A work is "created" when it is prepared over a period of time, the portion of it that has been fixed at any particular time constitutes the work as of that time, and where the work has been prepared in different versions, each version constitutes a separate. (copyright.gov). A "derivative work" is a work based upon one or more preexisting works art reproduction in which a work may be recast, transformed, or adapted or other modifications, which, as a whole, represent an original work of authorship, is a "derivative work. (copyright.gov). Looking at the many pieces of Roy Lichtenstein's art and researching the terms created and derivative, he is seen to be controversial because many people consider him to be a copy cat artist. At the time Lichtenstein was producing his prints in question there were copyright laws in effect but it seems that they were never put into action. The Boston Globe produced a story about Lichtenstein titled Roy Lichtenstein Creator or Copy Cat? Deconstructing Roy Lichtenstein Â© 2000 David Barsaolu MFA . That article is not the first of its kind; the first article was produced January 31, 1964 by Life magazine titled, "Is He the Worst Artist in America? After reading these articles and looking at the prints I noticed that they do have a very close resemblance to what the United States copy right laws prohibit. I happen to think not but I am sure that as there are as many admires of his art and talent as there are probably just as many who disagree with my opinion. I find it quite intriguing that not one of the artists has sued Mr. Lichtenstein for monetary reimbursement or even document to settle out of court. Maybe at that time there was some sort of loop holes for creative art that kept copyright laws at bay. Whatever the reason Roy has become very well known and made a great living with his art.
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The 1940's were the beginning of Lichtenstein's career as an artist with is first drawing class in 1941 at Ohio State University prior to that he graduated from Franklin, then studied anatomical drawing at the Art Students League and participated in a few exhibitions, then he was drafted in to the U.S. Army in 1943 and sketched some works of soldiers and landscapes. His father becomes ill and dies January of 1946 dies. Roy is discharged from the Army late January. Lichtenstein spends theses 10 years getting formal training and taking part in many exhibitions. June 12, 1949 Roy marries Isabel Wilson. The 1950 was quite a year for getting established and becoming a known artist for Roy, he held many jobs from 1951-1957 some of them lasting only a few months, and his first son is born in 1954. Roy continues to be seen at exhibitions but at more popular venues with better known artists. In 1956 Roy creates his first photo pop work by lithograph Ten Dollar Bill and in March his second son is born. In 1957 Roy begins to use abstract expression style in his paintings familiar work is Donald Duck. Abstract paintings are shown for the first time in June 1959. January 1961 he exhibits abstract paintings made with a torn bed sheet by applying paint to them. Then later that summer Look Mickey is the first of a panel from a comic strip that is pained with Benday dots made from a dog brush dipped in paint, you can see he also uses his first balloon dialogue. Roy then creates his first consumer paintings for advertisers, tries new techniques tondo painting, diptych painting, and blue with white to duplicate reproductions. 1961 proved to be a great year in October Roy received a $400.00 a month stipend from the Leo Castelli Gallery and has a trial separation from his wife. In 1962 he begins to use turpentine soluble acrylic paint but did not stray away from oil paint for the simulated Benday dots. Early summer of 1962 Roy's pen drawings are shown for the first time and his consumer goods and comic strip art is shown early fall on the west coast in a gallery. In 1963 Roy pained his first large scale work and it was commissioned by Philip Johnson to create a mural, for the New York State Pavilion at the 1964 World's Fair in Flushing Meadows, New York. Roy's first European exhibition was later that summer. Roy divorces his wife in 1965 and she take custody of the kids he then creates a series of ceramic heads with co artist Hui Ka Kwong, experiments with modern motif and that autumn stops working with ceramics. In 1966 Roy stops putting words on his canvas, in April Roy illustrates the cover of Newsweek magazine the entire edition is devoted to POP Art, and in the autumn 1967 he collaborates to create a series of sculptures made of brass, tinted glass, marble and other materials. In 1968 he creates is first repeated design modular paintings and stretcher frame paintings, Time magazine cover features Kennedy painting and a Rendering of a Gun at the end of the year he married Dorothy Herzka. In Osaka, Japan seascape films are shown in 1970 that Roy filmed and he sold painting #6 for $75,000.00 the highest paid for work of art at that time for any living artist. In 1971 Mirrors was shown publicly, his films of seascapes were shown, and in ducted in to the American Academy of Arts and Science in Boston.1973 trompe-l'oeil and Cubist Still Life's are used with faux wood grain pattern for the first time, 1974 begins influenced work by Italian Futurism, and entablatures series using metallic colors mixing sand with paint to highlight surface texture. 1975 starts a series influenced by Purists Artists, 1976 paints Office Still Life's, Completes Entablature Paintings, creates many self-portraits in Futurist style, and Warhol creates a silkscreen Lichtenstein. 1977 Roy starts a series based on Surrealists artists, Skowhegan Medal for Painting is awarded, and BMW commissions Roy to design outside of race car later driven in the year at Le Mans. In 1980 Roy is awarded honorary Doctorate of Fine Arts from Southampton College in New York and in 1980 paintings and sculpture and from 1970's and 80's are touring America, Europe and Japan and 1989 his painting Torpedo....Los! sold for 5.5 million joining two other living artists whose work brings in as much. In 1990 Roy begins and Interior series painted with sponges that are shown in 1991, commissioned in 1992 for a 64 foot high sculpture for the Summer Olympics in Barcelona, Spain. In 1993 Roy contributes a cover image for Fredrick Tuten's book, creates two giant pieces of art, Grrrrrrrrrr! appears on the front of ARTnews, and begins a series of nude female works. April 30, 1997 the last interview ever given by Roy, Singapore Brushstroke is the last constructed artwork installed, and September 29, Roy Lichtenstein dies.
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
I chose three pieces of work from three different time periods in Roy's life as a focus. Each piece is from a period that is important how he creates his work and how he develops his style. Washington Crossing the Delaware 1 is oil on canvas 26*32 in 1951, is a form of abstract expressionist and is painted very child like. George Washings is what catches your eye at the front of the boat. All the lines are simple and the people are drawn simple and the colors are dark. The BMW 320i that was designed for the Le Mans 24-hour race in 1977 was clearly a car that had already seen what was on the road ahead by looking at the sun shining and the stretches of road on it. You see his style of the comic strip on it with the long lines suggesting super speed and his famous Benday dots on the design. Last I chose the Barcelona Head 1992 as the last to show that no matter what the media he uses and what he does that since he has developed his style he continues with consistency. The sculpture was was done in the spirit of the Catalan architect Antonio Gaudi and placed on the rebuilt water front.
What I have not touched on is that Roy is considered controversial because many of his works of art are out right copy cats and that he was never accused by the original artist but was later confronted by articles about his work. I don't have a opinion about this and not much to say on the matter but it was his early practice to copy Picasso's work also. I perceive it of his style and I do know that what he has created on his own is very original and wonderful to admire and pleasing to the eye at least for me
Roy Lichtenstein Creator or Copy Cat? Deconstructing Roy Lichtenstein. David Barsaolu MFA. 2000. January 28, 2010. http://www.flickr.com/photos/deconstructingroylichtenstein/395941200/.
www.HYPERLINK "http://www.copyright.gov/title17. January 28"copyright.govHYPERLINK "http://www.copyright.gov/title17. January 28"/title17. January 28, 2010.
http://www.image-duplicator.com/main.php?decade=80. January 29, 2010.
Lawrence, Alloway, Roy Lichtenstein, Modern Master Series Vol I, Cross River Press LTD, 1983.