Project Change, Risk and Opportunity Management of Southern and Northern Bank Merger

9980 words (40 pages) Essay

18th May 2020 Banking Reference this

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Introduction

 

Mergers became common among the industry. Southern bank accepted Northern banks supply of merger. As this merger is within the favor of each the bank expanding their business space to boost the performance by decrease one thing unhealthy the cons of individual firm through the strength of the merging companies and to fight against the merger of their major competitors. The merger of the Northern and Southern bank was formally declared. In additional process of the merger various factors were to be thought of and a correct success arranges of reaching goals was to be developed. This report describes the combination decide to be completed for the merger and therefore the effects of the key selections for the merger taken on the business of the bank. Internal likewise as the external folks that have an interest in an exceedingly project of business were approached for the look of the merger and their result in the general planning is additionally mentioned within the report.

 

Merger Strategy

 

Merger of exceptional organizations that have the identical denatures, however different methods have been a complex technique. Each selection wishes to be exact and calculated because the merger of banks flat helping floor have advantages as well as bad consequences of effects and the result can also be a failure if the approach in not associated with a plan to attain an intention. While lots of nations communicate and speak with each different and prison or regulation primarily based outcomes are the quoted factors stimulating mergers. The manner of accomplishing the goals of the merger ought to help in price reduction, growing more efficient film by introducing a variety of merchandise getting worried with special styles of matters via merger can make extra money and decrease the overall fee of the bank via a reduction in preferred capital, precious issue rationally  (Simon H. Kwan, n.d.). Related to a plan to attain an aim suit is a key element to figure out the achievement of the merger a key element to figure out the achievement of the merger  (YenerAltunbaş, 2008). Management approaches of doing matters should be placed into use in which the feasible elements are surrounding conditions, technologies, group’s structure and size, fulfillment plans of achieving desired to finish and way of life  (Ajibolade, 2013). The achievement ways of achieving dreams need for recognition at the reduction in cost to get admission to the banking services in other regions. For the very last integration plan the key stakeholders (i.e. inner and outside those who are inquisitive about an enterprise of the banks had been communicated. The primary plan becomes mentioned with the those who are interested in an undertaking and reviews approximately what must be done approximately situation considering their place become obtained. Before everything through SWOAT evaluating the strengths and weakness of each the bank had been recognized.

 

Strength of Northern bank    

     Reliable Operations

     Desirable Management Procedure

     Guidelines Of Credit Underwriting

     Skilled Employees At Head Quarters

     Appropriate Loaning Procedure

     Updated It Systems

Weakness of Northern bank

    Lack in marketing and advertising

    Customer offering are not on top of things

    Less skilled personnel in branches

Strengths of Southern bank

     Good in marketing and advertising

     Quality customer services

     Good locations and facilities

     Highly skilled managers at Headquarters

     High skill level employees at headquarter as well as at branches

Weakness of Southern bank

     Lack in good quality daily operations

     Procedure of accounting and auditing are not proper

     Lack in loan approval policy

     Outdated it system

 

Key Decisions

 

Mergers are a few other preferences to reduce the horrible, typical performance with the aid of the strengths of the merging employer (TheodosiosDimopoulos, 2017). Primarily based totally on the strengths and weak point of every the financial institution and evaluating them with every exceptional the nine  key choices associated with an aggregate of diverse topics together that work as one unit have been taken and a plan have become drafted.

Decision on which the integration plan was dependent on were

  1. The percentage of managers laid off
  2. The percentage of employees laid off
  3. Human resources practices
  4. Branch networks
  5. Product portfolios
  6. Process of loan approval
  7. IT systems
  8. Bank name
  9. Period of implementation

The choices were taken in case of saving the general value of merger and cash profits. Taking the branches first there were three options which might be maintaining all of the branches, deliver a purpose for something meaning it’s both banks have branches in some town the exception can be saved or to shut the southern branches on the town having company’s branches. A main financial savings in fee can be achieved by way of shutting the needless branches so rationalizing branches have been the nice decision in order that the first-rate branches maintain.

The layoffs percentages of the managers and employee have been equal for the banks as in keeping with the agreement. It turned into deliberate to lay off 20% of managers and employees in shape, up every pair of items in the order. This decision becomes taken as there may be a reduction in branches and this would additionally filter the skilled professionals and possibilities for newly personals will broaden who can be given earlier schooling for working at the merged surrounding situations. But there was a preventing force by using the folks that inquisitive about an assignment and Elaine Murphy, HR director of Southern bank strongly argues towards this selection as she desired a maximum of her staff to be kept.

