Ericsson Headquarters in Cyberjaya: Architecture Theory
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Serina Hijjas is a wellknown Malaysian architect and also the director of the Hijjas Kasturi Associates Sdn. She had 20 over years experience in this architecture design field. Serina took over her dad interest in this architecture field as her dad is also an architect , Hijjas Kasturi, the founder of Hijjas Kasturi Associates Sdn. Serina graduated with a Diploma in Architecture in University of Sydney and Bachelor of Science in Architecture from the Barlett School of Architecture in England. She was once an archietctural assistant with the Foster Associates, focuses on masterplan for King Cross for two years after her graduation. Later on, she decided to return to Malaysia and work for Hijjas Kasturi Associates focusing on conceptual design, contract management on retail, office building and commercial. She involved in Masterplan in Putrajaya.
Serina Hijjas is the founding member of Malaysia’s Grren Building Index technical Committee, which she is very qualified with her experience and architectural background. The Committee acquires the professional membership of boards of Architects in Malaysia and it corporates with the member of PAM. One of Serina greatest achievement with her company was getting involved with the Putrajaya Masterplan design. Her company also work in many otehr plenty large scale projects such as the Masterplan Core Island Boulevard for Putrajaya and Putrajaya Convention Centre, Ericsson Malaysia at Cyberjaya, Telekom Malaysia Headquarters Building, ASEAN Instisture of Medicine, and much more. She has been very active in the area of Energy Efficiency and suatainability since her formative years of architecture practice in The Fosters, London. Besides getting involved in much of government projects, she has also gave much talk and be a good speaker in giving her speech and talks at various green architectural seminar.
There are few awards that she had won during these 20 over years of experience which is the Asean Energy Efficiency Award for Securities Commission Headquarters, Bukit Kiara in 2001, Nominated for the Aga Khan Award for Telekom Malaysia Headquarters in 2004, Exhibited at the Royal Academy Summer Show, Tower Category for Telekom Malaysia Headquarters, 2nd Place International, Dubai National Library Competition in 2005, Asean Energy Efficiency Award for Telekom Malaysia Headquarters in 2005 and being nominated for the Aga Khan Award for Putrajaya Convention Centre in year 2006.
The aim of this project is to convey and understanding of architect’s architectural theory through a direct observation and analysis of his projects. Each of the architectural elements in the chosen building will be broken down and matches with the relevant architectural theories. Besides that, analysis of the relationship between architecture and its social, cultural and intellectual context will be conveyed through diagrams and essay.
iii. Building Introduction
In this essay, the chosen building to be analyzed is the Ericsson R&D Building designed by Serina Hijjas, The client of this project is the Ericsson. This building is the headquarter of Ericsson in the Asia country. The budget of this project was RM110million and it completed in the year 2002. Its the home of the Swedish telecommunications giant, is located in the Multimedia Super Corridor, Cyberjaya. This unique building, with a total air-conditioning area of 300,000 sq ft, houses state-of-the-art facilities for R&D inventions.The air-conditioning system utilizes the chilled water from the district cooling (primary circuit) and is circulated into the building (secondary circuit) through heat exchangers. The state-of-the-art air-conditioning system installed in this building incorporates the innovative concept of raised-floor technology and precision air-conditioning system. (Effective Cooling Technologies,2006).
2.0 EXTERNAL FACTOR 1- CLIMATE
Ericsson Headquarters in Cyberjaya has large overhanging eaves roof to prevent excessive sunlight to enter the building and affect the comfort level of users. The orientation of the building in the site, where the East west part of the building, is covered with long overhang eaves, act as a shading devices.
The large overhanging roof at the sides of the building, having like a perforated type of roof, letting the sunlight to penetrates in the external spaces forming an interesting shadows of spaces.
Large overhanging roofs at the entrance with full curtain wall creates a grand entrance. There’s also a tree structure roof at the entrance to gives a feeling of welcoming to the users at the same time as a shading device, protecting the users from sun and rain. The interesting roof at the entrance, having the glass on the rooftop, letting light penetrationg and casting light giving a bright and interesting entrance.
The central courtyard of the building emphasizes on the penetrating of natural daylight into the spaces whereby the both sides roof having alittle of overhang for shading purposes.
Greens, plants and trees were planted on the surrounding of the building to provide good ventilation and comfortable space.
Trees planted along the road before turning into the main entrance of the building. The trees provides shades from the hot climate in Malaysia and also function in being green into the building, provides a comfortable and relaxing feeling to the user and passbyer.
For good ventilation, cross ventilation and stack ventilation are being used to attract wind into the building. External Wind goes through from the windows towards the stairs forming a stack ventilation, whereby cross ventilation were form when the opposite sides of the windows are also being open, letting through the wind to goes in and out to ventilate the building spaces.
2.1 EXTERNAL FACTOR 2: ARCHITECTURE THEORY - CRITICAL REGIONALISM
Being a hybrid of Modernism and Regionalism, it embraces yet distances itself from both, aiming to cultivate a resistant, identity giving culture while at the same time having discreet recourse to universal technique (Frampton, 1983, p.20). Critical Regionalists are “opposed to mindlessly adopting the narcissistic dogmas in the name of universality, leading to environments that are economically costly and ecologically destructive to the human community” (Tzonis, Lefaivre 2003, p.20).
