recruitment and selection.
Recruitment and selection is a systematic process where every step has importance to be completed for the process of success. For a management position of ABC company I would like to follow the following steps:-
2.1 Determine the vacancy:
It is necessary to define whether the recruitment is necessary or not. It may be that the vacancy can be filled out in some other ways. Valuable information can be obtained by conducting an interview when an existing employee leaves or a new position is created. For example: through redeployment or flexible working. There are number of alternatives to undertake recruitment and selection procedure. This can expensive and time consuming, two most used procedures for alternatives are:-
Subcontracting:To avoid on cost such as national insurance and sickness pay it's a great procedure. Lots of growing companies are using this procedure to reduce cost labour sector.
Agencies: The use of temporary agency workers is the best way to cover different occurrences like long term sickness and maternity leave. Such workers are not employed by company so, this way company can save money although the management should be careful about choosing dependable agency.
Internal Recruitment:It's another possible way of alternative and cheaper than external recruitment. The best advantage is that ensuring the appointment of someone already accustomed to the organisational culture and values.
Since it is determined that a vacancy exist and needs to filled, the first focus should be defining the job requirements and analyse the job.
2.2 Analysis the Job:
Adopting a methodology for job analysis establishes what is required of the post-holder. In other words it is the first step in identifying job tasks and duties. There are two basic types of job analysis.
First is formally referred to a job description, a written description of what the person in the job are required to do, how they are supposed to the job and the rationale for any required job procedures. A job description contains a summary of job analysis data which is very useful and vital element for job analysis. A checklist can be useful for this purpose and various categories information needs to be collected under checklist outlines.
Second is job specification,which states the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other attributes needed by a job incumbent to perform well on the job. These may include the compensable factors that are used in performing a job evaluation, such as analytical abilities, physical exertion, accountability for budgets, unpleasant working environment.
A complete job analysis should include the perceptions of others whom the job relates. They are:-
Line Manager/Supervisor:he/shehas day to day connection with job post and knowledge what is required. Even the vacancy is for a new job which is just created, the line manager/supervisor know the details of the activities the post- holder will be doing.
Colleagues/peers: these staff can give details of how the job-holder should integrate with others and perform in group tasks.
2.3 Job Description:
Job description is the basic foundation for the hiring process. Written correctly some thought behind the process, the job description can serve many purpose in hiring right person for the job, improve communication with the person once he or she is hire and even can play a role in the success of a new hire.
Job description describe the job in terms of its duties, responsibilities and purpose by covering the total requirements - who, what, where, when and why. The key elements of are:-
- The job Title
- To whom the job holder reports-where the job fit in
- Primary objective-main purpose of the job
- Key tasks
- How the responsibilities to be carried out
- Extent or responsibility
- Key contents and basic conditions of work
Job description can be considered as an authoritative document which guides the individual through day-to-day task achievement. However, job description is not necessarily definitive but may vary in length and content depending on the duties, responsibilities and seniority of the post.
2.4 Person Specification:
The person specification provides recruiters an ideal profile of the candidate the company wishes to attract. It is an extension of the job description; while the job description outline what the job entails, the person specification describes the kind of person who would be most suitable for the job.
The person specification outlines the minimum knowledge, experience, qualities and skills necessary to perform the job effectively. However, during preparation of person specification two important principles needed:-
- Qualities must be job related. Qualities that are not directly job related could result in unfair discrimination.
- Qualities must be realistic. Having a very demanding set of requirements could be too restrictive and therefore result in too small in pool of candidates.
2.5 Recruitment Adverts:
Recruitment adverts has traditionally been the most obvious method of attracting candidates and it is still important, although many organisations are outsourcing recruitment to agencies or consultants or using online recruitment. The key to advertising is knowing when and where to run an ad that will be viewed by greatest numbers of reader. Effective advertising requires creativity and market research. Advertising also must confirm to government regulations regarding discrimination. Some important methods of advertising for recruitment are:-
- Online recruitment
- Using agencies and job centres
- Using recruitment consultants etc.
2.6 Pre-Selection of Candidates:
This is the initial stage of selection. This stage is to pre-select potentially suitable candidates from the total of applications through the process of short listing. Short listing involves assessing the candidates' applications to determine their suitability for the post.
In order to ensure that the short listing process is fair, there are two factors which should be applied:-
- The information about candidates which is taken into account is limited to that provided by them in their applications; and
- The process is carried out by more than one person
It is important that “good practice” is adopted during the pre-selection of candidates for interview. Adopting best practice standards portrays a good corporate image to candidates applying for jobs. It is important to follow equal opportunities in recruitment, and have procedures and policies to discourage discriminatory practice to the workplace.
2.7 Hold Interviews:
An interview is a face-to-face meeting between the candidate and the interviewer or a panel of interviewers. The interview is intended to be a exchange of information, although attendance of line managers in interview panel or interview board is mandatory cause only these people can verify a job requirement more accurately and response immediately to call candidate for assessment to justify how long the candidate will carry on.
All interviews need a structure and I think we should follow at list the following criteria:-
- Opening: Candidates are often little nervous in first track of interview although there may be inexperienced interviewer as well. So, interviewer needs to be well prepared to encourage candidates to get over their nerves, relax, speak freely and perform well. Also interviewer needs to explain interview format, questioning time and how long the interview will go on.
- Give Information: It's about giving information about the company, the position candidate interviewing for and the interviewer position .This stage of interview is very important because it allows candidate to settle down before contribution. But interviewer needs to be careful that the information outlined is sufficient to begin with.
- Collect Information: It is very important to ask appropriate question during this stage where equal opportunities must be exist. The questions should be work out by interviewer in advance to ensure complete coverage of all aspects of the job.
- Allowing question and queries: Provide opportunity to the candidate to ask question.
- Closing: It is very important to make notes and record impressions so that they are available for future reference if any query arises and confirm the candidate is still interested in being selected.
2.8 Hold Assessments:
It is very important that line manager or the immediate top management is available during assessment. Usually in assessments some steps are followed to characterise the candidate and to find out how strong the candidate is for the position and they are:-
- Assess how candidates behave in a group situation and how they interact with others
- Assess how candidates respond to “realistic” situations
- Assess how candidates think and respond to problems
- Identify candidates' thoughts and views on particular topics
- Assess how candidates use management tools to achieve a goal
- Assess how candidates set goals for their position and give command to the employees etc.
If candidate is successful in this stage he/she will be offered the position and follow up in next stage induction programme.
3. Importance of Involvement of Head of Departments in Recruitment & Selection:
Above 2.8 shows the evidence of importance of involvement of Head of departments in recruitment and selection process. The importance of the role of line managers or head of departments is well documented, especially by Hutchinson and Purcell (2004), as in their research they found the first line manager behaviour is: the most important factor explaining the variation in both job satisfaction and job discretion, or the choice that people have over how they do their jobs. It is also one of the most important factors in developing organisational commitment.
Hutchinson and Purcell suggest that line managers or head of departments bring HR policies to life and have a direct impact on employee performance. About it CIPD conducted a survey in 2007 which shows head of departments are more likely to be solely or mainly responsible for recruitment and selection.
Source: The changing HR function with permission of the publisher; CIPD survey report 2007, London(www.cipd.co.uk)
The result of this assessment report on the devolution of HRM functions to the line management has proven the growing trend of such practices universally. In a way, the assessment shows the key concepts of recruitment and selection process and understanding the importance of involvement of heads of departments during recruitment and selection to achieve organisational strategic goal. Although the HRM should always aware of change in market trends, laws, policies regarding recruitment and update the procedures accordingly to co-operate and to make sure effective recruitment and selection procedures is followed for gaining success.