Considering the practices of human valuable supply the primary selection became to offer reasons for practices as the Northern practice was expensive via presenting automobiles above 12 grades and to low interest rates for personnel. However, with after the detail discussion and critiques with the person that interested by a task, it was sooner or later changed with the Northern’s practices.

The product file collections of both banks alternate. Both firms have some exact even as some lacking documents series so it turned into decided to rationally the product portfolio and the best of the both could be diagnosed and supplied at the mixed enterprise devices.

A selection of the mortgage approval procedure become to update Southern’s manner with the Northern’s because it was very hard to hold each the process and feature two procedures of a mixed shape. This has additionally stored the general cost to make a new one. Upon getting instances of reactions, responses or data from the people who are interested by a task the plan of keeping became modified to preserving and lay out a brand new method.

Because the IT structures of Southern financial institutions have been now not upgraded it was willing to replace it with Northern or to rationalize both the gadget to bring collectively as one in a single format. However, this changed into going to value so the selections was fixed to rationalize the IT systems.

The call of the bank has wonderful social impact. The people who are inquisitive about a challenge of Southern desired to preserve their bank call. However, there could be no new merchandising of the successful merger of both the banks. So, it turned into determined to offer a new name to the merging commercial enterprise as a NS financial institution. This selection become luxurious as it demanded new signs and labeling, however some fees are very critical and important to be spent for higher business increase.

The overall time for the pulling into the usage of these choices changed in five months due to the fact doing it in less time was high-priced and training packages had been additionally being controlled and achieved for the workforce to get less complicated with the new system. But taking greater time also reduced the money income.

Cultural Differences

 

The difference in subculture performed a large role in taking choices. According to  (Kenneth R.Ahern, 2015) if the merging firms have a varied cultural distinction that reduces the wasting very little at the same time as working or generating of a hit merger. It becomes required for the terms of both the corporations to coordinate after the merger to personal synergies gains. Arguing to this (Page, 2007) states that the probabilities of a success merger will increase if the firms have huge many unique styles of human beings in way of life as this creates new and interesting thoughts and new trouble fixing method.

Fig. 1 Research Model (Florian Bauer, 2016)

To feature to the possible energy invention of latest materials, moving from one area to any other expertise is required  (H. Bresman, 2010), and mixing and interacting the finishing useful things facilitates in a hit invention of recent things  (D.R. King, 2003). Gadgets that proof of each tremendous and poor results of subculture are given via basing on without a doubt seeing matters research  (D. Datta, 1995).(Grotenhuis, 2001) States that to manage and cause human beings of various races, cultures, nationalities to work and live together which separate cultures is a core problem.

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Lifestyle is a sensitive concept which has a silent influence over people and it is very hard to measure it in a way that’s close to the fact. Due to this the personals of the merging farmstead to disregard the difficulty which has greater outcomes in destiny to keep away from this (Dixon, 2005) indicates more than two however now not a variety of steps. 1) To make subculture a prime a part of the alternate management 2) Discover the key man or woman who ‘owns’ regulations and behaviors that occur in large business and report them to pinnacle control, time table the problem in everyday organization that promotes conferences. 3) Insist to take subculture as real and measurable and it shouldn’t be rejected while thinks are unclear. 4) To reflect on consideration on the strengths of both the companies and not simplest the weak point. Various consequences are acquired through the based totally on absolutely seeing matters, studies at the influence of M&A at the invention of new things (G. Ahuja, 2001). it’s far very hard to generalize the relation between the invention of recent matters and mergers as the purchases are greater than , however, not a variety of kinds and is approached with one, of a kind combination of various things collectively that work as one unified plan because of unique needed things and functions  (B. Cassiman, 2006).

Change Resistance

 

Merging corporations additionally method that there’s a merger of the two and lots of one-of-a-kind sorts of human cultures. Preventing cultures deliver a large amount of modifications inside the organization which cannot be prevented (Sugandh Kansala, 2014) diagnosed some of the reasons bring the hazard within the organization.

     Changes in gadget of organizations love it system and accounting systems.

     Changes inside the shape after the merger like decentralization and money saving

     Changes in the HR practices like defining new dreams, re-building and enhancing policies and education procedure

     Issues related to cash made due to merger which includes economic loss, reduction in proportion price.