Glenn Murcutt-Magney House (1984)
Magney House is an example of critical regionalism. The house was constructed the regrowth of vegetation site where it is relatively wild and undeveloped. It has an external room which supports outdoor living out of wind but relatively integrated with the sun and the view. The effect of this space on the plan is liberating-This space act as a overturns of a conventional model of domestic enclosure and posits a much more redefined and spatially diverse alternative.(Metcalf,2012)
An influence architecture of this building is by the critical regionalism. For the Ericsson HQ, it adapts the greenary of the site and added more greens, using light material and a more humanic scale to blend with the site and nature, with the influence of climate in providing shadings and ventilation to the building, the Magney house also uses the material on steel and glass as the light structure for the house, integrating with the tropical location.
Ericsson HQ integrates with the site where the orientation of the building at the site, having an easy and obvious access towards the building. This is because the location of the building are having the free access from the main entrance of highway. People can easily have a view access to the building from the highway. Easy access from main highway to the main entrance of the building. The site are surrounded by greenery, having a beautiful scene along the road to the entrance of the building. The approach of nature towards the building focuses on the entrance, having a beautiful and grand entrance, having the water features and beautiful plants and trees to show and let people know the entrance of the building.
The approach of greens into the building intergrating with the site to express the tropical location. The site are mainly surrounded by greens, therefore,to match back with the site, trees are being planted at the surrounding where it not only function as aesthetic purpose,but also intergration towards the site, act as shading from the hot climate and heavy rain, and gives a nature and tropical feels to the users.
The building height also provides a humanic scale and environment landscape design to the site. The design of height of the building doesnt gives a fear and oppress feeling towards the users but a humanic scale, because of less and average height level of building.
The materials used are mostly metals and glass. It brings a light feeling as the construction and material used are light, providing a permeability feeling to the users. High glass curtain wall are being used, allowing the natural daylight to penetrates in the building, protraiting a good energy efficiency. Less artificail lighting is neede to enlight the space in the building thanks to the uses of glass. The design are effective in not just providing natural daylight, but also to prevent excessive daylight into the building, overhanging roofs and also metal cladding in the facade are being widely used. The facade having metal cladding that not only gives shades to the internal spaces but also act as a aesthetic value to the facade design that suits the environment. Metal material are a good material as it is suitable to use in Malaysia, where manufacturer of metal especially aluminium are widely found in Malaysia, and is is more environmental friendly material compared to concrete or bricks.
2.2 EXTERNAL FACTOR 3: TECHNOLOGY AND MATERIAL
The material used in the building are mainly glass and metal. It shows a light and modern architecture style through the design, material and technology used. The buidling are energy effiency through the technology used in the building such as the air condition energy sources. The air-conditioning system utilizes the chilled water from the district cooling (primary circuit) and is circulated into the building (secondary circuit) through heat exchangers. The state-of-the-art air-conditioning system installed in this building incorporates the innovative concept of raised-floor technology and precision air-conditioning system.
Besides that, glass material used allows penetration of daylight into the building, providing free natural daylight, reduces the uses of artificial light thus cost reduces not only in lighting cost but also in air condition(ventilation) vice. Therefore, it is a good consideration of design and strategy in designing on efficiency of the building and environmental. Framing the view of internal and external.
Metal truss roof are used in the building where the lattice truss can support wide cariety of roof system due to excellent strength to weight ratio. It can weigh till span of 40m without need for intermediate support column.It allows the designers to have a greater flexibility when working to optimise internal space. Metal truss roof provides light construction, durable, long lasting, prevent pesticides, and doesnt need finishes.
The structure used in the main entrance as a shading devices are known as the trees structure as the structure of support branches out just like a tree. It is also known as umbrella like structure as it opens up like a umbrella. This structure are light and also mainly use as shading devices in Malaysia along the Jalan Bukit Bintang.
The advantages of using metal and glass.Metal has a high strength and weight ratio. Thus steel are very suitable for long span building, having high ductility where it has the energy absorbing capacity and will not incur on sudden failure. Whereas glass allow natural light enter the space although it is enclosed. This very reason is the idea behind applying glass materials in wall construction. The energy usage is reduced. Besides that, air conditioning system does not have to function more in order to fully cool an area because glass is a bad conductor. Choosing this two material in the design, it helps to improve not only in the energy efficiency but also environmental friendly and also gives a modern style design.
As nutshell, energy efficeincy and sustainable is being practices into the design where the daylight and climate factors are being considered, whereby the influence theory are the critical architecture that integrates and blends well with the location and teh site, and also the material and technology chosen is important. These 3 external factors is what that influences the design and the end product of the building. Where, this building really integrates and though well on. Ms Serina Hijjas has implied well her knowledge on the idea of how to gain a better energy efficciency to helps and improve to provides a better products, things to the client. The thought of using the the chilled water from the district cooling and incorporates the innovative concept of raised-floor technology and precision air-conditioning system is very well thought of. It leads us the younger generation to realize her efford in bringing her practice of sustainability to her design in reality is what we should learned from her. The critical regionalism is greatly transformed and applied into her design well with the site. From this whole assignment, i felt very grateful to have meet such a great and famous architect and learned many thing from her, thorugh this analysis where different types of approach can leads to many different things in a design, where thought of the site and location is very important to blends with the building.
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