Review of Renaissance Architecture
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Throughout the past years the emergence of architecture have gone through various evolutionary phases .The philosophy of Architecture produced with time two major branches which is the basic Renaissance and Baroque architecture .The development of Architecture from basic Renaissance form which indicates having the characteristics of dignity and formality shown through symmetry and that to have an available space for rational engagement with the divine which can be asserted that it certainly provides a rational engagement with architecture which is a more effective means to comprehend and understand architectural form than the Baroque form which contrarily presented the beginning of new dynamic, fluid and theatrical approach to architecture that was designed to impact directly upon emotional modes of engagement. The Baroque architecture which was originally linked to the counter reformation which is a movement within the catholic church to rebuild itself to respond to the Protestant church and its embellishments were more reachable to the feelings and power of the Italian church which formed a new style, whereas Renaissance was a mixture of religious and secular force and withdraw the prosperity and strength of the Italian churches.
From the 14th to the 17th century In Italy ,the city of Florence specifically is where the launch of Renaissance architecture which is also known as ‘Rebirth’ or ‘Revival’ of the Roman classic Arts had firstly began and later was distributed to the rest of Europe. Symmetry ,geometry, proportion and regularity of elements are they are shown in Ancient Roman architecture is what specify the Renaissance style. However, in the city of Florence , architects and artists demonstrated their support through their progress of new shapes of painting, sculpture and architecture, similar to seeking of prestige and position through their assistance of art and letters by the bankers and rich merchants. Hence ,As time passed by Renaissance Architecture has evolved and went through multiple stages .At first it has gone through the Early period which is the first transition period .Secondly comes Proto-Baroque which is before baroque or in other words High renaissance .Finally It evaluated to Baroque period .Baroque architecture began in late 16th century in Italy that turned Renaissance architecture into a philosophical and imaginative in a theatrical fashion way often to express an imaginative idea. Lights and dramatic intensity is used also to represent Baroque architecture. Bernini and Borromini are the first two major architects that developed Baroque period as Bernini was the first one to evolve many sculptures into his buildings and the Francesco Burromini came to Italy to learn from Bernini.
However, every style of Architecture has its own characteristics, materials, elements and shapes and different aims, but it is supported that approaching architecture with Renaissance style tends to be more engaging with architecture and understanding it and representing it in a right form than Baroque style. Late Roman buildings, particularly Donato Bramante’s St. Peter's Basilica Tempietto in Rome its design attains a colossal unity that was not known before and hence can be considered as ancestor to baroque architecture. Donato Bramante was an Italian architect, who introducedRenaissance architectureto Milan and theHigh Renaissance style to Rome, where his plan forSt. Peter's Basilicaformed the basis of the design executed byMichelangelo.
Donato Bramante Tempietto in Rome represent perfectly the Renaissance style of architecture
The tempietto identified the start of the Renaissance in Rome in 1502, when a sanctuary to represent where saint peter was killed was requested from Alexander to be built allegedly .Bramante made his building to symbolize the Christian reference for tradition and platonic preference for the early church. The building is surrounded by a one-story Doric colonnade with entablature and balustrade and a 2-story cylinder covered by a hemispherical dome
Bramante’s St.Peter scheme symbolized a building on the buildup of the Baths of Diocletian covered by a dome similar to that of the Pantheon. Began in April 1506. Nearly all the vital architect of the 16th and 17th had been altered by the same time that the church was fully adjusted.
Renaissance architecture in both of these buildings tends to having planar classicm in which its walls are decorated with culomns ,pediments,and blind arches of small physical depth and that serves as flat canvases for a classical inveer ,which serves to split a wall into a precise and neat form ,contrarily in Baroque architecture the walls are deeply chelised and curved which treats as undulating whole .Furthermore, St Peter’s basilica and Donato Bramante’s Tempietto in Rome have Façades that are symmetrical around their vertical axis. A systenm of pilasters ,arches and entlabatures which form a proportional surmount the facades and the columns and windows demonstrate progression toward the centre.In contrast Buildings such as John Balthasar Neumann’s Pilgrimage Church of Vierzehnheiligen in Bamburg, Germany the facades consisted of many curves, Baroque pediments (which is the triangular area between the rooftop and the edge of the roofs) were often highly decorated. Scrolls and gilded formed the tips sometimes.
This is a photo for John Balthasar Neumann’s Pilgrimage Church of Vierzehnheiligen in Bamburg, Germany which represent the Baroque architecture
Floor plan : John Balthasar Neumann’s Pilgrimage Church of Vierzehnheiligen in Bamburg, Germany which represent the Baroque architecture
The Baroque style has its unique oval shape and took the advantage of marbles, bronze and gilts in abundance of the interior and sometimes the interiors are covered by multiple gilded puttos and life sized ones. Using an art technique called as ‘‘Trompe l’oeil’’ painting including strongly realistic imagery hence to create the optical vision and illusion for objects to be visible in three dimensions the ceilings and domes of the baroque architecture were formed ,instead of being an ordinary two dimensional painting . The major role that Baroque architecture acted upon was the call for an architecture that is both reachable and accessible to feelings and emotions and also a shown statement of wealth and power of church. The facades consisted of many curves, Baroque pediments (which is the triangular area between the end of the roofs and the rooftop) were usually extremely decorated. The tips were sometimes turned into scrolls and gilded. A listed features of baroque architecture would include more curves rather than straight lines , decorative columns instead of a supportive one and twisted in shape as well , detailing with a high sense of decoration , applying the appearance of moving and continuous flow as well , along with an abundance of windows , and a lot of paintings blending with the architecture. The church was constructed between the year of 1743 to 1772 along with it unique design in the interior which strongly reflect the baroque architecture. The plan of the church shows the church has layout which is considered to be a complex of highly divided spatial arrangement in a Latin cross form, along with a series of ovals that divides a large series of ovals that’s perpendicular to it. Moving on to the ceiling, it’s broken up with huge windows that allow the space to be exposed to directional light. Combining all this together which is the amount of light coming from the windows and the flawless stucco work done by the architects, created an amazing and simple in terms of a transporting interior which has been called "God's Ballroom .As a person approaches the church he or she will witness a wonderful sandstone façade resembling a glorious baroque style along with an appealing and warm hue.
In conclusion, Baroque architecture which considered to be related to emotional engagement, this style or architecture concentrate and give more attention to decoration more than support of the structure, curves rather than straight lines, and emphasis on the appearance of movement all along the church. Although baroque has barrows many features from the mannerism and renaissance, but at the same time there is a lot of differences found between these two styles of architecture. In indicating those differences u will conclude that renaissance is more based on realism and being straight, as well as having the characteristics of dignity and formality shown through symmetry and that to have an available space for rational engagement with the divine which can be asserted that it certainly provides a rational engagement with architecture, while the baroque style concentrates more in being complex and in a flow. Giving those factors renaissance architecture can be considered more convincing in terms of architectural aspects due to the high level of stability and proportionality which reflects the concept of power and routine which is needed in places like churches