     Government policies are extraordinarily essential factors for changes as the groups want to take guidelines very sensitively

Changes aren’t without problems prevalent in any company and there’s continually resistance in businesses going via merger because of motives like 1) lack of communication the people aren’t made aware of the adjustments in detail and are satisfied for the modification. 2) Confusion and disappointment because of doubtful changes. 3) Placing into use generally carried out and methods resist accepting those new habits as the present are comfortable. 4) Lacking confidence in coping with as the end result of changes is unknown. 5) Source of intellectual worry approximately the changes in his/her position due to the modifications 6) losing importance of modern talents and talents as they’ll be now not in use after M&A.

In the integration plan of the Northern and Southern bank, resistance turned into followed by many key folks that are interested by a venture as their opinions on the plan were terrible on a huge scale. Thoughts which they suppose are really on the motives of the some of these critics had been made like the Head of Retail banking of the Northern financial institution was no longer satisfied as he has released a software to review the procedure of loan approval and as per the plan selection of giving motives for the goods series will waste his efforts. Additionally the HR director of the Northern bank, Hector Rice desired to replace the practices of Southern in place of giving reasons in almost the equal manner, the Southern’s Head of retail Banking Tina Yoshiro and HR director Elaine Murphy have been in opposition to the plan as Tina has not very long ago got here into power and do now not need to lose it even as Murphy turned in towards the layoffs. Ivan Taylor the IT director of the Northern bank changed into an organist since giving motives to the IT systems as he had not very long ago to upgrade them after an extended procedure and desired to remain the identical after the merger.

Stakeholder Analysis

A stakeholder analysis is systematic series and analysis of qualitative and quantitative stakeholder records to decide whose hobby should get prioritized within the challenge. (PMI, 2013a). Stakeholder evaluation is sizeable as Freeman (1984) defines stakeholders can have an effect on whole achievements of a group and stakeholders have the power to be both a chance and again with a company (Gibson, 2000). Therefore, a one of a kind stakeholder evaluation need to be conducted to permit the integration group to pick out the stakeholders with their electricity role, interest, attachment, affect network to set up a powerful mode of conversation and working the purchase components.

Firstly, stakeholders from the 2 banks want to be identified. But, it’s miles important to recollect stakeholders outside the merger manner (Cleland and Ireland, 2006), therefore, stakeholders are recognized as inner and external to the challenge (Capon, 2008) which include their positions and strength.

Northern

Internal

Power /influence (High, medium, low)

Integration plan decisions

Communication preferences

John Pettinger ,CEO

High

Executive tasks(planning, managing and executing tasks)

Phone

Email

Meeting

Luke Stanio,  Head of Retail Banking

Medium

Retail management

Email

Carla Feinberg, Chief Financial Officer 

Medium

Finance

Phone

Email

Hector Rice

HR Director

High

HR sector

Email

Meeting

Ivan Taylor

IT Director

Medium

IT director

Email

Employees

Low

Merging outcomes

Managers

Low

Merging outcomes

Southern

Sue Beckerman, CEO

High

Executive tasks(planning, managing and executing tasks)

Phone

Email

Meeting

Tina Yoshiro

Head of Retail Banking

Medium

Retail management

Email

Meeting

Nick Liang

Head of Corporate Banking

Medium

Corporate tasks

Phone

Elaine Murphy

HR Director

High

HR sector

Phone

Email

Employees

Low

Merging outcomes

Managers

Low

Merging outcomes

External

Bill Johnosn

Fund Director : sunrise pension fund

High

Stakeholder management

Email

Marie Calperra,

Banking Authority

External

Medium

Banking regulations

Email

Patrick Green

CEO: People Power

High

Stakeholder management

Email

Service holders

Low

Merging outcomes

Media

Medium

Financial prospects

Figure 4.1: identification and categorization of stakeholders

Identification of stakeholders with the idea of attachment is huge, because it presents a clear perception that must be dealt in priority based totally, thence, stakeholders are mapped into the number one and secondary stage (Hayes, 2014).

Primary players 

Figure 4.2: Primary stakeholder identification (adopted from Hayes, 2014)

 

 

 

 

 

Secondary player

Figure 4.3: Secondary stakeholder identification (adopted from Hayes, 2014)

 

Stakeholder influence networks

Its miles tough to fulfill all groups of undertaking stakeholders as the venture supporters and opponents can also have different levels of pleasure (Manowong, Ogunlana, 2006), consequently, making have an effect on the community is important as intervene on one stakeholder can generate a dynamic of responses to other stakeholders (Mitchel et al.1997) to convey fine final results. Analyzing the relation and interconnection of the stakeholders the underneath diagram is created to show the manner which stakeholder had to be treated to steer some other.

