Animal Testing


Animal testing

In our culture a lot of groups and organizations are discussing whether or not animal testing should be disqualified. A number of people consider that there are reasons why animal testing should be done. Others have an opinion that animal testing is ethically incorrect. Several experts also believe that there are supplementary options existing. At one momentary look animal testing is necessary to manufacture latest medicines but this violates the animal rights. The research establishes that why the animal testing should not be banned and why it should be forbidden. This assay will examine the moral value for animals testing .

Ethics describes and defines the principles, while moral prescribes the constraints on any human activity, that are essential for protection of life and respect of people (Quéré, 1991). Applied to the human-animal relationship and to animal treatment, ethics asks the question of moral concerns about the treatment of animals. animal testing will be required to prove that the drug or device works safely as designed in animals before it is used in people (functionality testing). Typical tests would include hemolysis (exposing the device to rabbit blood in a test tube and measuring how many blood cells are damaged), maximization sensitization (checking if guinea pigs develop an immune response to the device), cytotoxicity (putting the device in among growing cells in a dish and checking if the cells die), genotoxicity (checking whether bacteria exposed to the device develop genetic mutations). The approximate number of animals used in research, each year, is 17-22 million which is much smaller as compared to the 5 billions animals that are killed and consumed for food, each year(Shrinivas Kanade ,2009).
The "three Rs", first described by Russell and Burch in 1959, are guiding principles for the use of animals in research in many countries Reduction refers to methods that enable researchers to obtain comparable levels of information from fewer animals .Refinement refers to methods that minimize potential pain, suffering or distress, and enhance animal welfare for the animals still used. Replacement refers to the preferred use of non-animal methods to achieve the same scientific aim. In concusion we should minimum number of animals required for statistically significan results, and minimize animal suffering as possible .

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The u.s foundation for biomedical research (1981) says that" animal research has played a vital role in vitrtnally every major medical advance of the last century-for both human and animal health". Animals have positive impacts that help both human and the hole world.For long time, animals stay good friends for childnen and old people . Animals sacrificed by their life to improve human and animal lifes in so many way. For example smallpox vaccine was unknown befer 1800s but now a lot of people was help by using it . Animals teshing helps every human in away or other. In conclusion , animals played a critical role in developing of medicine field .

The American Medical Association has stated that it believes that research-involving animals is essential to maintaining and improving the health of human beings. They point out that all advances in medical science in the 20th century, from antibiotics to organ transplants, has been achieved either directly or indirectly through the use of animals in laboratory experiments. Animal research is being used to find a cure for AIDS, cancer, heart disease, aging and congenital defects.

For almost 200 years of developing in medicine industry . Animal testing has brought both advantages and disadvantages to our society . The controversy over animal rights is one of the most contentious in the field of ethics and morality. Many people believe animals do not have rights. Others feel it is our moral obligation to nurture animals as they cannot speak or act for themselves. Clearly, animals have a right to life, and a right to life without suffering. In the natural world, animals are hunter and hunted, but we have removed many of the habitats and areas where animals can survive, and we have driven many to extinction, so it is a moral obligation to make sure those that are left can survive and thrive in their environments. Animals also have the right to live without cruelty and abuse This condition completely violates point number one in article six of universal declaration of animal rights, which says, “Experiments on animals entailing physical or psychological suffering violate the rights of animals” (FARL, 2005). , and it is our obligation to make sure these things do not occur. We have domesticated many animals for our own pleasure, like dogs, cats, and birds and we have a moral obligation to care for these animals, and to remove them from homes where they do not receive this good care. The basis of all animal rights should be the Golden Rule: we should treat them as we would wish them to treat us, were any other species in our dominant position. ~Christine Stevens .

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Non-violence leads to the highest ethics, which is the goal of all evolution. Until we stop harming all other living beings, we are still savages. ~Thomas A. Edison. An animal's eyes have the power to speak a great language. ~Martin Buber

swollen eyelids, ulceration, bleeding, swollen irises, massive deterioration, and blindness. This is side effects from eye irritant tests . Many animals break their necks while restrained, attempting to escape. In addition to physical pain suffered by animals during medicine testing, the animals also experience mental pain. According to Singer, three separate British government committees have agreed that animals are not only capable of feeling physical pain, but also mental pain, such as fear, anxiety, stress (Singer, 1980). Some people thought that animal feelles because It's cann't talk . human and animals have the same body language that can be expressed if there is a strong emothion . Inaccuracy of the resalt is the most dangous thinig that effect the medicine produchion . For example, some drugs passed safe in animal experiments but proved tragic consequences in humans. Conversely, many drugs that are beneficial to humans are dangerous or even fatal to animals. This is obvious proof that testing on animals is unreliable, but sadistic tests still go on every day. Mang medicines could have opposite impacts on the human consumers . There is twellive thouson babies was born with birth diffecaltes and eight thoused survived in their first year of life . ln 1960 thalidomide medicine faced a lot of controvercy becuse the huge number of victims that effected by used it. In conculision animals physoloy have some simalirity function with human body . We cann't be sure that the tests results will be the same results of human tests . An animal's eyes have the power to speak a great language. ~Martin Buber

Is there any alternative solution for animals testing ? . Now adays , scenice create new and adventced technology to reduce harmeful tests. Organ tests means that using only one organ like kidney and apply the same expre iment that will be apply if we have mice or rabit and recorded the results . The most widly used in alternaive to animals testing is tissue culture . Mice lunge tissue cultured to create mono clonal antibodies that can easily produced a lot of cells that can be used in experiment about smoking . Computer simulation or crash test dummies It's advanced techiques that developed by sierra sam in 1949. by using mathmatical equietion tnat base on human metabolism to studg cardiovascular risk , diabetes and evaluate toxicitg of drugs. Micro fluidic system is using small volumes of blood fluids in the tests . Fever or inflammation after swoll a tablet may cause interaction with immune cells . We can eliminate these cause by doing one single test called phrogenicity . To conclude this parphraph, we must protect and maintain animals life by creating new techenics and path ways that will help human-animel lifes.

Do you know the moral and medical aspects for animals testing in biomedical laboratory ? . medical research that can save peoples lives or help them lead better lives. The supporters of animal testing argue that if animal testing is eliminated, that many of the medications and procedures that we currently use today wouldn't exist and the development of future treatments would be extremely limited