Figure 4.4:  influence network

Power and influence matrix of stakeholder in the project

Stakeholder can have an impact on every different in multidimensional manner (Capon, 2008, Cleland and Ireland, 2006, Gardiner, 2005), consequently, using strength-hobby grid (Johnson and Scholes 1999, Capon, 2008) stakeholders are mapped within the under matrix.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 4.5: power and influence matrix (Adopted from Mitchell et al. 1997)

Following the matrix, it is important to categorize stakeholders as consistent with their impact and significance within the merging system. The beneath the diagram indicates who need to be treated what importance.

 

KEEP SATISFIED

High

John Pettinger ,CEO

Sue Beckerman, CEO

Bill Johnosn , Fund Director :Sunrise pension fund

Marie Calperra, Banking Authority

Patrick Green, CEO: People Power

INFLUENCE

MANAGE CLOSELY

Luke Stanio,  Head of Retail Banking

Carla Feinberg, Chief Financial Officer

Hector Rice, HR Director

Tina Yoshiro, Head of Retail Banking

Nick Liang, Head of Corporate Banking

Elaine Murphy, HR Director

MONITOR (MINIMUM EFFORT)

Low

 Ivan Taylor, IT Director

Employees

Managers

KEEP INFORMED

Employees

Managers

Service holders

Media

                                  Figure 4.6: Influence of stakeholders 

Power, Legitimacy and Urgency Matrix

 

Legitimacy is the perceived validity to a stake at the same time as energy is the potential to set off, convincer coerces the actions of others. The urgency of Stakeholders is the depth of attention and priority connected to a stake or the diploma to which a claim demands immediate interest. (Johnson et al, 2005). A like stakeholder’s movements can influence other stakeholders; one’s strength can often be defined in relation to their function within the network of other stakeholders. Power, legitimacy and urgency typology determine which stakeholder is the outstanding and who want much less attention.

 

 

 

 

                                                        Figure 4.7:  Stakeholder Typology

(Mitchell et al., 1997)

 

 

 

 

Following the stakeholder typology, stakeholders are classified inclining their electricity, legitimacy and urgency in the beneath diagram.

 

Northern

Stakeholders

PLU

Classification

John Pettinger ,CEO

Power

Chief executive

Definitive stakeholder 

Legitimacy

Key driver of the merging process

Urgency

Set deadline of the merging process

Luke Stanio,  Head of Retail Banking

Power

Head of Retail Banking

Definitive stakeholder 

Legitimacy

Authority to deal with retail management plan

Urgency

Merging without disruption

Carla Feinberg, Chief Financial Officer 

Power

Finance  boss

Dependent  stakeholder 

Legitimacy

Manage financing

Urgency

Maximize profit

Hector Rice

HR Director

Power

HR director

Dependent  stakeholder 

Legitimacy

Manage HR

Urgency

Minimum disruption to HR

Ivan Taylor

IT Director

Power

IT director

Dependent  stakeholder 

Legitimacy

Manage IT

Urgency

Advanced IT installation

Employees

Power

Part of bank

Dependent  stakeholder 

Legitimacy

Legal

Urgency

Jobs

Managers

Power

Part of bank

Dependent  stakeholder 

Legitimacy

Legal

Urgency

Jobs

Southern

Sue Beckerman, CEO

Power

Chief Executive 

Definitive stakeholder 

Legitimacy

Key driver of the merging process

Urgency

Merging with maximum benefit of southern bank

Tina Yoshiro

Head of Retail Banking

Power

Retail boss

Definitive stakeholder 

Legitimacy

Retail management

Urgency

Merging without disruption

Nick Liang

Head of Corporate Banking

Power

Corporate manager

Dependent  stakeholder 

Legitimacy

Authority of corporate plans

Urgency

Maximum profit

Elaine Murphy

HR Director

Power

HR boss

Dependent  stakeholder 

Legitimacy

Managing HR

Urgency

HR integration

Employees

Power

Part of bank

Dependent  stakeholder 

Legitimacy

Legal

Urgency

Jobs

Managers

Power

Part of bank

Dependent  stakeholder 

Legitimacy

Legal

Urgency

Jobs

Bill Johnosn

Fund Director : sunrise pension fund

Power

Key shareholder

Dangerous stakeholder 

Legitimacy

Legal invest

Urgency

Avoid uncertainity

Marie Calperra,

Banking Authority

Power

Bank regulator

Dangerous stakeholder 

Legitimacy

Authority of regulations

Urgency

Legal integration

Patrick Green

CEO: People Power

Power

Key shareholder

Dangerous stakeholder 

Legitimacy

Legal invest

Urgency

Avoid uncertainity

Service holders

Power

Limited

Dormant stakeholder 

Legitimacy

Not defined

Urgency

Service

Media

Power

Influential to people

Discretionary stakeholder 

Legitimacy

Not defined

Urgency

Jobs Layoff facts

Figure 4.8: power, legitimacy and urgency matrix of stakeholders 

 

Key risks may rise from stakeholders and mitigation strategy

To discover dangers a few troubles like: who has a stake in problems, might advantage or be affected, need to be included or now not, has power to dam implementation need to be taken into consideration (Flyvbjerg, 2005). In this merging process, the key risks may also arise like hobby war of the 2 financial institution employees for issues like branch closure, personnel laid off that need to be addressed with mitigation strategy.

 

Decisions

Risks

Mitigation

Percentage of Managers and employees lay off    (15%)

Branch Networks(rationalize)

Unrest from affected employees

Early communication

Compensation

Alternative jobs

Human Resource Practices (rationalize)

Potential conflict between the two banks officials

Set up standard regulation keeping both side satisfied

IT Systems (replaced)

Dissatisfaction from southern

Rationale communication to southern about benefits

            Figure 4.9:  key potential risks and mitigation strategy

 

Communication Plan

 

A powerful communiqué has supplied the proper information to the proper man or woman. Every task is like not anything else inside the global, and it’s far for a quick time frame giving out works to the specialists in order that they have exceptional strategies of communications. For a complicated mission which a large amount of records is to be change higher verbal exchange need to raise the fulfillment ratio. Stakeholders are to be frequently communicated the proper statistics. Three modes of conversation are described via  (Aurangzeab Butt, 2016).

     Push Communication: The clearly connected information is sent to Stakeholders

     Pull Communication: The demanded information is pulled out by stakeholders

     Push and Pull Communication: The information is switched through interactions with the stakeholders


The following is the file of the way the key stakeholder of Northern and Southern bank had been communicated via unique modes like smart phone calls, emails and conferences. The modes of verbal exchange have been decided on primarily based on stakeholder choices and severe importance. The frequency of communiqué relies upon on their have an impact on on the undertaking and their importance in taking key decisions.

Project Governance

 (Müller, 2009) Authority and manage is defined as “the fee device, responsibilities, techniques and policies that permit initiatives to perform organizational goals and assist to increase putting into use, this is within the greatest interest of all stakeholders, internal and external and the agency itself”. It defines the goals of the undertaking, techniques with precious elements and video display units the manner of the undertaking. Authority and manage are the tool to steer the venture till completion. As per (AmrMossalam, 2017) authority and manage focuses mental and physical attempt at the stakeholders, it develops connections the various exclusive levels of the agencies and increase links between the purpose and execution of the success of the organization. It adds higher visibility and control tasks. There are two forms of controlling models suggested by (OsamaShibani, 2017) 1) One-stage board, 2) two-degree Board

Western Model of Corporate Governance

European Model of Corporate Governance

The venture authority and control float have to be from the top management level to down in the direction of the mission degree  (O.J. Klakegg, 2008). The affiliation’s dependent on enterprise for money-based well-being how a big business is managed and run is essential. However to get appropriate company governance isn’t genuinely the examine of cash float, politics and simple capabilities, qualities of ways humans are in an enterprise and markets are involved,  (ACCA, n.d.). They also described the procedure of cost introduction in the following discern:

Lesson Learned

After drafting the preliminary plan and consulting to the stakeholders for the finalization of the plan and processing for the merger a huge no of various evaluations were obtained. At some stage in the method of planning the final integration plan many adjustments have been to be made as per the critiques and necessities of the stakeholders. It is very tough to convince all of the stakeholders and so the important thing stakeholders have to be decided whose critiques must accept priority. Because the plan changed into now not in the favor of the stakeholders’ majority of them had a negative overview. One key lesson found out became that focus ought to no longer be best at the revenue growth, price saving. The maximum influencing stakeholders have to be recognized, and plan ought to be proceeded in accordance with their opinions. Type of communication and its frequency has a crucial function in convincing the stakeholders.

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

 

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